By DR RABIA BAZEER
Presented on Charity Dinner
Date: 29th March 2014
Venue: Paradox Art Cafe
WHAT IS PROSTATE? WHERE IS THE
PROSTATE? WHO HAS PROSTATE?
NO! IT IS A MALE ORGAN!!!
It is a male sex gland
A size of walnut / langsat
Located in front of rectum, behind the base of the
penis, below the bladder.
Surrounds the urethra
Main function is seminal fluid production. Seminal
fluid aids in transportation, protection and nutrition
In Malaysia it is the sixth most frequent cancer and it
accounts for 5.7 per cent of cancer cases in males. The
most common type of cancer in men after lung cancer
Very few prostate cancers occur in men under 50 years of
age. The rate increases sharply with age and is highest in
the oldest age group.
Chinese record the highest incidence of prostate cancer
compared to Malays and Indians.
Can grow slowly and not be detected for years
Most men with advanced stages respond to treatment
Studies have shown that men who masturbate have a
lower risk of getting prostate cancer
Age: (If you live long enough, you will be get prostate cancer)
Prostate cancer is rarely found in men younger than 45. The
chance of getting it gets higher as a man gets older. Most men
diagnosed with prostate cancer are older than 65.
Race: African American> Asian but in Malaysia Chinese >Indian
Family history: A man's risk is 2 to 3 times higher if his father or
brother had prostate cancer. 2 relatives has prostate cancer – 5
times the risk, more than 3 relatives has prostate cancer –
guaranteed to have prostate cancer!!!
Diet and obesity: Studies suggest that men who eat a diet high in
red meat and fat have a higher risk for prostate cancer. Men who
are overweight may be more likely to die of it. Men who eat a
diet rich in fruits and vegetables may have a lower risk.
Pain at genital, lower abdomen and
trouble having an erection, or pain when
semen comes out of the penis
Painful, frequent and urgent urination
especially at night.
trouble starting or stopping the flow of
weak flow of urine
blood in the urine or semen
pain or burning when you urinate
frequent pain in the lower back,
hips, or upper thighs (usually
because of a spread of the cancer
beyond the prostate gland)
Loss in energy
Persistent swelling in legs
Hard growth on prostate
Enlarged lymph nodes
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
PROSTATE CANCER OFTEN HAS NO SYMPTOMS, ESPECIALLY IN THE EARLY STAGES.
These symptoms can be caused by other problems, such as infection or an enlarged
prostate, also called benign prostatic hypertrophy or BPH. BPH is a growth of the prostate
that is not caused by cancer. It’s normal for men to have BPH as they get older. If you have
any of the signs or symptoms listed above, you should see your healthcare provider so that
problems can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.
But I’m healthy and in a
good shape. Do I really
need my prostate
If you are over 50, YES
you do! But even if you
are over 40, precaution
is always better.
Stage 1: ANNUAL Digital rectal examination
Your doctor will a lubricated glove ,a
finger into your rectum.
He will try to feel for enlargement, lumps
and tenderness of prostate. Prostate
cancers feel very hard compared to
normal prostate tissue
Remember : An early detection is VITAL
Second stage: Prostate specific antigen (PSA,a product of the prostate inner
lining in the blood) testing
ELEVATION in PSA level could be a
SIGN of abnormal cell multification in the
Stage 3: Prostatic biopsy.
If you have a sign, symptom, or test that suggests prostate cancer, your
provider will likely recommend a test called a transrectal biopsy.
For this test your healthcare provider inserts a needle through the rectum
into the prostate. A piece of prostate tissue is removed to look for cancer
cells. It is the only sure way to diagnose prostate cancer.
If a biopsy shows cancer cells, you will have other tests, such as a bone scan, CT
scan, or MRI, to see if the cancer has spread and help decide how to treat it.
Depends on stage,on how aggressive the tumor is, whether it has spread to
other parts of the body, your symptoms, your overall health, and your age.
More than one method can be used simultaneously
Median survival in excess of five years can be expected
If the cancer has spread to the other organs, current therapy will not cure it.
Median survival is usually one to three years.
Surgery – removal of cancer cells and surrounding lymph nodes (to avoid
metastasis, may cause urinary incontinence and sexual side effects; )
Radiation therapy – use of high energy x-ray’s to destroy cancer cells.
Can be done by ether – external beam (outside the body), IMRT (intensity
modulated radiation therapy – small beams aimed at the cancer from
different angles) or Brachytherapy (insertion or radioactive pellets into the
Hormone therapy - reduction of testosterone to reduce cancer growth
Chemotherapy – last resort and non specific. Use of Paclitaxek, Estracyte
SIDE EFFECTS OF
Redness, dryness of prostate
Rash around prostrate
Sexual side effects (inability to “perform”)
How can I help prevent prostate cancer?
Because the cause of prostate cancer is not known,
doctors don’t know how to prevent it. However,
researchers are actively studying possible methods of
prevention, such as diet, supplements, and drugs.
Remember: Prostate cancer is a treatable disease. However, its management
can be complex. It is important that patients are offered various treatment
options and play a role in the decision-making process. This can only be done
by consulting both the urologist and the oncologist.