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Codes & conventions

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Rap magazine analysis

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Codes & conventions

  1. 1. CODES AND CONVENTIONS • Ratio image to text • Direct mode of address • Masthead, skyline, coverlines • House theme (colours, fonts) • Typography • Layout • Blutz and Katz Theory ( uses and gratification theory) • Socio-economic model • Pyschographic model • Demographic model Ruqayyah Opeolu • Colours/connotations •Types of content featured •Marketing tool •Main image •Header box •Genre conventions •Challenging dominant forms •Uses and gratification theory •Preferred , negotiated and oppositional reading
  2. 2. The use of the colours orange and white, connoting tropical vibes and innocence, additionally including a house theme in which the audience can familiarise themselves with. The codes and inventions of the magazine are evident in various areas, for example, celebrity endorsement, in which is surely able to attract consumers as this star marketing is also a marketing tool as the magazine is more likely to distribute more copies as the model will interest a wider range of people as Nicki Minaj is a globalised Rapper.. In addition, the main body in which Nicki Minaj is placed in ( the direct mode of address), covering the masthead of the magazine proposes the established trust the magazine has created for itself as people would know what magazine it is, despite the missing letters. In addition, as the masthead is big enough with a vibrant colour, this makes it easily familiar. The typography of the text consists of Sans Serif, proposing a target audience of both genders as opposed to if the masthead of the magazine was in a Serif typography . In addition, the fact that ‘VIBE’ magazine calls Nicki Minaj as a ‘Notorious King’ this further implies both genders are targeted as the audience for this magazine. Laura Mulvey’s theory of the ‘Male Gaze’ emerges here as though Nicki Minaj is described as a ‘king’ she is still sexually idolised which proves Mulvey’s to be correct. The ratio of image to text is less as only the medium shot of the model is featured whilst the texts mainly dominate the front cover. This proposes a sense of excitement as there would probably be various images inside used to attract the audience. The layout is also designed to make the model stand out as the cover-lines and masthead is at either side of the main image, causing the all focus to be directed at the model. The type of content featured gives the audience an insight on what to expect, for example the strap-line which features Nicki Minaj as a ‘ Notorious King’ which suggests there’s going to be an article which features the celebrity and her Applying the uses and gratification theory to the front cover, the basic need to surveillance can be used as the primary and secondary target audience will use ‘Q’ magazine as a basis of information about the world and celebrities, which in this case is more the latter. In terms of the socio-economic group, Group D to E would purchase this magazine as upper class indulge in magazines such as ‘Hello!’ and ‘Vogue’ magazines and prefer Classical music according to stereotypes. As the cover lines are written in bold meaning to be eye- catching, getting attention from the consumers. As the coverlines are stories told in the magazine, making the audience want to purchase or indulge in it as they want to see it is about. The barcode is also an conventional feature as they are required for distributing magazines.
  3. 3. A house theme is created from the use of colours and the font used. The colours white black and yellow , a mixture of holding authority ,power, purity for the white as its neutral so it pairs with majority of colours. Yellow is a optimistic colour as it is an attention-getter. The layout is also designed to make the model stand out and the coverlines as they are positioned at either side of the main image, causing the all focus to be directed at the model. The type of content featured gives the audience an insight on what to expect, for example one of the biggest coverlines mentions Jay Z is ‘Back!’ which interest the consumers to see the Rappers journey to how he made it to the top. In terms of the Uses and Gratification theory to the front cover, the basic need to surveillance and diversion can be used as the primary (fans of Hip-Hop magazine) and secondary target audience(fans of Jay Z) and celebrities, which in this case is more the latter. In terms of the socio-economic group, Group D to E would purchase this magazine as upper class indulge in magazines such ‘Vogue’ and ‘Hello!’ as hip-hop is more of their preference than most other music genres. As for the demographic model, ‘Hip-Hop’ magazine is more likely to attract the main English speaking countries, for example, the United Kingdom, America and Australia as they would all be familiar with the celebrities as opposed to someone in Africa. As mentioned for ‘VIBE’ magazine, as part of Jay Z’s head is blocking a part of the masthead, this proposes the magazine has already established a trust-worthy brand and possess fans of the magazine which ensures the magazine is going to be successful. The fact that Jay Z, an all-time globalised rapper is featured on the front cover , (celebrity endorsement) is sure to attract various of consumers. The ratio of image to text is less as there are various coverlines and the strap line consume the front cover . This also adds a sense of excitement and curiosity as the audience would want to see what is featured inside. As there is a barcode included, this shows the success of the distribution rate of the magazine as if the producers wanted to sell the magazine, a barcode is required as they keep track of the item movement and keep track of a large number of items in a store.
