SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 19
1
G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering,
Nagpur
Department of First Year Engineering
Subject: Bio Systems in Engineering
TAE II: Technical Presentation
Topic: DNA
DNA stands for deoxyribose nucleic acid
This chemical substance is present in the nucleus
of all cells in all living organisms
DNA controls all the chemical changes which
take place in cells
The kind of cell which is formed, (muscle, blood,
nerve etc) is controlled by DNA
The kind of organism which is produced (buttercup,
giraffe, herring, human etc) is controlled by DNA
DNA 2
DNA is a very large molecule made up of a long
chain of sub-units
The sub-units are called nucleotides
Each nucleotide is made up of
a sugar called deoxyribose
a phosphate group -PO4 and
an organic base
DNA molecule 3
Ribose is a sugar, like glucose, but with only five
carbon atoms in its molecule
Deoxyribose is almost the same but lacks one
oxygen atom
Both molecules may be represented by the symbol
Ribose & deoxyribose 4
The most common organic bases are
Adenine (A)
Thymine (T)
Cytosine (C)
Guanine (G)
The bases 5
The deoxyribose, the phosphate and one of the bases
adenine
deoxyribose
PO4
Combine to form a nucleotide
Nucleotides 6
A molecule of
DNA is formed
by millions of
nucleotides
joined together
in a long chain
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
sugar-phosphate
backbone
+ bases
Joined nucleotides 7
In fact, the DNA usually consists of a double
strand of nucleotides
The sugar-phosphate chains are on the outside
and the strands are held together by chemical
bonds between the bases
8
The bases always pair up in the same way
Adenine forms a bond with Thymine
and Cytosine bonds with Guanine
Bonding 1 09
Adenine Thymine
Cytosine Guanine
PO4
PO4
PO4
thymine
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
adenine
cytosine
PO4
guanine
Bonding 2 10
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
PO4
Pairing up 11
The paired strands are coiled into a spiral called
A DOUBLE HELIX
12
sugar-
phosphate
chain
A DIY model of
part of a DNA
molecule
13
Before a cell divides, the DNA strands unwind
and separate
Each strand makes a new partner by adding
the appropriate nucleotides
The result is that there are now two double-
stranded DNA molecules in the nucleus
So that when the cell divides, each nucleus
contains identical DNA
This process is called replication
replication 14
The sequence of bases in DNA forms the
Genetic Code
A group of three bases (a triplet) controls
the production of a particular amino acid in
the cytoplasm of the cell
The different amino acids and the order in
which they are joined up determines the
sort of protein being produced
Genetic code 1 15
For example
Cytosine
Adenine Codes for Valine
Cytosine (C)
Guanine (G)
Adenine (A)
Codes for Alanine
Thymine
Coding 16
The proteins build the cell structures
They also make enzymes
The DNA controls which enzymes are made and
the enzymes determine what reactions take place
The structures and reactions in the cell determine
what sort of a cell it is and what its function is
So DNA exerts its control through the enzymes
DNA and enzymes 17
A sequence of triplets in the DNA molecule may
code for a complete protein
Such a sequence forms a gene
There may be a thousand or more bases in
one gene
Genes 18

More Related Content

What's hot

Dna 110828093217-phpapp02
Dna 110828093217-phpapp02Dna 110828093217-phpapp02
Dna 110828093217-phpapp02Studied at gcuf
 
DNA Structure and Replication - Section 4-1 and 4-2
DNA Structure and Replication - Section 4-1 and 4-2DNA Structure and Replication - Section 4-1 and 4-2
DNA Structure and Replication - Section 4-1 and 4-2JEmmons
 
Ths general biology unit 4 heredity dna structure and function notes
Ths general biology unit 4 heredity dna structure and function notesThs general biology unit 4 heredity dna structure and function notes
Ths general biology unit 4 heredity dna structure and function notesrozeka01
 
