Countries with advanced economies, hi-tech factories, a high standard of living, and high literacy rates. (Examples: Japan, US, and Canada).Colombian Exchange The movement of plants, food,and Triangular Trade animals, and people between Europe, Africa, and North America during the exploration period which introduced many new cultures to the QuickTim e™ and a Graphics decom pres s or are needed to see this picture. continents.
Gross Domestic Product The total value of all of the goods and services produced in the country in a year.
Import Goods made in one country but brought into another country to be sold; goods entering a country to be sold.Developing Nations Countries with low standards of living and very little technology and factory systems, such as Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
1607 The first permanent English settlement in North America was established at Jamestown. QuickTime™ and a Graphics decompres sorare needed to see this picture.1776 During this year on July 4th, the American colonies declared independence from QuickTime™ and a Graphics decom press or are needed to s ee this picture. Great Britain.
1787 In this year, the Constitution of the United States was written to replace the Articles of Confederation. 1803 During this year, President Thomas Jefferson purchase the Louisiana Territory from France and double the size of the U.S.
1861-1865 The American Civil War was fought between the north (union) and the South (Confederacy) over the issues of slavery and states’ rights. 1877 Military Reconstruction ended in the South with the Compromise of 1877. Southern States had been under military rule, Martial Law, since the end of the Civil War.
1898 The Spanish-American War was triggered by the explosion of the “U.S.S. Maine” in Havana, Cuba. A political movement with reform1895-1920 Progressive Era efforts such as child labor laws, minimum wage, rights for women, and political reforms such as initiative and referendum. These Reforms began to fix problems of the Gilded Age and Industrial Age.
1914-1918 The years of World War I, which was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and ended with the Treaty of Versailles. 1929 The year the stock market crashed. A year after Black Tuesday, bank runs, over production, and high tariffs, led a worldwide economic depression.
1917-1918 The years of US INVOLVEMENT in World War I, which was triggered by the violation of the Sussex Pledge leading to unrestricted submarine attacks, and by the Zimmerman Telegram to Mexico.1939-1945 The years of WWII, which began with the failure of Appeasement in Europe. Britain and France declared war after Hitler’s Germany invaded Poland. After Germany was defeated, Japan continued fighting until two Atomic Bombs ended the war.
1941-1945 The years of U.S. INVOLVEMENT in World War II, which began with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and ended with the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.1946-1991 This period of time following World War II, where the United States and the Soviet union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race and the ideologies of Communism and Democracy that lasted nearly 50 years.
1957 The start of the space between the United States and the Soviet union which began with the Soviet launch of the world’s first satellite, Sputnik. The years of war in a country in Asia that was divided between Communism and Democracy after1950-1953 World War II.Korean War The USSR and China supported the Communist North, the USANorth Korea, supported the Democratic South.South Korea,USA, China When the war ended in 1953, theAnd the USSR country was separated by a demilitarized zone.
In 1954 France withdrew from Indo-1962-1973 China. The area was divided into 3Vietnam War countries, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. (North & South) The Communist North invaded the South to unite Vietnam under a single Communist Government. In 1956 President Eisenhower sent military aid to the Democratic South. President Kennedy opposed the idea of the USA in a war in Vietnam, but continued to send military support to the South. In 1963, Kennedy was assassinated, President Johnson supported war in Vietnam. Nixon negotiated a Cease Fire in 1973, but fighting continued until the Communists took control.
Rural Refers to living outside the city limits in a more “country-like” environment. The opposite of URBANSuburb Refers to the upscale neighborhoods, small towns, or cities outside of a large city. Plano, & Frisco near Dallas, or Sugarland near Houston. Resaca Shores in San Benito
Major Oceans Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean,Panama Canal The canal built in 1914 to create a shorter route from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Many workers died because the area was infested with mosquitoes that carried malaria.
Urban Refers to living inside the city limits in a more industrial setting. Near businesses or factories.Migration Refers to the movement of plants, animals, and people from one place to another.
Continents North America, South America, Asia, Africa, Europe, Antarctica, Australia The beliefs, religion, music, CULTURE art and general way of life
POPULATION DENSITY The number of people living within a given or specific area
Bill of The First 10 Amendments Rights to the US Constitution. Protection from abuse by the Government.First Amendment Five Individual Freedoms: Speech, Religion, Press, Petition and Assembly.
Second Amendment Because a well regulated militia is necessary, the right to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed Soldiers shall not be placedThird Amendment in the homes of citizens during a time of peace.
Fourth Amendment Privacy in your own home, belongings and body against search and seizure without probable causeFifth Amendment “Do not have to testify against yourself” “Double Jeopardy” “Property cannot be taken away without fair compensation” Due process for people accused of a crime
6th Amendment The right to a speedy trial by a jury of peers in the state the crime is committed The right to a speedy trial by 7th Amendment a jury of peers for a civil case. Divorce, Custody, Damages
8th Amendment Protection against cruel or unusual punishment or excessive bail. Rights not listed (not invented) in theAmendments 9 and 10 constitution belong to the people. (fly a plane, own a phone) Rights or powers not granted to the Federal Government or prohibited by the states belong to the people.