  4. 4. The layout is also designed to make the model stand out and the coverlines as they are positioned at just the left hand side of the main image, causing the all focus to be directed at the Tupac. The type of content featured gives the audience an insight on what to expect, for example one of the biggest coverlines mentions Tupac as a ‘Thug’ which would interest the Group C2, D and E consumers. In terms of the Uses and Gratification theory, the basic need of diversion and personal relationships is required for the target audience. Celebrity endorsement is used by featuring Tupac Shakur on the front page which would attract millions of fans as Tupac is an actor/rapper and was highly successful as even after his death, he still holds millions of fans. Furthermore, the use basic need for personal relationships emerges as you can see Tupac wearing his bandana which is his personal form of dressing in which his fans and other people know him for. The ratio of image to text is less as there are no insert pictures, however, he cover lines seems to attract more attention as this ‘XXL’ magazine is featuring Tupac after his unfortunate death and so the cover lines are relevant to his untimely devise. As one cover line mentions ‘another tribute’ towards Tupac, this is an effective conventional feature as it would call upon his fans, the secondary audience and the primary ones, the consumers of ‘XXL’ magazine. A house theme emerges from the use of colours red and white which connotes intensity and stimulates a faster heartbeat and breathy which relates to the topic of the cover line which will then feature into the story inside of the magazine. As the circulation figures for the subscription rate is 136,532 which is a high rate; this proposes the succession of the magazine company and also distributes ideas to help me include an offer to subscribe on my music magazine in order to attract loyal readers In terms of the socio-economic group, Group D to E would purchase this magazine as upper class indulge in magazines such ‘Vogue’ and ‘Hello!’ as hip-hop is more of their preference than most other music genres. As for the demographic model, ‘Hip-Hop’ magazine is more likely to attract the main English speaking countries, for example, the United Kingdom, America and Australia as they would all be familiar with the celebrities as opposed to someone in Africa. Opposing Laura Mulvey's theory of the ‘Male Gaze’, Gamment and Marshall
  5. 5. The ratio of image to text is less as the medium-long shot is the only shot that is featured on the front cover. This also makes the audience more interested especially if they are fans of the singer Ciara. Taken from ‘Rap up’ magazine, As the model of the double-page spread makes direct eye contact with the camera, this proposes the reader is made to feel connected with the magazine. Eye contact fails to be the only aspect that makes the audience feel connected. The clothing of the model is quite provocative, as the model is dressed in a short tight leotards , the black connoting authority and power and the white which connotes purity and innocence which reinforces her facial expression and body posture, proposing the audience is targeted at young males as the heels on her feet and little girls who desire to be pretty,. The leotard adds further resonance to her bare legs, the secondary audience as the primary audience is mainly targeted at those who are interested in alternative music as the key selling point. The secondary audience links to Laura’s Mulvey’s theory of the ‘Male Gaze’ as the audience has to view characters, or in this case, models from the perspective of a heterosexual male which causes relegates women to the status of objects whilst the female viewer must experience the narrative secondarily, by identification with the male. Another type of audience is group C of the socio-economic group as they are from the skilled working class. The Uses and Gratification theory can also be applied to this double-page spread as the basic need of Surveillance and Diversion as the target audience can use this as a form of escapism from reality and also use Surveillance by using the media copy of the magazine to find out about events going on around us. The layout on the cover reinforces the stereotype of pink connoting girly- ness and femininity and is also designed to make the direct mode of address Ciara, the centre of attention by the positions of cover lines at either side of the celebrity which will immediately catch the audience’s attentions. In addition the type of content featured in the cover-lines gives the audience an insight of what to expect once they’ve purchased the magazine. In addition, the typography features Sans Serif writing as the masthead is San Serif typography, the cover-lines, header box and strap-lines are Sans Serif which connotes youth and un- seriousness. As Serif typography is usually target at an older audience. The use of celebrity endorsement is an effective convention as putting the singer Ciara on the front cover is a marketing tool as the magazine is more likely to distribute more copies as the model will interest a wider range of people as Ciara is a globalised pop star. Applying the uses and gratification theory to the front cover, the basic need to surveillance can be used as the primary and secondary target audience will use ‘Q’ magazine as a basis of information about the world and celebrities, which in this case is more the latter.
  6. 6. http://www.americasmedia.com/mediakits/XXL%20MediaKit.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vibe_(magazine) http://www.theguardian.com/media/2010/feb/11/mojo-q-nme-kerrang- abcs BIBLIOGRAPHY

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