Biology - Chp 12 - DNA & RNA - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 12 - DNA & RNA - PowerPointBiology - Chp 12 - DNA & RNA - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 12 - DNA & RNA - PowerPointMr. Walajtys
 
Structure of DNA
Structure of DNAStructure of DNA
Structure of DNAAman Ullah
 
Dna the alphabet of the life. dr.yanal.alkuddsi
Dna the alphabet of the life. dr.yanal.alkuddsiDna the alphabet of the life. dr.yanal.alkuddsi
Dna the alphabet of the life. dr.yanal.alkuddsiDr. Yanal A. Alkuddsi
 
A brief understanding of dna synthesis
A brief understanding of dna synthesisA brief understanding of dna synthesis
A brief understanding of dna synthesisLifescience Biosyn
 
Dna strycture 2
Dna strycture 2Dna strycture 2
Dna strycture 2syeda100
 
Structure of dna and rna
Structure of dna and rnaStructure of dna and rna
Structure of dna and rnaHimanshu Dev
 
Dna structure and function
Dna structure and functionDna structure and function
Dna structure and functionAna Go
 
Deoxyribonucleic Acid ppt
Deoxyribonucleic Acid pptDeoxyribonucleic Acid ppt
Deoxyribonucleic Acid pptJessa Arino
 

What's hot (20)

Dna slides
Dna  slidesDna  slides
Dna slides
 
Dna 110828093217-phpapp02
Dna 110828093217-phpapp02Dna 110828093217-phpapp02
Dna 110828093217-phpapp02
 
DNA Structure and Replication - Section 4-1 and 4-2
DNA Structure and Replication - Section 4-1 and 4-2DNA Structure and Replication - Section 4-1 and 4-2
DNA Structure and Replication - Section 4-1 and 4-2
 
Nucleic acids
Nucleic acidsNucleic acids
Nucleic acids
 
Dna
DnaDna
Dna
 
Dna
DnaDna
Dna
 
DNA Structure and Replication
DNA Structure and ReplicationDNA Structure and Replication
DNA Structure and Replication
 
Dna structure
Dna structureDna structure
Dna structure
 
Ths general biology unit 4 heredity dna structure and function notes
Ths general biology unit 4 heredity dna structure and function notesThs general biology unit 4 heredity dna structure and function notes
Ths general biology unit 4 heredity dna structure and function notes
 
NUCLEIC ACIDS
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDS
NUCLEIC ACIDS
 
4.1 DNA Structure
4.1 DNA Structure4.1 DNA Structure
4.1 DNA Structure
 
Biology - Chp 12 - DNA & RNA - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 12 - DNA & RNA - PowerPointBiology - Chp 12 - DNA & RNA - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 12 - DNA & RNA - PowerPoint
 
Structure of DNA
Structure of DNAStructure of DNA
Structure of DNA
 
Dna the alphabet of the life. dr.yanal.alkuddsi
Dna the alphabet of the life. dr.yanal.alkuddsiDna the alphabet of the life. dr.yanal.alkuddsi
Dna the alphabet of the life. dr.yanal.alkuddsi
 
A brief understanding of dna synthesis
A brief understanding of dna synthesisA brief understanding of dna synthesis
A brief understanding of dna synthesis
 
Dna strycture 2
Dna strycture 2Dna strycture 2
Dna strycture 2
 
Structure of dna and rna
Structure of dna and rnaStructure of dna and rna
Structure of dna and rna
 
Dna structure and function
Dna structure and functionDna structure and function
Dna structure and function
 
DNA RNA
DNA RNADNA RNA
DNA RNA
 
Deoxyribonucleic Acid ppt
Deoxyribonucleic Acid pptDeoxyribonucleic Acid ppt
Deoxyribonucleic Acid ppt
 

Similar to Dna nucleicacids

DNA-nucleicacids.pptx
DNA-nucleicacids.pptxDNA-nucleicacids.pptx
DNA-nucleicacids.pptxwasimbaig11
 