13th Amendment This amendment banned (ended) slavery in the United States. (Civil War Amendment) This amendment gave equal14th Amendment citizenship to all people born in the United States regardless of their race, except for Native Americans (Civil War Amendment)
15th Amendment This amendment gave all men the right to vote regardless of color, race, or previous condition of servitude. (Civil War Amendment)16th Amendment Allowed the Government to tax personal income. (Progressive Amendment)
Allowed for the Direct 17th Election of Senators. Amendment Decreased power of Political Machines in Congress. Increased the power of voters (Progressive Amendment) Outlawed the manufacturing,18th Amendment sale, and distribution of alcohol. Known as Prohibition, enforced by the Volstead Act (Progressive Amendment) Led to an increase in organized crime, Al Capone, speakeasies and bootlegging
19th Amendment The 19th Amendment to the Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections. (Progressive Amendment)21st Amendment Repealed (overturned) the 18th Amendment and made alcohol legal. (Depression Amendment) Created more legal jobs
24th Amendment The 24th Amendment to the Constitution (1964) Eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections. (Civil Rights Amendment) The 26th Amendment to the26th Amendment Constitution (1971) lowered the voting age to 18 allowing more U.S. citizens to participate in the process of government. (Vietnam War Amendment)
Susan B. Anthony She was one of the advocates, (supporters) for women’s suffrage. Dedicated her life to the passage of the 19th Amendment. One of only three real women who have been on American money.Andrew Carnegie Created the Gospel of Wealth to encourage other rich industrialists to help society. Donated large sums of money to colleges, hospitals and libraries. Became rich by using theGospel of Wealth Bessemer process to make steel.
Cesar Chavez Migrant worker who helped organize mostly Spanish- speaking farm workers to improve their working conditions. Created the United Farm Workers of America. Clarence Darrow Defense attorney for John T. Scopes who was arrested by fundamentalists for violating a Tennessee law against teaching evolution in schools. The Roaring 20’s and the New MoralityEvolution VS Creationism
Supported industrial unionsEugene V. Debs and labor reforms. Preferred negotiation instead of strikes. Became leader of the Railroad Union. He was the socialist candidate for president four different times.W.E. B DuBois Helped establish the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Criticized Booker T. Washington for thinking that job training & money would lead to respect for African Americans
The Wizard of Menlo Park,Thomas Edison his company created the phonograph, motion picture camera and the monofilament lightbulb. His electric lights made night shifts in factories safer by replacing oil and gas lamps. Henry Ford His use of mass production and assembly lines meant low prices, and more sales. His industry led to the creation of many other businesses, and gave mobility to the masses.
Thomas Jefferson Founding Father who wrote the Declaration of Independence, and President who purchased the Louisiana territory from France in 1803 Established the Peace Corp. John F. Kennedy President during the Cuban Missile Crisis, Bay of Pigs and the Cold War. First Catholic President of the USA. Last President to be assassinated. Promised to win the Space Race with a man on the moon.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. African-American leader and clergyman who used civil disobedience or non- violent action to reform society and help establish civil rights “I HAVE A DREAM…….” Elected President in 1860 and 1864 Abraham Lincoln His election caused South Carolina and 9 states to secede from the Union. Issued the Emancipation Proclamation and Gettysburg Address. After the Civil War was over, he was re-elected then assassinated by John W. Booth.
Charles A. Lindberg Made aviation history when he flew a specially built airplane, The Spirit of St. Louis, nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean Rosa Parks African American woman who was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a bus to make room for whites. Her arrest led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Civil Rights Movement
American who formed the John D. Rockefeller Standard Oil Company and became one of the wealthiest Americans in the U.S. at the time. Used Horizontal Integration to eliminate competition and Vertical Integration control all materials needed for the oil business Contracted polio in 1921Franklin Delano Roosevelt Was Elected President in 1932 Created a plan called the “New Deal” to end the Great Depression. Passed 15 major laws in “The 100 Days”. Fireside Chats and a Court Packing Plan. Only President ever to be elected 4 times. 1932-1945
One of the “Rough Riders,”Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish-American War; Became president after McKinley was assassinated; Was the first Progressive President, National parks, the Pure Food & Drug Act. Panama Canal and the Great White Fleet. Became president after FDR diedHarry S. Truman during WWII. Used the Atomic Bombs against Japan, created the Doctrine to fight against Communism, fired General MacArthur for statements against the President.
