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Thesis on National Branding


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Thesis Presentation on Nation Branding, presented by Akshay Alagh, Student Executive, The Delhi School of Communication

Published in: Business

Thesis on National Branding

  1. 1. An Effort to Understand Nation © Branding An Indian Student Executive Roll No 348 PGDPC XIIIThe Delhi School of Communication
  2. 2. Concept & Relevance• Contribution to the Nation’s Development• Value delivered…?• Scope in the Future..?
  3. 3. Nature of Nation Branding• Exciting – Limited theories available – Real world activity is unlimited• Complex – Multiple disciplines – Beyond the conventional branding strategies• Controversial – Highly politicized – Generates opinions and conflicts
  4. 4. What is a Brand..?• Name, Symbol or Design• Identification• Competitive Advantage• Creative Interaction with Environment• Cluster of Strategic Cultural Ideas• Accumulated benefits• Could be a Product or a Service
  5. 5. Defining a Nation Brand Unique multi dimensional blend of elements that provide the nationwith culturally grounded differentiationand relevance for all its target audiences
  6. 6. An Ignored Fact BRANDING BRANDINGMarketer’s View Customers View OUTPUT INPUT Mental VisionIntended Thrust CONFLICT towards Brands
  7. 7. Nation Brand Yet Another… Image UpliftmentService & Sales Contributes to the Buys a TATA Nation Branding Effort Vehicle Favorable Administrative Systems, Govt. Policies Favorable Price, Perceptions PerceptionsFinance Options etc towards towards the TATA Prospective Nation customerCitizen
  8. 8. A Successful [Nation] Brand Successful [Nation]Brands exist because the people delivering the Brand act in a manner that reflects promised values
  9. 9. Key Stakeholders• Citizens• Governing Body• Commerce and Non-Commerce - NGO’s etc.• Tourism• Media• All others associated
  10. 10. Vision Mix• Each stakeholder vision – one vision• Synchronize vision(s) generated• Generate a consensus• Embark it as the Master Vision• Strategizing a Long Term Plan• Advocate and not advertise
  11. 11. Why Nation Branding ?• Stimulate inward investments• Boost exports• Talent Attraction – Higher education students – Skilled workers• Currency Stability• Investor confidence
  12. 12. Hard Facts of Nation• Branding Internal Competition – Conflicts within States – Conflicts within Districts – Conflicts within Cities – Political turmoil• Reasons to Compete – Grants from the Center – Sponsorships – Development funds – Forward Investments Eg. TATA Nano Journey
  13. 13. Nation Brand Identity• Multi faceted process• Channeling strands• Focused objectives• Sync with Nation Brand Policy• Controlled inputs• Tourists, Students – No interest in huge info about the Nation
  14. 14. Identity vs. Image• Identity – What a thing, person is – TRUTH• Image – General impression, perception• Identity ~ Image –ve force for Nation brands• Stereotypes, Clichés• Struggle Identity & Image• Hindering Nation’s development
  15. 15. Deconstructing Nation Brand Identity• Personal Experience• Word of Mouth• Pre existing stereotypes• Performance of National Sport Teams• Political incidents• Portrayals of the nation in Media• Quality of Brands emanating• Behavior of Citizens
  16. 16. Identity Building• No fixed criteria• Narrative Identity Theory• Historical and Cultural Inputs• Poets, Nation Writers, Novelists• No political influence• Synchronized & Unanimous
  17. 17. Developing IMC for Nation Branding• Deconstructing the existing Image• Shared by a group of consumers• Target communications – The Stereotype – Level of existence of Image – Urgency to deal with it – Classify Target Group E.g. Online Media for Tourism Branding in India
  18. 18. Nation Brand Identity to Nation Brand ImageNation Brand History, Language, Political Regime,Identity Sport, Literature, Education, Music Branded Exports, SportingCommunicators Achievments,Brand Ambassadors,of Nation Brand Government foreign policies,Identity Tourism experience Audiences: Domestic & ExternalNation Consumers, Inward Investors, MediaBrand Image
  19. 19. But…• Excessive Segmentation – NO !• Alienation of a Brand @#$%• P-S-C Brands – Yes..if needed• Daunting in case of Nation Brands• Controlled limited access• Organized development of MARCOM
  20. 20. Positioning of Nation Brands• Has always been complicated• Totally in hands of Politicians• No professionals involved• Bland, attract no body
  21. 21. Liberation through Modularity• Practiced in the field of innovation• Synchronized development of sub systems• Complex Product• Attributes shall be treated distinctlyInward investment agencies, tourism boards etc that can be designed independently but function together as a whole
  22. 22. …• All subsystems researched so that; – Differentiability is maintained – Value is created – Suitable commn. efforts