DNA structure
DNA structureDNA structure
DNA structureMdu
 
L7. Nucleic Acids.ppt
L7. Nucleic Acids.pptL7. Nucleic Acids.ppt
L7. Nucleic Acids.pptAbdulWahab672
 
Structure of dna
Structure of dnaStructure of dna
Structure of dnakelliot23
 
Structure of dna
Structure of dnaStructure of dna
Structure of dnakelliot23
 
Module-4-Lecture-4 Nucleotides.pptx
Module-4-Lecture-4 Nucleotides.pptxModule-4-Lecture-4 Nucleotides.pptx
Module-4-Lecture-4 Nucleotides.pptxAmardeepKumar169845
 
Dna replication and importance of its inhibition pdf
Dna replication and importance of its inhibition pdfDna replication and importance of its inhibition pdf
Dna replication and importance of its inhibition pdfssuserf4e856
 
Overview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosisOverview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosisYogesh Ramasamy
 
Overview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosisOverview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosisYogesh Ramasamy
 
Overview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosisOverview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosisYogesh Ramasamy
 
Dna 2011 (2)
Dna 2011 (2)Dna 2011 (2)
Dna 2011 (2)Des Cross
 
Structure of purines and pyrimidines - Jahnvi arora (11228108), mmdu ,mullana...
Structure of purines and pyrimidines - Jahnvi arora (11228108), mmdu ,mullana...Structure of purines and pyrimidines - Jahnvi arora (11228108), mmdu ,mullana...
Structure of purines and pyrimidines - Jahnvi arora (11228108), mmdu ,mullana...jahnviarora989
 
Powerpoint presentation in DNA of living organisms
Powerpoint presentation in DNA of living organismsPowerpoint presentation in DNA of living organisms
Powerpoint presentation in DNA of living organismsuniversity of johannesburg
 

Similar to Dna nucleicacids (20)

09866hh.pptx
09866hh.pptx09866hh.pptx
09866hh.pptx
 
DNA-nucleicacids.pptx
DNA-nucleicacids.pptxDNA-nucleicacids.pptx
DNA-nucleicacids.pptx
 
DNA structure
DNA structureDNA structure
DNA structure
 
DNA structure.ppt
DNA structure.pptDNA structure.ppt
DNA structure.ppt
 
L7. Nucleic Acids.ppt
L7. Nucleic Acids.pptL7. Nucleic Acids.ppt
L7. Nucleic Acids.ppt
 
Nucleic acids
Nucleic acidsNucleic acids
Nucleic acids
 
Structure of dna
Structure of dnaStructure of dna
Structure of dna
 
Structure of dna
Structure of dnaStructure of dna
Structure of dna
 
Chapter 6 biology 20 12-15
Chapter 6 biology 20 12-15Chapter 6 biology 20 12-15
Chapter 6 biology 20 12-15
 
Module-4-Lecture-4 Nucleotides.pptx
Module-4-Lecture-4 Nucleotides.pptxModule-4-Lecture-4 Nucleotides.pptx
Module-4-Lecture-4 Nucleotides.pptx
 
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic AcidsNucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids
 
Dna replication and importance of its inhibition pdf
Dna replication and importance of its inhibition pdfDna replication and importance of its inhibition pdf
Dna replication and importance of its inhibition pdf
 
Overview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosisOverview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosis
 
Overview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosisOverview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosis
 
Overview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosisOverview of genetics & apoptosis
Overview of genetics & apoptosis
 
molecular biology1 .pdf
molecular           biology1         .pdfmolecular           biology1         .pdf
molecular biology1 .pdf
 
Dna 2011 (2)
Dna 2011 (2)Dna 2011 (2)
Dna 2011 (2)
 
Structure of purines and pyrimidines - Jahnvi arora (11228108), mmdu ,mullana...
Structure of purines and pyrimidines - Jahnvi arora (11228108), mmdu ,mullana...Structure of purines and pyrimidines - Jahnvi arora (11228108), mmdu ,mullana...
Structure of purines and pyrimidines - Jahnvi arora (11228108), mmdu ,mullana...
 
