This slide will talk about SCORM:SCORM is not going away. We are careful so that existing infrastructure/content can be leveraged as much and as easily as possible while moving forward on a more modern solution.New documents that are an updated 2004 4th edition (technical clarifications and 508 compliance)Certification coming soon. Certification for 4th Ed will provide a means for 3rd party testing of the most complete and reliable version of SCORM.Are there any other questions about SCORM?
Explain 70 (informal) 20 (watching others) 10 (formal)SCORM focused on the 10It became apparent that we need new technologies to support the remaining 90%
Smartphones and tablets enable learning anytime and whereEfficient tools for performance supportSpaced learning – spacing effectExcellent opportunities for tailored content because of the context provided by a phone Phone and tablet-specific features - GPS Location, acceleration, etc Learning architecture data – Previous course history, preferences, learning style, etc
Excellent way to provide training (especially with digital natives)Cost savings due toTravel and lodgingAvoidance of extensive and expensive training setupsComparison to real-world training. Getting close to the real thing
Informal learning with mentors and peers.Can connect learners with instructors and expertsCan assist in the identification of experts (via machine analysis of data)Can increase the speed at which changes in the operating environment make it back to the student. For example, quick changing technologies may be harder to incorporate into a formal course because it changes so much. This is not the case in social media. Social media can always be up to date.Provides a means to track how learners learn informally, look for trends and provide recommendations to others based on this information. For example, if most of the student base that score 90% or above on their final exam read an experts blog on a weekly basis, perhaps this should be recommended to someone struggling in the course.
One of the foremost emerging content/learning experience type Blends the real world with digital overlays (can be graphics, text, sound, etc). A good example is that of mapping systems that integrate with the camera functionality to show arrows and directions to the desired location over a picture of what the user is seeing.Future trends like Google glasses will provide a common baseline to build on in the near future.Example application > Learner is in a situation where a piece of equipment breaks down. The learner has had high level courses on the equipment, but is not familiar with this specific maintenance procedure. Learner puts on augmented reality glasses and a digital overlay displays on top of the piece of equipment with instructions on the maintenance procedure, arrows to components that need to be fixed/removed/replaced.
More the learning management systems are used for learning and training. Ultimately informal and formal learning experiences will be integrated with LMSs, human resource systems, reporting systems, job placement systems, readiness indicator systems, etc for a comprehensive learning environment. The goal is to use systems that work well for a specific function and share data between these systems.Recommender system example for “learner preferences” instead of two or three user-entered preferences.
ADL’s Training and Learning Architecture will be used to support the use cases described earlier in this presentation and more. TLA uses modern approaches already proven by other industries.TLA is split into two types of componentsWeb ServicesOpen Source Software Both of these will be defined and described on the next two slides.Relationship to SCORMSCORM is not going away.TLA can be used with SCORM or without SCORM, but they can compliment one another.TLA components will covered in more detail later in this presentation
One type of component in the TLA are web services. A web service is a method of communication between two electronic devices across the world wide web. Why web services?Introduce the Digital Government document and let the folks know there will be a link on the resources page later in the presentation. City of San Francisco story – Public Transportation Services created a rich app environment due to the web services and exposure of public transportation data.
Other TLA components are comprised of Open Source Software. Discuss benefits of OSS.
ADL is able to get the best-of-breed technologies. This is in part due to the process we use to add components to the TLA. We are able to leverage the best minds in the community, then use our internal technical team to evaluate deliverables. Finally, we work with the community to improve BAA technologies via crowd-sourcing updates.
TLA Experience Tracking projects enable content and systems to share data about a learner, their interactions with a learning experience and their performance on assessments.Additional Information---------------------------------First “Service” project in the TLA is the Experience API.Each TLA Component slide has this format. High level requirementsService and Spec ComponentsOpen Source Software Components
The Experience API uses a technology called “Activity Streams” widely used by social media. An activity stream reads as a sentence, “Jonathan completed Information Assurance 101”. This statement is human readable, meaningful if printed on an interface, and is machine readable.The Experience API can be used to track data from any type of networked resource. This includes all of the resource types discussed at the beginning of this presentation: Mobile, Augmented reality, games, virtual worlds, etc.This was possible only with web-based content in the past. The xAPI opens up the type of content/experiences that can be used to anything that has a connection to a network.