  23. 23. Nation Brand Equity (N.B.E)• Brand Equity – Value of the Brand• 2 Basic perspectives• Consumer Perspective – Awareness of a Brand – Image, Quality, Uniqueness etc.• Financial Perspective – Attaching a financial value to the Brand
  24. 24. Consumer Perspective• Differential effect that Brand• Ongoing research to get the insights of the consumers – citizens, investors, tourists etc.• Ignore basic gut feelings like• Such NBEQ’s help get Actual Insights• BRAND IDEAS generated
  25. 25. …• Visual Manifestations• Nation Brands ~ Imagery, Iconography – The Flag – The Currency – The Anthem• Ensure encapsulation of the Brand• Effort towards Nation Brand Loyalty
  26. 26. Citizen Relationship Management• Need of CRM• Internal & External sets of TG• Cluster Analysis• Maintaining Services Provision Quality Index
  27. 27. Financial Perspective• Fixed value in case of PSC Brands• Historic Costs – Investments made so far• Replacement Costs – Cost to create an equivalent brand• Future Earnings• No fixed formula in Nation Brands• Sir Simon Anholt uses ‘Royal Relief Method’
  28. 28. INTERNAL ASSETS INNATE NURTUREDIconography Internal Buy In Nation Brand Support ArtsLandscapeCulture Equity Loyalty Levels (NBEQ) BrandCountry Image AmbassadorsPerceptions DiasporaExternal Portrayal Branded Exports VICARIOUS DISSEMINATED EXTERNAL ASSETS
  29. 29. Nation Branding &Country of Origin EffectCompliment Each Other
  30. 30. COO Effect and Brands• Difference to a Brand because of its origin• Product ~ COO Effect ~ Consumer Perception• All Nation Branding activities effected• Both +ve and –ve impact• Vice – Versa• PSU’s & Private Companies’ joint efforts• Scotch Whisky, Italian Leather etc.
  31. 31. How…?• Reyka – an Iceland vodka Brand launched in the UK market in 2005• Proclaimed to be made of the arctic spring water in one of the purest countries in the world• Geothermal way of making it in order to maintain the purity of the nation brand - Iceland• Great brand equity tool for Iceland• Owners - Scotch Whisky Firm William Grant and Sons !
  32. 32. Not everywhere…!• COO Effect not always true• Product category ~ Nation Brand• Calls for in-depth research
  33. 33. COO Effect & Services• Dominant in Service Sector• Especially in Airline Sector• Bias in case of COO Service Brands• 1 Acronym can cause trouble• Increases dependency on Nation Brand
  34. 34. AMEX & British Airways• AMEX in 2003 – America – Iraq War – Research conducted to find consumer insights – Fortunately no effect – They still believed in the Brand• British Airways – Changed to BA – Because of –ve connotation towards U.K – Result: Publicly berated by the then PM
  35. 35. Service Brand AcronymsAcronym Full Name Service SectorHSBC Hong Kong and Shanghai Finance Banking CorporationRBS Royal Bank of Scotland FinanceKFC Kentucky Fried Chicken RestaurantsBP British Petroleum Energy
  36. 36. Ethical Issues in Nation Branding• All expenses from Public Funds• Vigil, Transparency, Careful allocation• 2 Main Imperatives – Legitimacy of applying Nation Brand Techniques – Deciding the core Nation Brand Ideas
  37. 37. Legitimacy• Dire need to get PSU’s and Private players• Socially & Politically adapted activity• Should a Nation be considered as a Brand..?• Who will be the Brand Manager then…? – Politicians (Lack Managerial Skills) – Marketing Professionals..? (Lack Democratic Mandate)
  38. 38. Is Brand Acceptable..?• Rejections in comparing a Nation as a Brand• Brand Management Techniques• Brand ~ Reputation like words• No commercialization of the nation• Promotion with the protection of diversity
  39. 39. Pragmatic Challenges• Managerial Challenges to be addressed; – Extent of Stakeholder Participation • Inclusiveness Approach – Ideal State (FIST Approach) – Actual State (Domain Specific) – Co-ordination of Nation Branding touch points – Developing a coherent Nation Brand Arch. – Highly politicized nature of Nation Branding
  40. 40. Extent of Stakeholder ParticipationIdeal State – Fully Inclusive Stakeholder Approach (FIST) – Government is the Key Stakeholder – Political independence – Visionary approach for Nation Branding – Nation Branding Council – Independent of present and future governments
  41. 41. GOVERNMENTPublic Sector Private Sector CitizenOrganizations Organizations sTourism Boards Trade Not for Profit Inward Investments, Organizations Investment Chambers of DiasporaAnd Economic Commerce, Development PSC Brands Agencies
  42. 42. …Actual State – 100 percent inclusiveness not necessary – Domain specific positioning – Domain specific campaigning – Programme specific inclusiveness
  43. 43. Suggested Models• Strategic Analysis Model• Sequential Category Flow Model• N.B.A Model
  44. 44. Strategic Analysis Model• Where are we today..?• Where would be like to be…?• How do we get there…? – Internal Analysis – External Analysis
