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RUSHIKESH M. RAVALRUSHIKESH M. RAVAL
GLASSES STRUCTURES,
PROPERTIES AND
APPLICATIONS
DefinitionDefinition
 an inorganic product of fusion that has cooledan inorganic product of fusion that has cooled
to a r...
 Glass, chemically, is actually more like a liquid,Glass, chemically, is actually more like a liquid,
but at room tempera...
HistoryHistory
 Glass technology has evolved for 6,000 yearsGlass technology has evolved for 6,000 years
 A most importa...
Glasses
 Glasses is one of three basic types of ceramics. Glass is an amorphous
(non-crystalline) solid material which is...
Raw Materials To Making Glass
 Silica sandSilica sand
 Soda ashSoda ash
 Lime stoneLime stone
 DolomiteDolomite
 Feld...
Raw Materials To Making Glass
1. Glass forming oxides: usually the dominant constituent
SiO2, B2O3, P2O5, etc.
2. Fluxes: ...
Glasses Structure
 Structure : Network formers
Molecules that link up with each other to form long chains and
networks. H...
CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE OF
GLASS
AMORPHOUS STRUCTURE OF
GLASS
TYPES OF GLASSES
 Silica glass
 Borosilicate glass
 Lead glass
 Sodalime glass
Silica glass
 It is mainly used where temperature resistance is
required. They can be used at temperatures upto
about 900...
Borosilicate glass
 It have some part of silica replaced by boron
oxide. This provides some desirable properties.
Borosil...
Lead glass
 lead glass also known as FLINT GLASSES.
These glasses have low melting point, good hot
workability, high elec...
Sodalime glass
 It have good hot workability. It is also melt at
low temperature . These glasses are used as
window glass...
Some Other Types of Glasses
 Coloured glass
 Recrystallised glass
 Fibre glass
 Glass wools
 Foam glass
Coloured glass
 Various substanmces are added to get coloured
glasses.
Recrystallised glass
 Various nucleating agents like sodium fluoride,
phosphorous pentoxide, titanium oxide or
vanadium o...
Fibre glass
 It is also known as glass fibre. The material is in the
form of fibres produced from glass. The fibres are
p...
Glass wools
 They are produced from molten glass by
forcing the material through some vents by
centrifugal force. It give...
Foam glass
 It is produced by introducing innumerable air
cells in molten glass. It has low density and can
float in wate...
Properties
 General properties of glasses
 High hardness / Brittle
 Low density compared to high strength
 Low thermal...
Applications
 Solar cell
 Thin film transistors (TFT)
 Light sensors
 Optical memory devices
 Electro photographic ap...
References
 http:// www.designinsite.dk/gifs/pb1007.jpg
 www.cullenconsulting.com.au/ epsi/images/
 www.scielo.br/.../ ...
Glasses structures, properties and applications
Glasses structures, properties and applications
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Glasses structures, properties and applications

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Glasses structures, properties and applications