After data from “experiences” is stored, it can now be acted upon. This was also a limitation of legacy systems. If an interface to an external system was needed, it had to be accomplished via expensive one-off (proprietary) projects. Now with the xAPI, this is standardized. Any system that “understands” the xAPI can share data.Examples include assessment systems, HR systems, gradebook applications, statistical and reporting systems, etc…
You will get additional information and examples on content brokering in Dr Damon Regan and Mr Rob Chadwick sessions coming up soon.Content Brokering is the means by which content/experiences can be identified and displayed or downloaded to the learner or content developer (respectively). This enables the delivery of the right content at the right time. Also, as learning systems get smarter, they may identify a gap in a learners knowledge, search a content repository/registry for relevant content, then deliver that to a learner.Content brokering includes:The description of learning resources with metadata (user entered or machine generated)The aggregation of content into a cohesive unitAuthentication and authorization of the user for that piece of contentDetermining the best type of content or if the content can run on the devices being used by the learner (ipad, PC, phone, etc)
The TLA Learner Profile provides the ability to store, retrieve an analyze data about a learner. Learner profiles are important for tailoring content to an individual and can provide learning systems the information they need to determine what the learner really needs next.Education and training is in the industrial age. Its very much a cookie cutter approach right now. Question: Why and when do students get Algebra?Answer: In 8th or 9th gradeQuestion: Why are then in 8th or 9th gradeAnswer: Their ageThere is very little tailoring to individuals in our education system. We don’t get Algebra because we’re good at math. We get it because we’re 14 or 15 years old. What if we’re advanced in math? What if we require help to catch up to the rest of the class? Technology-enhanced learning can assist in filling this gap. Understanding the learner via “Learner Profiles” is a critical component.
A competency network includes a means to describe objectives and competencies so they can be acted on by machines. Creating a competency network allows a smart learning system to look at a learners competencies then compare them vs a competency network. A competency network may represent a curriculum or job requirements. Gaps can be identified and then appropriate content can be delivered based on the gaps.
2013 ASTD TechKnowledge Case Studies – Aaron Silvers
Experience API (Tin Can) Case Studies for a Brave New World (#TH202) ASTD TechKnowledge - 31 January 2013
SCORM Update • SCORM Version 1.2 • SCORM 2004 2nd EdSCORM • SCORM 2004 3rd Ed • SCORM 2004 4th Ed 2
70/20/10 Model Educational development is:• about 70% from on-the-job experiences, tasks and problem solving• about 20% from feedback and from working around good or bad examples of the need• about 10% from formal courses Current technologies only focus on the 10% 3
Training and Learning Architecture (TLA) • Experience Tracking • Learner ProfilesTLA • Content Brokering • Competency Networks 9
“I want us to ask ourselves everyday, how are we using technology to make a real difference in people’s lives.” —President Barack ObamaThe Speed of Digital Information When a 5.9 earthquake hit near Richmond, Virginia on August23rd, 2011, residents in New York City read about the quake on Twitter feeds 30 seconds before they experienced the quake themselves . 9
Open Source Benefits• Security and Quality – The more people who see the code, the more likely flaws will be caught and tested quickly• Freedom and Customizability – With all of the code available, any custom updates can be made without vendor reliance• Auditability – Visibility of code means that systems can be verified first-hand• Costs – Licensing costs are low or free• Support Options – Vibrant communities with forums, wikis, newsgroups, chat, etc. 11
TLA Experience TrackingRequirements• Track learner data based on interactions with learning experiences• Provide access to data after it is initially storedServices and Specifications• Project Tin Can Broad Agency Announcement (BAA)• Experience Application Programming Interface (API)Open Source Software• ADL Open Source Learning Record Store (LRS)• Experience API Examples• Experience API Reusable Code Libraries 13
Share It. Act On It. Reporting Assessment Systems Services Semantic Statistical Analysis Services 15
TLA Content BrokeringRequirements• Manage content to support just-in-time learning by enabling logical selections of the “next” logical activity• Provides machines the ability to “understand” content for the purposes of selection and launchServices and Specifications• 3D Repository Federation ServicesOpen Source Software• Re-Usability Support System for E-Learning (RUSSEL)• Federal Learning Registry• ADL 3D Repository 16
TLA Learner ProfilesRequirements• Compile data about a learner to include previous course completions, competencies, preferences, learning style, and portfolios• Provide access to profile information to be used to tailor learning experiences to an individualServices and Specifications• TBDOpen Source Software• TBD 17
TLA Competency NetworksRequirements• Establish a common way for content and systems to reference objectives and competencies• Provide a means to represent a competency and competency relationshipsServices and Specifications• TBDOpen Source Software• TBD 18
Transitioning to the TLA• Each component contains a dedicated plan for transition from SCORM to TLA• Best practices for updating content and systems will be created• Software libraries and “wrappers” to ease the transition and minimize cost and resourcing impact will be created in an open source environment 19
Get Involved – Experience API xapi.adlnet.gov• Stakeholders – Find out about the latest spec release, open source software and other major announcements• Adopters – Work with ADL and other developers to integrate the Experience API into your learning environment• Specification Contributors – Influence the specification and technology roadmap
Get Involved – TLA www.adlnet.gov/capabilities/tla• Get information on the latest TLA projects• Download specifications and software• Find out how to contribute 21
ResourcesSCORMhttp://www.adlnet.gov/capabilities/scormTLA - Next Gen SCORMhttp://www.adlnet.gov/capabilities/next-generation-scormTLA Experience API (Tin Can API) & Public Groupshttp://tincan.adlnet.govTLA Experience API (Tin Can API) Wikihttp://tincanapi.wikispaces.com/ADL Githubhttps://github.com/adlnetADL Tech Team Blogshttp://www.adlnet.gov/?s=+&tag=next-generation- scorm&category_name=blog-postWhite House Digital Government Documenthttp://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/egov/digital- government/digital-government.html#top 22