Media Convergence We are living in an age when changes in communica2ons, storytelling and informa2on technologies are reshaping almost every aspect of contemporary life, including how we create, consume, learn, and interact with other. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Media Convergence Strategy in which communica2ons companies seek ﬁnancial beneﬁt by making the various media proper2es they own work together. The strategy is a product of: 1) Corporate concentra9on, whereby fewer large companies own more and more media proper2es; 2) Digi9za9on, whereby media content produced in a universal computer language can be easily adapted for use in any medium; 3) Media conglomerates to own diﬀerent kinds of media (television and radio sta2ons and newspapers) in the same markets and which has permiHed content carriage companies to own content producers (specialty TV channels). Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
How new technology aﬀects business and culture? Why the web is so much beDer than TV? Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Transmedia Storytelling 1. Represents a process where integral elements of a ﬁc2on get dispersed systema2cally across mul9ple delivery channels for the purpose of crea2ng a uniﬁed and coordinated entertainment experience. Ideally, each medium makes it own unique contribu2on to the unfolding of the story. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Transmedia Storytelling The Matrix franchise, are conveyed through three live ac2on ﬁlms, a series of animated shorts, two collec2ons of comic book stories, and several video games. There is no one single source or ur-‐text where one can turn to gain all of the informa9on needed to comprehend the Matrix universe. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Transmedia Storytelling 2. A transmedia text does not simply disperse informa9on: it provides a set of roles and goals which readers can assume as they enact aspects of the story through their everyday life. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Transmedia Storytelling Performa2ve dimension at play with ac9on ﬁgures which encourage children to construct their own stories. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Transmedia Storytelling 3. Transmedia stories are based not on individual characters or speciﬁc plots but rather complex ﬁc9onal worlds which can sustain mul9ple interrelated characters and their stories. This process of world-‐building encourages an encyclopedic impulse in both readers and writers. We are drawn to master what can be known about a world which always expands beyond our grasp. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Transmedia Storytelling 4. Extensions may serve a variety of diﬀerent func2ons. The extension may provide new insights into the characters and their mo2va2ons. The extension may provide also mass-‐market spoofs, parodies. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Par9cipatory culture / Fan Culture The New Consumers
Media convergence is not a technological endpoint.
Par9cipatory culture 1. The term is intended to contrast with older no2ons of media spectatorship. In this emerging media system, what might tradi2onally be understood as media producers and consumers are transformed into par9cipants who are expected to interact with each other according to a new set of rules which none of us fully understands. Henry Jenkings Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Par9cipatory culture As technology con2nues to enable new avenues for communica2on, collabora9on, and circula9on of ideas, it has also given rise to new opportuni9es for consumers to create their own content. Barriers like 2me and money are beginning to become less signiﬁcant to large groups of consumers. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Par9cipatory culture Principal characteris9c: Not every member must contribute, but all must believe they are free to contribute when ready and that what they contribute will be appropriately valued. Henry Jenkings Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
The community itself provides strong incen2ves for expression and ac2ve par2cipa2on.
Par9cipatory culture as one: 1. With strong support for crea9ng and sharing one’s crea2ons with others. 2. With some type of informal mentorship whereby what is known by the most experienced is passed along to novices. 3. Where members believe that their contribu9ons maDer. 4. Where members feel some degree of social connec9on with one another (at the least they care what other people think about what they have created).
Par9cipatory culture Jenkins argues that younger consumers are adept at tracking down character backgrounds and side-‐plots, and then making connec9ons across many diﬀerent texts of a franchise. The World-‐Wide-‐Web is a powerful distribu9on channel. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Par9cipatory culture If Internet create a venue for greater audience tele-‐par2cipa2on (fan ﬁc9ons), they also enable television networks to capitalize on consumers’ par9cipatory ac9vi9es, genera9ng higher ra9ngs and brand awareness. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Fan Culture As Levy explains, “the members of a community search, inscribe, connect, consult, explore……Not only make available to the collec2ve intellect all of the per2nent knowledge available to it at a given moment, but it also serves as a site of collec2ve discussion and development”. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Fan Culture Baym argues: “A large group of fans can do what even the most commiHed single fan cannot: accumulate, retain, and con2nually recirculate unprecedented amounts of relevant informa9on……. par2cipants collabora2vely provide all with the resources to get more story from the material”. Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Narra9ve strategies In contemporary media produc9on Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
New users/readers/viewers/consumers If ‘we’re are modelled by the media’ (McLuhan), then digital interac2ve media have created a new user/reader that deals with: Interac9vity Networks Mul9-‐screens Fast adapta9on to interfaces Ruth Contreras @ruthso=ia
Transmedia stories at the most basic level ‘are stories told across mul2ple media. At the present 2me, the most signiﬁcant stories tend to ﬂow across mul2ple media pladorms’ (Jenkins et al., 2006). Synonyms: cross media (Bechmann Petersen, 2006) mul2ple pladorms (Jeﬀery-‐Poulter, 2003) hybrid media (Boumans, 2004) intertextual commodity (Marshall, 2004) transmedial worlds (Klastrup & Tosca, 2004) transmedial interac2ons (Bardzell et al., 2007) mul2modality (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001) intermedia (Higgins, 1966).
Media-‐centrality: • TV-‐centered transmedia storytelling (24 or Lost) • Book-‐centered transmedia storytelling (Harry PoHer) • Comic-‐centered transmedia storytelling (Batman or Spiderman) • Cinema-‐centered transmedia storytelling (The Matrix) The ‘media-‐centrality: The ﬁrst text? The most successful? The most important narra2ve?
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