  45. 45. Internal Analysis• Capabilities of a Nation• Deep sectoral analysis• Scope for Internal Competition• Develop action points• Generate Nation Brand Ideas
  46. 46. Quadra-Dimensional• Tourism• FDI (Foreign Direct Investments)• Export Promotion• Talent Attraction
  47. 47. External Analysis• Competition and Environment Analysis• Over the same 4 Dimensions – Strengths – Weaknesses – Strategic Goals – Current Strategies
  48. 48. Category Flow Model• Sequential Flow• 3 Major stages; – Antecedents – Properties – Consequences• Properties ensures justified treatment of Antecedents• Encapsulation through Branding, Zeitgeist
  49. 49. ANTECEDANTS AnticipationPROPERTIES Cultural Complexity Encapsulation ExpressivenessCONSEQUENCES Engagement
  50. 50. AntecedentsAnticipation – Before any conscious nation branding efforts – Superficial Stereotypes – Pre-Existing opinions, Perceptions – Experiences from Nation’s Products – Could be false, Isolated experience(s) – True essence of Nation not revealed
  51. 51. PropertiesComplexity • All Uncontrollable factors • Eg. Political Situations, Wars, Behavior of Prominent Citizens etc. • Their impact on the Nation BrandManaging Diversity • Challenge to develop target communication • CRM to tackle with various segments
  52. 52. …Urban – Rural Dichotomy • Bridging the gaps to generate action points • No particular dominance in the Nation’s positioningCultural Expressiveness • Encompasses Cultural elements • Arts, Language, History, Landscape • Otherwise just a commercially driven Branding • Engages the Stakeholders also
  53. 53. Vehicles of Cultural ExpressivenessNation Arts Organization Activities French Language classes, ProgrammesFrance French Institute of French Films, Multi Media Libraries etc. Connects people with United learning opportunities British CouncilKingdom in U.K to build lasting relationships.
  54. 54. Encapsulation of the Two• Redefining the Nation Brand• Integrating Culture with Diversity – Through Branding Strategies – Treatment – Explicit Branding Techniques – Removes off false essence – Ensures a multifaceted Nation Brand – Requires exceeding knowledge of the Nation’s Culture• Generates ‘Brand Values’
  55. 55. Engagement• Inclusiveness & Exemplars – Next step after Strategizing – Involvement is very necessary – Wide range of Stakeholder addressed – Sustain the ‘Nation Brand’ – Testimonials – Sustain Citizenrys trust – Transparency – Public Funds being used – Adds success to the Nation Brand Movement
  56. 56. Nation Brand Architecture Model• Major pragmatic challenge• Designing a suitable B.A.M• 3 Basic PSC Brand Portfolios – Monolithic – Endorsed – Branded
  57. 57. MONOLITHICSingle Dominant Corporate Umbrella BrandCreates uniform, powerful & consistent image all overPoor performance of a sub brand affects others also Individual brands names have theirENDORSED own identity, but are clearly endorsed by the parent brand Benefits of the Parent Brand as well as own identity Positioning should be in sync with Parent Brand’s BRANDEDEach individual brand stands independentlyParent Brand is not at all visibleMaximum potential to be a clearly differentiated brand
  58. 58. N.B.A.M – Mix of all the 3
  59. 59. Nation BrandUmbrellaBrand Tourism FDI’sEndorsed Exports SportsBrands Regions National Sector Products Team Specific Cities Services Lakes ClubsStandaloneBrands
  60. 60. An Effort to Understand Nation Branding in Our Country
  61. 61. Welcome to India
  62. 62. Current Nation Branding Platforms1. Tourism2. Foreign Direct Investments3. Talent Attraction4. Short Run Campaigns5. Some other stories6. The COO Effect7. Media
  63. 63. Tourism
  64. 64. Incredible India AdAtithi Devoh Bhavah Ads
  65. 65. Atithi Devoh Bhavah
  66. 66. Explore Rural India
  67. 67. Tourism Awards 2007-08
  68. 68. CriticismIncredible India• Campaign launched in 2005• Mrs. Ambika Soni, Ministry of Culture• Belongs to I.N.C (Indian National Congress)• No work from 2005-09• Re-launched in 2009 – Commonwealth 2010
  69. 69. …Atithidevobhavah• Launched in January 2009• Amir Khan signed for the Brand Ambassadorship for Tourism in March 2005Rural India• Launched in February 2009• No specific need
  70. 70. …Tourism Awards• Presented in March 2009Visit India 2009• Value for Money Deals• Launched in March 2009
  71. 71. Short Run Campaigns
  72. 72. Bharat Nirman Ad
  73. 73. That’s all they did…!Bharat Nirman• Total Ad spend: Rs 200 Crores• Airtime used: More than 1 Million Seconds• Print Space used: 800 Column Centimeters
  74. 74. 4th Feb,2009TheEconomicTimessays…
  75. 75. The Agency Fight…
  76. 76. Some Other Stories
  77. 77. y …? mi ka he alth d h etW ar p mon a we m Aa S m a o A C isa Pa
  78. 78. Slumdog ABC News Now
  79. 79. Slumdog Wishes Lok Sabha Video
  80. 80. Congress Jai Ho Campaign
  81. 81. They did not even spare Gandhi ji !