  1. 1. RUSHIKESH M. RAVALRUSHIKESH M. RAVAL
  2. 2. GLASSES STRUCTURES, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS
  3. 3. DefinitionDefinition  an inorganic product of fusion that has cooledan inorganic product of fusion that has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizingto a rigid condition without crystallizing  When glass is cooled from the hot molten state,When glass is cooled from the hot molten state, it gradually increases in viscosity withoutit gradually increases in viscosity without crystallization over a wide temperature range,crystallization over a wide temperature range, until it assumes its characteristic hard, brittleuntil it assumes its characteristic hard, brittle form. Cooling is controlled to preventform. Cooling is controlled to prevent crystallization, or high strain.crystallization, or high strain.
  4. 4.  Glass, chemically, is actually more like a liquid,Glass, chemically, is actually more like a liquid, but at room temperature it is so viscous orbut at room temperature it is so viscous or 'sticky' it looks and feels like a solid. At higher'sticky' it looks and feels like a solid. At higher temperatures glass gradually becomes softer andtemperatures glass gradually becomes softer and more like a liquid. It is this latter property whichmore like a liquid. It is this latter property which allows glass to be poured, blown, pressed andallows glass to be poured, blown, pressed and moulded into such a variety of shapes.moulded into such a variety of shapes.
  5. 5. HistoryHistory  Glass technology has evolved for 6,000 yearsGlass technology has evolved for 6,000 years  A most important development in glass technologyA most important development in glass technology was the use of a blow pipewas the use of a blow pipe  The first glass was coloured because of the presenceThe first glass was coloured because of the presence of various impurities such as oxides of iron andof various impurities such as oxides of iron and chromium. Virtually colourless glass was first madechromium. Virtually colourless glass was first made some 1,500 years ago.some 1,500 years ago.  Today many products of glass are made in fullyToday many products of glass are made in fully automatic processing linesautomatic processing lines  Although glass is one of the oldest materials, itsAlthough glass is one of the oldest materials, its properties are unique and not yet fully understood.properties are unique and not yet fully understood.
  6. 6. Glasses  Glasses is one of three basic types of ceramics. Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid material which is often transparent has widespread partical, technological, and decorative usage in things like window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.  The most familiar, histrocially the oldest, types of glasses are based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide), the primary constituent of sand, which is familiar from use as window glass and in glass bottles.  Actually glasses are extremely cooled liquid.  Fusion of sand (SiO2), soda (Na2CO3) & lime (CaO) that produces a transparent solid when cooled.  A 3D network of atoms which lacks the repeated, orderly arrangement typical of crystalline materials.
  7. 7. Raw Materials To Making Glass  Silica sandSilica sand  Soda ashSoda ash  Lime stoneLime stone  DolomiteDolomite  Feldspathic materialsFeldspathic materials  Lead oxideLead oxide  Boric acidBoric acid  Crushed glassCrushed glass
  8. 8. Raw Materials To Making Glass 1. Glass forming oxides: usually the dominant constituent SiO2, B2O3, P2O5, etc. 2. Fluxes: reduce melting temperatures Na2O, PbO, K2O, Li2O, etc. 3. Property modifiers: added to tailor chemical durability, expansion, viscosity, etc. CaO, Al2O3, etc. 4. Colorants: oxides with 3d, 4f electron structures; minor additives (<1 wt%) 5. Fining agents: minor additives (<1 wt%) to help promote bubble removal As-, Sb-oxides, KNO3, NaNO3, NaCl, fluorides, sulfates
  9. 9. Glasses Structure  Structure : Network formers Molecules that link up with each other to form long chains and networks. Hot glass cools, chains unable to organize into a pattern. Solidification has short-range order only.  Amorphous structure occurs by adding impurities (Na+ ,Mg2+ ,Ca2+ , Al3+ ).  Impurities: interfere with formation of crystalline structure
  10. 10. CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE OF GLASS
  11. 11. AMORPHOUS STRUCTURE OF GLASS
  12. 12. TYPES OF GLASSES  Silica glass  Borosilicate glass  Lead glass  Sodalime glass
  13. 13. Silica glass  It is mainly used where temperature resistance is required. They can be used at temperatures upto about 900 C. They have a very low co-efficient of thermal expansion and have a high resistance to thermal shock. Silica glass is also named as QUARTZ GLASS.
  14. 14. Borosilicate glass  It have some part of silica replaced by boron oxide. This provides some desirable properties. Borosilicate glass have not workability with high sterngth, high, high chemical stability, high electrical resistance and low thermal expansion. It is used in high tension insulators, kitchenware, telescope mirror, laboratory glass ware, industrial instrument glass. One type of trade name is PYREX.
  15. 15. Lead glass  lead glass also known as FLINT GLASSES. These glasses have low melting point, good hot workability, high electrical resistance and high refractive indices. It is used as optical glass, art and jewellery glass, thermometer tubing, fluorecent lamps, television tube, window and shields for protection from x-ray padition, table glass etc.
  16. 16. Sodalime glass  It have good hot workability. It is also melt at low temperature . These glasses are used as window glass, chemical apparatures, breakers, test tubes etc.
  17. 17. Some Other Types of Glasses  Coloured glass  Recrystallised glass  Fibre glass  Glass wools  Foam glass
  18. 18. Coloured glass  Various substanmces are added to get coloured glasses.
  19. 19. Recrystallised glass  Various nucleating agents like sodium fluoride, phosphorous pentoxide, titanium oxide or vanadium oxide are added to glass melt to get recrystallised glass. This glass also known as POLYCRYSTALLING GLASS. This glass process high hardness and impact strength and better thermal conductivity.
  20. 20. Fibre glass  It is also known as glass fibre. The material is in the form of fibres produced from glass. The fibres are produced from molten glass by drawing the material through dies giving fibre of 2 to 10 micron in diameter. The fibres are not brittle and have high tensile strength. They are non flammable, chemically inactive, poor conductor of sound and non- conductive to heat and electricity. Fibres are used to produce composite materials by mixing them with synthetic rasins.
  21. 21. Glass wools  They are produced from molten glass by forcing the material through some vents by centrifugal force. It gives short fibres at about 10 microns. This process is also known as CROWN PROCESS. Glass wools are used as heat insulation.
  22. 22. Foam glass  It is produced by introducing innumerable air cells in molten glass. It has low density and can float in water . It can be cut into suitable sizes and used for heat insulations.
  23. 23. Properties  General properties of glasses  High hardness / Brittle  Low density compared to high strength  Low thermal expansion coefficient  Low heat / electrical conductivity  High melting point  Good chemical resistance / Chemical inert  Wide range of optical transmission  Transparent  Translucent  Opaque
  24. 24. Applications  Solar cell  Thin film transistors (TFT)  Light sensors  Optical memory devices  Electro photographic application  X-ray image sensors  Eu-doped optical fiber  DVD (digital video/versatile disc)  Hard cover made from ta-C  Windows, doors  Specs  Fabrication
  25. 25. References  http:// www.designinsite.dk/gifs/pb1007.jpg  www.cullenconsulting.com.au/ epsi/images/  www.scielo.br/.../ jbsmse/v26n1/a07fig03.gif  www.turkcadcam.net  www.esrf.fr/.../2002/ Materials/MAT3/fig081  www.mrf-furnaces.com/ images/4station.jpg  met.iisc.ernet.in/ ~govind/Spray-forming.jpg

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