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Kashmir Separatist Movement

Kashmir Separatist Movement, can it be categorized as an ideal 'Radical Movement' or not ?

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Kashmir Separatist Movement

  1. 1. Kashmiri separatist movement – can it be categorized as a Radical Movement? PRESENTATION BY -BY- RUPENDRA RAJPOOT. PAPER – RADICAL MOVEMENTS MA 2ND SEM , CPS SSS , JNU
  2. 2. Framework of the article ;  Historical perspectives of Kashmir, since independence of India and partition between India and Pakistan .  Evolution of Kashmir separatist movement.  Statistics on Kashmir.  Parameters to the assessment of a radical movement.  Can Kashmiri separatist movement be considered as an ideal radical movement?  Coclusion
  3. 3. Historical context of J&K, and Kashmir conflict  Since the independence of Indian dominion and its participation into India and Pakistan in 1947, both states claimed their domination over Kashmir territory.  Separatist groups and organization demanded for separate or ‘ Azad ’ Kashmir, and some groups have high aspirations to join with Pakistan, as Muslims are in majority in the region.  The people protests in Kashmir in connection with the demand for the right of self- determination are raising highly.  It’s a people participated movement and this is the spirit which give the movement a legitimacy and strength to resist the state domination for their self determination.  Today ‘Kashmir separatist movement’ has taken a form of violence sometimes between state apparatus and Kashmiri people.
  4. 4. Some statistics  Consists of 3 geographical regions – Jammu , Kashmir ( valley ) and Laddakh plateau region  Demographics –  Kashmir is a mainly Muslim majority region with 77% muslims while 97% people practicing Islam in Kashmir region and 1-2 % Hindus  Jammu has the largest Hindu population with 65.23% hindus, 30 % muslims.  Laddakh has Buddhist majority. Islam 67.10% Hinduism 29.07% Sikhism 2.08% Buddhism 1.07%
  5. 5. Parameters  Ideology  Method of the movement ; peaceful or violent  How, it is dealing with issues of land reforms, redistribution, patriarchy  Gender perspectives or from feminism point of view  Communication and dialogue between the leader and the last person
  6. 6. Kashmir separatism ; The question of self determination in Kashmir separatism is debatable in itself. Because some politically motivated organization eg. All Parties Hurriyat Conference, Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front claim for or propose an independent Kashmiri state. While active militant groups like Lashkar-e-Toiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad, Harkat-ul-mujahideen are also actively demanding the same rights. But the way moderate and extremism groups protests and mobilize their movement have large difference. Thus there is lack of consensus among Kashmiri movements itself hence it make it apprehensive to call it as an ideal radical movement.
  7. 7. Ideology  The term Kashmiriyat is widely accepted by the people of Kashmir and by both country India and Pakistan in the discourse on Kashmir  Its a centuries-old indigenous secularism nature of Kashmir  There is a wide range of variety in linguistic, ethnic, religious and cultural groups within J&K  Kashmiri separatist movements are largely dominated by muslim sect leaders hence it provide very little space to other religion follower and are less capable to address those grievances coming from different corners  The radical islam or Islamic fundamentalism has always posed challenges to the secular nature of the movement’s ideology and for the free state itself.  Now the issue is how these separatist movements are going to solve people grievances in, separate Kashmir
  8. 8. Nature and the method of movements  Violent nature of the movement  violent means to resist against state apparatus like paramilitary force, AFSPA. Hence it has merely become a fight between the separatist and army personal  There has also been some other events like massacare, hindu-muslim riots and exodus of Kashmiri pandits which signifies the nature of movement.  The State machinery has regularly been reinforcing and tried hard to prove that the protests in Kashmir are organised, conducted and paid by Pakistan and militant organisations like Lashkar-e-Toiba and Hurriyat leaders.  Youths are also highly active in violent protest against state  The violence they use against state poses threats to its own internal strength and dismantle the true spirit of ‘Kashmiriyat’.