  82. 82. The Role of Media• Very positive inputs• Ensured inclusiveness• Involvement of all the Stakeholders• Raised Motivational levels• But why only 2 English Dailies..? – Times of India – Hindustan Times
  83. 83. How Lead India Inspires us…?
  84. 84. The Lead India Story Till Date
  85. 85. Lead Indiain Print
  86. 86. Hindustan Times joins…
  87. 87. Indian Can 200 9 India Will
  88. 88. Also 4 Lac Registrations 80% Brand Recall for TATA Tea… 2,64,472 people voiced opinions for ‘Idea – for the people, by the people’ A recent ‘Good Purpose’ study by Edeiman a multinational PR firm says 90% Indians prefer buying socially responsible brands.
  89. 89. Vs. General Elections 2009 costlier than what Obama and others spent in the American presidential race in 2008, the costliest elections ever there, spread over an year than months in case of our elections. A total of 71 Crores 40 Lac Voters have been alreadyenlisted while America had a total of 13 Crores voters.
  90. 90. India & COO Effect• Export Promotion Councils • Remove budget constraints • Leverage to buy – in & buy-out members• Classifying member companies• Allowance for Nation Branding on Products• Only on deserving quality• Increase in competition within the members
  91. 91. Brands that have India video
  92. 92. H yundai I 10 Launch Ad
  93. 93. Bharti Film
  94. 94. My suggestions to Brand India• Nation Branding Council• F.I.S.I Actual State Stakeholder Approach• CRM Approach• COO Effect Implementation• The India Brand Agency and not
  95. 95. The Research• Qualitative Research• Open ended questions• 50 Respondents• No specific target group – Any Indian• Brand Architecture methodology used
  96. 96. Some Stats• Awareness of the Term – 78% – Positioning India as a Brand – 96% – Creating a Buzz in the Global Platform – 3% – Strategizing the Policies of the Nation – 1%• India as a Brand – 100%• Incredible India – Highest Recall
  97. 97. Brand Image Inventory Total Recall
  98. 98. Surface Expressions Terrorism A.R Rahman Population Amitabh Bachchan Developing Rahul Gandhi Poverty Sachin CultureTendulkar Sonia Gandhi
  99. 99. If India was a Car… Family’s 1st Car Strength & Power Made in India, Sent abroad Still Changing, better than before
  100. 100. Current Newspaper HeadlineJagrat Bharat Emerging Power of the WorldIndia Can, India Will India – powerhouse of potential
  101. 101. Headline 5 years from now… India makes it to the list of developed countries India Leads, India Wins India is now a superpower India – 1950 – 2015 – A journey
  102. 102. Brand AppreciationCulture & Traditions PovertyUnity in Diversity PopulationIndependent Nation CorruptionFreedom to Media Terrorist Attacks
  103. 103. Video for conclusion
  104. 104. Acknowledgments• Almighty – Lord Radha Krishna• My Guruji• My Parents• Sir Simon Anholt – Father of Nation Branding• Sir Keith Dinnie – Author, Nation Branding• Prof. Ramola Kumar, Dean, DSC• Prof. Anupama Mohan• Bhakti & Namrita
  105. 105. …• Anubhav & Nitish• PGDPC XIII• PGDPC XIV• The DSC Family
  106. 106. Thank You Though this thesiscomes to an end here;But an effort has to begin from here…Nation