George Washington British soldier in the French and Indian War. Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. Became president when the Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation.Woodrow Wilson President of the US during World War I. Proposed the League of Nations and the Fourteen Points. QuickTime™ and a Graphics decompres sor are needed to see this picture.
TEMPLATE Abolitionists . The people who wished to away with slavery. Fredrick Douglass was one of the leaders of the Abolitionist MovementFredrick Douglass Affirmative Action Policy giving preference for jobs to minorities such as women, Blacks, and Hispanics. The policy created by President Kennedy and signed by President Johnson, after JFK was assassinated.
War fought between the 13American Revolution colonies and England 1776-1783. One of the main reasons why the colonists wanted their independence was “taxation without representation” Anti-Federalists People who opposed the ratification of the Constitution because they feared the national government was given too much power. Led by Thomas Jefferson, the group insisted on a Bill of Rights to prevent government abuse of power.
This document, the nation’s firstArticles of Confederation constitution, was adopted in 1781. The document was considered weak because states held more power than the federal government. Assimilation Policy Policy of blending Indians and immigrants into the “American Culture” and way of QuickTim e™ and a Graphics decom pres s or are needed to see this picture. life.
Boston Tea Party Occurred after King George III passed the Tea Act requiring colonists to buy their tea from specific companies. The colonists dressed as Indians and dumped the tea into the Boston Harbor.Brown vs Board of Supreme Court case that Education overturned the 1896 “Separate but Equal” policy of Plessy vs Ferguson. QuickTim e™ and a Graphics decom press or Brown vs Board of Education are needed to s ee this picture. required Blacks and Whites to be integrated in schools.
Checks and Balances A system of controls in which each branch of government checks or limits the power of the other branches. This prevents the possible abuse of power.Civil Rights Act of 1964 Passed after MLK’s “March on Washington”. The law banned racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation in schools and all public places.
Civil Rights Movement . African American efforts to obtain equality before the law and protection of their rights. Black Activists often affiliated with church groups offered passive resistance to unjust laws. The Movement was led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.Constitution of the USA Document that replaced the Articles of Confederation and set the framework, or rules of government for the United States of America (1789)
Containment Policy adopted after WWII that US would stop the spread of Communism. First created to prevent the USSR from creating more Communist Satellites, then QuickTim e™ and a Graphics decom pres s or are needed to s ee this picture. shifting to Asia after Korea became Communist.D-Day June 6, 1944 Western Allies (US) landed on the beaches of Normandy, France to try and liberate (free) German-Occupied France from the Axis Powers during WII
Declaration of Independence This document was adopted on July 4th, 1776, and established The 13 colonies as independent from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document. Domino Theory The belief that if the USA allowed a country to fall under the power of communism then just like a series of dominoes, other countries are likely to fall to Communism.
Period of severe drought in the The Dust Bowl 1930’s on the Great Plains. Drought turned the soil to dust and heavy winds carried the dirt in huge clouds. Farmers abandoned their land or lost it to foreclosures during the Great Depression, leaving fields uncultivated.Emancipation Proclamation A statement issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in Southern rebellious states along the border between North and South would be free.
A principle of government where Federalism power is shared within a union between the national (federal) and state governments. War fought between the 13American Revolution colonies and England 1776-1783. One of the main reasons why the colonists wanted their independence was “taxation without representation”
Federalist Papers A series of essays written to support a form of government which divided the power between the states and a central or (federal) government . Written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison Flappers Woman of the 1920’s who dressed and acted in an unconventional or non-traditional manner. During prohibition, they drank, cut their hair short, wore revealing clothes, smoked and danced waving their arms.
The Great Depression Began after the Stock Market Crashed in 1929. Causes for the Great Depression include: over production, high tariffs, and consumer debt. Bank Runs increased the severity of the Depression. Which lasted from 1929 till World War II began. The Great Migration Occurred between 1910 and 1930 when over 2 million African Americans left the South to escape the KKK and find factory jobs in the North. When WWI began in 1914 many more jobs became available
The Holocaust . Name given to systematic murder of over 6 million European Jews as well as 6 million others. Hitler and the Nazis used concentration camps and extermination camps as part of the “Final Solution”Hoovervilles Shanty towns of homeless and unemployed people that were set up in parks and other public lands in large cities during the Great Depression, Hoovervilles were named to mock President Hoover.
Detention Centers set up duringInternment Camps WWII to hold Japanese Americans in order to prevent acts of sabotage. Japanese Americans were removed from coastal areas and locked up after Pearl Harbor Isolationism Policy of refusing to get involved in world conflicts which would eventually draw a the USA into a war. Initial policy of the US for both World War I and World War II. The Reason the USA did not sign the Treaty of Versailles (WWI)
Period of the 1920’s when there was THE JAZZ AGE a shift in the music to include African American music. Music was fast pace and uplifting and included many wind Instruments. The Jazz Age was also known as the Roaring 20’s. Jazz music was created by Louis ArmstrongJIM CROW LAWS Laws passed mainly in the south that segregated the Blacks from the Whites. Such as not riding in the same trains, attending the same schools, or facilities. Plessy vs Ferguson 1896, allowed legalized Segregation and led to increased Racism in the Southern USA.