Nucleic acids
Nucleic acids Nucleic acids
Nucleic acids
 
Powerpoint presentation in DNA of living organisms
Powerpoint presentation in DNA of living organismsPowerpoint presentation in DNA of living organisms
Powerpoint presentation in DNA of living organisms
 

More from Rupesh Kumar

Projection of planar surface
Projection of planar surfaceProjection of planar surface
Projection of planar surfaceRupesh Kumar
 
Projection of planar surfacE
Projection of planar surfacEProjection of planar surfacE
Projection of planar surfacERupesh Kumar
 
Plastic waste management
Plastic waste managementPlastic waste management
Plastic waste managementRupesh Kumar
 
Electrocardiography
ElectrocardiographyElectrocardiography
ElectrocardiographyRupesh Kumar
 
Renewable Energy sources ,Non conventional sources of energy
Renewable Energy sources ,Non conventional sources of energy Renewable Energy sources ,Non conventional sources of energy
Renewable Energy sources ,Non conventional sources of energy Rupesh Kumar
 
Coupling and flange coupling and its design
Coupling and flange coupling and its designCoupling and flange coupling and its design
Coupling and flange coupling and its designRupesh Kumar
 
Axial flow compressor
Axial flow compressor Axial flow compressor
Axial flow compressor Rupesh Kumar
 
Valve timing diagram
Valve timing diagram Valve timing diagram
Valve timing diagram Rupesh Kumar
 
Different part of ic engine
Different part of ic engine Different part of ic engine
Different part of ic engine Rupesh Kumar
 
Difference between si and ci engine
Difference between si and ci engineDifference between si and ci engine
Difference between si and ci engineRupesh Kumar
 

More from Rupesh Kumar (12)

Projection of planar surface
Projection of planar surfaceProjection of planar surface
Projection of planar surface
 
Projection of planar surfacE
Projection of planar surfacEProjection of planar surfacE
Projection of planar surfacE
 
Plastic waste management
Plastic waste managementPlastic waste management
Plastic waste management
 
Green chemistry
Green chemistryGreen chemistry
Green chemistry
 
Electrocardiography
ElectrocardiographyElectrocardiography
Electrocardiography
 
Renewable Energy sources ,Non conventional sources of energy
Renewable Energy sources ,Non conventional sources of energy Renewable Energy sources ,Non conventional sources of energy
Renewable Energy sources ,Non conventional sources of energy
 
Coupling and flange coupling and its design
Coupling and flange coupling and its designCoupling and flange coupling and its design
Coupling and flange coupling and its design
 
Axial flow compressor
Axial flow compressor Axial flow compressor
Axial flow compressor
 
Valve timing diagram
Valve timing diagram Valve timing diagram
Valve timing diagram
 
Different part of ic engine
Different part of ic engine Different part of ic engine
Different part of ic engine
 
Difference between si and ci engine
Difference between si and ci engineDifference between si and ci engine
Difference between si and ci engine
 
PPT of X Ray
PPT of X RayPPT of X Ray
PPT of X Ray
 

Recently uploaded

Matatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptx
Matatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptxMatatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptx
Matatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptxJenilouCasareno
 
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifephilosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifeNitinDeodare
 
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...Sayali Powar
 
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & EngineeringBasic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & EngineeringDenish Jangid
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptxAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptxCeline George
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Denish Jangid
 
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdfVikramadityaRaj
 
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...Mark Carrigan
 
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptx
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptxfactors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptx
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptxSanjay Shekar
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxheathfieldcps1
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17Celine George
 
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdfDanh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdfQucHHunhnh
 
IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff
IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdffIATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff
IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff17thcssbs2
 
Championnat de France de Tennis de table/
Championnat de France de Tennis de table/Championnat de France de Tennis de table/
Championnat de France de Tennis de table/siemaillard
 
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. HenryThe Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. HenryEugene Lysak
 
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyesppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyesashishpaul799
 
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptx
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY  STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptxREPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY  STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptx
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptxmanishaJyala2
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽中 央社
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Matatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptx
Matatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptxMatatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptx
Matatag-Curriculum and the 21st Century Skills Presentation.pptx
 
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifephilosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
 
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...
 