  9. 9. Communication/dialogue among people or grassroots activism.  A radical movement is ideologically motivated, and engage with grassroots activism. It provide enough space to disagreements vis a vis agreements  The regional and sub-regional identity of Kashmir region has captured a remarkable autonomy.  These regional identical demands have evolved over a large span of time which is mainly attributed with the specific geographical and environmental spaces of the Hindu-dominated Jammu area, the Muslim- dominated Kashmir Valley, and the Buddhist-dominated Ladakh plateau region.  Separatist rebellion is largely confined to the Kashmir Valley, where it has the large base of local support. Now the challenge to these separatists is about how they are able to address these demands and remained humane and inclusive in nature while incorporating and reflecting broader human and community values and aspirations.  Plurality in idea is the hallmark of Kashmiri politics but separatist movement has challenged this notion.  some politically mobilized civic and militant groups pose the tendency of exclusion. Which signifies the lack of communication and dialogue between people and the leaders, which poses the threats of misguidance and manipulation of movement
  10. 10. Gender issue  How the Kashmiri separatist movements are addressing the larger issues of domination eg. Patriarchy, hierarchy, class structure. It is also related with the issue of human right abuse and threat to women security  Kashmiri women security and gender right is the matter of great concern, and it also challenge to the movements itself how it is going to resolve the issue regarding feminism  They don’t directly take AK-47 in their hands but assist their family members in significant ways.  Various events of separatist movement shows very low level of women participation. Although women differ ideologically from their male counterpart in their political actions, they rarely participate actively in shaping the future of Kashmir.  The lack of proper participation and hearing of their voice often leave Kashmiri women as the symbol of victimhood.
  11. 11. Issue of caste, class and religion fundamentalism  The separatist movements are mainly dominated by particular caste or religion group like muslims mainly, while peasentry and dalits participation seems very marginal and negligible at some level.  For instance the exclusion of Kashmiri Brahmins or exodus of Kashmiri pandits signify that the dominant movement of Kashmiri separatism whether implicitly or explicitly are more or less can be called as casteist and religious movements  The rise of casteism and religion, based politics is a manifestation of some of those crisis in the society and political economy and same actually happened in case of Kashmir politics, the movement never tried to address those issues which are social grievances like the hierarchy in class , caste and the question of patriarchy.  The idea of separate muslim state as claimed by some militant organisations to create separate nationhood dominated by one religion poses paradoxical viewpoint to be radicalism.  separatist movements in Kashmir somewhere lacks in providing a holistic approach to accommodate its ethnic, cultural and religious sentiments.
  12. 12. Conclusion  For certain extent separatism in Kashmir has solved some issues, regarding community and ethnic values. There are some core issues in separatism like violence, Islamic fundamentalism, lack of dialogue between the leaders and the masses, which has hampered the true spirit of Kashmiriyat hence is less radicalism.  The use of violent upsurge during protests is most contentious and condemnable issue in state affairs.  These skirmishes between state apparatus and Kashmiri people provokes the state to counter down the separatist brutal retaliation (counter terrorism), leads to the loss of life and humanity from both sides.  Hence according to my arguments, separatist movements in Kashmir has been concentrated to a particular ethnic group and religious sect and lacks in having a holistic universal approach. It has not been able to transcend itself towards larger issues like redistribution, issue of class and caste structure and hierarchy, patriarchy and socio-economic political reforms. Thus according to my given parameters and arguments despite being a very effective mobilization which gets its legitimacy from Kashmiri people, separatist movements in Kashmir is not able to be qualified as radical movement so far.
  13. 13. References and Sources ;  Kashmir Conflict:A S t ud y o f W h a t L e d t o t he I n s u r g e nc y i n K as h mi r V a l le y& Proposed future solutions , By Priyanka Bakaya and Sumeet Bhatti  Kashmir: three Metaphors for the present, by Arif Ayaz Parrey ; EPW Journal  The Term Kashmiriyat Kashmiri Nationalism of the 1970s, by Toru Tak ; EPW Journal  Sources from internet and wikipdia .
  14. 14. Thanks . . .

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Kashmir Separatist Movement, can it be categorized as an ideal 'Radical Movement' or not ?


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