KU KLUX KLAN White groups created after the Civil War who terrorized African Americans in the South These groups used violence and intimidation to prevent African Americans from voting, buying land or trying to achieve their Civil Rights.Literacy Tests Used in the South to keep the African Americans from voting. African Americans had to show proof that they could read or write in order to vote. Many lacked a formal education and could not pass the tests.
MANIFEST DESTINY . The belief in the 1840s that the U.S. was destined to acquire territory “from sea to shining sea” taken from the British song, actually from the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean Monroe Doctrine A statement of foreign policy by President James Madison proclaiming that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the U.S. or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere
The NEW DEAL FDR’s plan to end the Great . Depression. Roosevelt passed 15 laws during the first 100 days of his presidency in 1933 “the 3 R’s of relief, recovery, and reform, helped banks, businesses and put people to work building structures.New Immigrants Immigrants that came after 1880 and settled in the cities; got jobs in factories working for low wages. Mostly European Jews and Catholics, not well liked and lived in ethnic neighborhoods and did not speak English.
NEUTRALITY Policy of the US during the beginning years of both WWI and WWII. A neutral country is one that does not takes sides or QuickTim e™ and a Graphics decom press or are needed to s ee this picture. gets involved in the conflict. Early Neutrality Acts prevented the USA from selling weapons to countries at war.OLD IMMIGRANTS The first immigrants that arrived before 1880. They spoke English, were protestant and helped expand the USA from coast to coast. They settled the Great Plains and worked to assimilate the Native Americans.
PLESSY vs FERGUSON Supreme Court case in 1896 that stated “Separate but Equal” was an acceptable policy in education and public facilities. The law legalized segregation and led to racism and Jim Crow Laws. Was overturned by Brown vs Board of Education 1954 The principle of government that states political power rests with the people. Used by Lincoln in the Gettysburg Address. “Government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the Earth.” Abraham Lincoln
REPUBLICANISM A form of government in which people elect representatives to make and carry out laws. Senators, Representatives, Electoral College, City Commissions.Roaring Twenties Period from 1919 to 1929 just after WWI in which the country celebrated life, enjoyed new forms of music (jazz), enjoyed many new inventions which made their lives easier (washing machine, sewing, cars) Most people enjoyed prosperity during the Roaring 20’s.
SCOPES MONKEY 12 States passed a law in 1923 toTRIAL forbid the teaching of Darwin’s theory of evolution because it contradicted the Bible’s account of creation. In 1925 John Scopes, a biology teacher was tried and convicted for teaching evolution in a science class in Tennessee SEGREGATION Policy that kept Blacks and Whites separated in public facilities, busses, trains, schools parks, beaches and hotels. Legalized by Plessy vs Ferguson Enforced by Jim Crow Laws
SPUTNIK Sputnik was the first space satellite. Launched in 1957 by the USSR. The USA responded with NASA and the National Defense Education Act which added more math and science requirements for high schools. The Space Race had begun.STAMP ACT Tax imposed by the British Parliament on the colonists. Colonists were required to buy a “seal” or stamp to be placed on any printed material. Books, newspapers, legal documents, playing cards, etc.
TENEMENTS Poor housing usually lived in by immigrants and poor factory workers (similar to projects) usually located in large cities. These tall buildings were, unsanitary, had poor lighting and were often fire hazards.Transcontinental Rail Road Railroad that linked the East and West coasts. Work began in 1862 and finished in 1869. Connected people with supplies. Helped to settle the Great Plains, expand business and led to the forced assimilation of Native Americans.
Treaty of Versailles The treaty written by allied leaders that ended World War I and created the League of nations. Blamed Germany for the war and ordered reparations (payments) to be made to all countries affected by the war. USA did not sign because of Isolationism.TRUMAN DOCTRINE U.S. International Policy by President Harry Truman after WWII. The US promised to give support to any country fighting against Communism. First used in Greece & Turkey, then Korea, used again in Vietnam. Part of the Containment Policy
UNALIENABLE RIGHTS These are rights that we are born with as human beings and cannot be given or taken away. They include life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness. These rights are explained as being endowed by the creator in the Declaration of Independence. Book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe which discussed the awful treatment of slaves prior to the Civil War. People who read the book became morally outraged. The book created an increase in the support of the Abolitionist Movement.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Reason the U.S. entered WWI. Germany violated the Sussex Pledge, and began to sink American Ships in an attempt to dominate the Atlantic Ocean. The Sussex Pledge was signed after the British Lusitania was sunk by a German Submarine.