FUNDUSCOPY <ul><li>NURAIN8118 </li></ul>
NORMAL <ul><li>Examine the:- </li></ul><ul><li>Optic disc </li></ul><ul><li>- colour </li></ul><ul><li>- margin </li></ul>...
SENILE MACULAR DEGENERATION <ul><li>Senile macula degeneration. The disc appears normal but there is unusual pigmentation ...
CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION <ul><li>Central retinal vein occlusion. Typical 'stormy sunset' appearance with engorged ve...
HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Hypertensive retinopathy. The retinal arteries have become narrow and tortuous. In more a...
PAPILLOEDEMA <ul><li>Papilloedema. The disc is swollen and the disc margin has disappeared. The veins are congested. </li>...
DISC CUPPING <ul><li>Disc cupping. Here the degree of cupping is mild but suggestive of glaucoma. As the condition progres...
OPTIC ATROPHY <ul><li>Optic atrophy. The optic disc is pale and the condition is associated with gradual loss of vision. I...
MILD BACKGROUND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Mild background diabetic retinopathy. Haemorrhages and microaneurysms can be ...
BACKGROUND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Background diabetic retinopathy. There are areas of hard exudates and some evidenc...
PREPROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Preproliferative diabetic retinopathy with haemorrhages, microaneurysms, and...
PREPROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Preproliferative diabetic retinopathy with extensive haemorrhages and exudat...
PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Proliferative diabetic retinopathy with new vessel formation. </li></ul><ul><li...
LASER PHOTOCOAGULATION <ul><li>Diabetic retinopathy recently treated with laser photocoagulation. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: N...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Funduscopy

1,421 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Funduscopy

  1. 1. FUNDUSCOPY <ul><li>NURAIN8118 </li></ul>
  2. 2. NORMAL <ul><li>Examine the:- </li></ul><ul><li>Optic disc </li></ul><ul><li>- colour </li></ul><ul><li>- margin </li></ul><ul><li>- cup to disc ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>- colour </li></ul><ul><li>- caliber </li></ul><ul><li>- content </li></ul><ul><li>Macula & fovea </li></ul><ul><li>Background retina </li></ul>
  3. 3. SENILE MACULAR DEGENERATION <ul><li>Senile macula degeneration. The disc appears normal but there is unusual pigmentation at the macula. This patient also has drusen which are asymptomatic nodules occurring in the choroids. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  4. 4. CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION <ul><li>Central retinal vein occlusion. Typical 'stormy sunset' appearance with engorged veins with haemorrhages alongside them. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  5. 5. HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Hypertensive retinopathy. The retinal arteries have become narrow and tortuous. In more advanced cases haemorrhages and 'star burst' exudates occur together with papilloedema. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  6. 6. PAPILLOEDEMA <ul><li>Papilloedema. The disc is swollen and the disc margin has disappeared. The veins are congested. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  7. 7. DISC CUPPING <ul><li>Disc cupping. Here the degree of cupping is mild but suggestive of glaucoma. As the condition progresses the optic disc becomes pale and the cup wider and deeper. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  8. 8. OPTIC ATROPHY <ul><li>Optic atrophy. The optic disc is pale and the condition is associated with gradual loss of vision. It may be secondary to a number of conditions including glaucoma, retinal damage, ischaemia and poisoning. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  9. 9. MILD BACKGROUND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Mild background diabetic retinopathy. Haemorrhages and microaneurysms can be seen. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  10. 10. BACKGROUND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Background diabetic retinopathy. There are areas of hard exudates and some evidence of macula involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  11. 11. PREPROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Preproliferative diabetic retinopathy with haemorrhages, microaneurysms, and hard and soft exudates. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  12. 12. PREPROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Preproliferative diabetic retinopathy with extensive haemorrhages and exudate formation and a preretinal (subhyaloid) haemorrhage. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  13. 13. PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Proliferative diabetic retinopathy with new vessel formation. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  14. 14. LASER PHOTOCOAGULATION <ul><li>Diabetic retinopathy recently treated with laser photocoagulation. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>

×