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & EngineeringBasic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptxAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
 
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
 
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
 
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
 
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptx
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptxfactors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptx
factors influencing drug absorption-final-2.pptx
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
 
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdfDanh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
 
IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff
IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdffIATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff
IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff
 
Championnat de France de Tennis de table/
Championnat de France de Tennis de table/Championnat de France de Tennis de table/
Championnat de France de Tennis de table/
 
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. HenryThe Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
 
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. SalemOperations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
 
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyesppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
 
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptx
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY  STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptxREPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY  STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptx
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptx
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
 

Dna nucleicacids

  • 1. 1 G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur Department of First Year Engineering Subject: Bio Systems in Engineering TAE II: Technical Presentation Topic: DNA
  • 2.
  • 3. DNA stands for deoxyribose nucleic acid This chemical substance is present in the nucleus of all cells in all living organisms DNA controls all the chemical changes which take place in cells The kind of cell which is formed, (muscle, blood, nerve etc) is controlled by DNA The kind of organism which is produced (buttercup, giraffe, herring, human etc) is controlled by DNA DNA 2
  • 4. DNA is a very large molecule made up of a long chain of sub-units The sub-units are called nucleotides Each nucleotide is made up of a sugar called deoxyribose a phosphate group -PO4 and an organic base DNA molecule 3
  • 5. Ribose is a sugar, like glucose, but with only five carbon atoms in its molecule Deoxyribose is almost the same but lacks one oxygen atom Both molecules may be represented by the symbol Ribose & deoxyribose 4
  • 6. The most common organic bases are Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) The bases 5
  • 7. The deoxyribose, the phosphate and one of the bases adenine deoxyribose PO4 Combine to form a nucleotide Nucleotides 6
  • 8. A molecule of DNA is formed by millions of nucleotides joined together in a long chain PO4 PO4 PO4 PO4 sugar-phosphate backbone + bases Joined nucleotides 7
  • 9. In fact, the DNA usually consists of a double strand of nucleotides The sugar-phosphate chains are on the outside and the strands are held together by chemical bonds between the bases 8
  • 10. The bases always pair up in the same way Adenine forms a bond with Thymine and Cytosine bonds with Guanine Bonding 1 09 Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine
  • 13. The paired strands are coiled into a spiral called A DOUBLE HELIX 12 sugar- phosphate chain
  • 14. A DIY model of part of a DNA molecule 13
  • 15. Before a cell divides, the DNA strands unwind and separate Each strand makes a new partner by adding the appropriate nucleotides The result is that there are now two double- stranded DNA molecules in the nucleus So that when the cell divides, each nucleus contains identical DNA This process is called replication replication 14
  • 16. The sequence of bases in DNA forms the Genetic Code A group of three bases (a triplet) controls the production of a particular amino acid in the cytoplasm of the cell The different amino acids and the order in which they are joined up determines the sort of protein being produced Genetic code 1 15
  • 17. For example Cytosine Adenine Codes for Valine Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Adenine (A) Codes for Alanine Thymine Coding 16
  • 18. The proteins build the cell structures They also make enzymes The DNA controls which enzymes are made and the enzymes determine what reactions take place The structures and reactions in the cell determine what sort of a cell it is and what its function is So DNA exerts its control through the enzymes DNA and enzymes 17
  • 19. A sequence of triplets in the DNA molecule may code for a complete protein Such a sequence forms a gene There may be a thousand or more bases in one gene Genes 18