Bohomolets 3rd year Surgery Blood


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By Dr. Sergev Zemskov from Surgery department at Golosiska

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Bohomolets 3rd year Surgery Blood

  1. 1. <ul><ul><li>BLOOD TRANSFUSION </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>COMPLICATION OF BLOOD TRANSFUSION </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>The complications can be broadly classified into two categories: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immune Complications </li></ul><ul><li>Non-immune Complications </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>IMMUNE COMPLICATIONS can further be classified into two categories: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemolytic (acute and delayed) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Hemolytic (includes febrile, urticarial, anaphylactic, purpura, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>These are primarily due to the sensitization of the recipient to donor blood cells (either red or white), platelets or plasma proteins. Less commonly, the transfused cells or serum may mount an immune response against the recipient. The immune complications are easily classified into hemolytic and non-hemolytic reactions </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>HEMOLYTIC REACTIONS usually involve the destruction of transfused blood cells by the recipient's antibodies. Less commonly, the transfused antibodies can cause hemolysis of the recipient's blood cells. There are acute (also known as intravascular) hemolytic reactions and delayed (also known as extravascular) hemolytic reactions </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>ACUTE HEMOLYTIC REACTIONS are usually due to ABO blood type incompatibility - in other words, human error plays a large part in these reactions. Blood given to the wrong patient has been attributed to physician error approximately 20% of the time, the operating room is the most common site of this error, and the anesthesiologist is the most commonly implicated physician. This type of reaction has been reported to occur approximately 1 in 25,000 transfusions - but it is often very severe and accounts for over 50% of reported deaths related to transfusion. The severity of the reaction often depends in the amount of blood given </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE HEMOLYTIC REACTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include chills, fever, nausea, chest pain and flank pain in awake patients. In anesthetized patients, you should look for rise in temperature, unexplained tachycardia, hypotension, hemoglobinuria, oozing in the surgical field, DIC, shock and renal shutdown </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE HEMOLYTIC REACTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mandates that the transfusion be stopped immediately. The unit should be re-checked. Blood from the recipient patient should be drawn to test for hemoglobin in plasma, repeat compatibility testing and coagulation tests. A foley catheter should be placed to check for hemoglobin in the urine. Osmotic diuresis with mannitol and fluids should be utilized (low-dose dopamine may help renal function and support blood pressure). With rapid blood loss, platelets and fresh frozen plasma may be indicated </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>DELAYED HEMOLYTIC REACTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are generally mild in comparison. These are caused by antibodies to non-D antigens of the Rh system or to foreign alleles in other systems such as the Kell, Duffy or Kidd antigens. Following a normal, compatible transfusion there is a 1-1.6% chance of developing antibodies to these foreign antibodies. This takes weeks or months to happen - and by that time, the original transfused cells have already been cleared. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RE-EXPOSURE to the same foreign antigen can then cause an immune response. Thus the reaction is typically delayed from two to twenty-one days after transfusion </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>SYMPTOMS are generally mild and include malaise, jaundice, fever, a fall in hematocrit despite transfusion, and an increase in unconjugated bilirubin. Diagnosis may be facilitated by the direct Coombs test which can detect the presence of antibodies on the membranes of red cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TREATMENT is generally supportive. These reactions occur in approximately 1 in 2,500 transfusions and most often in females with previous exposure secondary to pregnancy </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>NON-HEMOLYTIC REACTIONSARE due to sensitization of the recipient to donor white cells, platelets or plasma proteins. These reactions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Febrile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urticarial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphylactic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Edema (non-cardiogenic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graft vs. Host </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purpura </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immune Suppression </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>FEBRILE REACTIONS are typically due to white cell or platelet sensitization. This reaction is relatively common occurring in 1-3% of all transfusions. The presenting symptom is a rise in body temperature without evidence of hemolysis. Patients with a history of this reaction that require additional transfusions should receive leukocyte poor transfusions. Use of a filter traps most contaminants </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>URTICARIAL REACTIONS are characterized by erythema, hives and itching without fever. Again, this is a relatively common reaction and occurs in about 1% of all transfusions. It is thought to be due to sensitization against plasma proteins. The use of packed red blood cells rather than whole blood has decreased the likelihood of this problem. Treatment is with antihistamines for symptomatic relief </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>ANAPHYLACTIC REACTIONS are rare and occur in about 1 of 150,000 transfusions. These are severe reactions that can occur with very small amounts of blood (a few milliliters). Typically, these reactions occur in IgA-deficient patients with anti-IgA antibodies. These antibodies react to transfusions containing IgA. Treatment is with epinephrine, fluids, corticosteroids and supportive measures. IgA deficiency occurs in 1 of 600-800 patients in the general population. Patients with known IgA deficiency should receive thoroughly washed packed red blood cells, deglycerolized frozen red cells or IgA free blood units </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Some patients can develop PULMONARY EDEMA and present with a picture that looks like adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This is a rare but serious complication that is thought to be due to the transfusion of antileukocyte antibodies that interact with the patient's white blood cells causing them to aggregate in the pulmonary circulation. Subsequent damage to the alveolocapillary membrane triggers the syndrome. Treatment involves respiratory support as needed </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) has two proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms: the antibody hypothesis and the neutrophil priming hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>The antibody hypothesis states that a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibody in the transfused component reacts with neutrophil antigens in the recipient. The recipient's neutrophils lodge in the pulmonary capillaries and release mediators that cause pulmonary capillary leakage </li></ul>
  17. 17. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)
  18. 18. <ul><li>The second hypothesis does not require antigen-antibody interactions and occurs in patients with clinical conditions that predispose to neutrophil priming and endothelial activation such as infection, surgery, or inflammation. Bioactive substances in the transfused component activate the primed, sequestered neutrophils and pulmonary endothelial damage occurs. Both proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms lead to pulmonary edema in the absence of circulatory overload </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE is seen exclusively in immunocompromised patients where cellular blood products containing lymphocytes are given. These lymphocytes can mount an immune response against the compromised recipient. Irradiation of transfusions can be utilized to inactivate the lymphocytes prior to transfusion </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>POST-TRANSFUSION PURPURA is common with the development of platelet antibodies. The external purpura signal a reaction that may lead to profound thrombocytopenia which usually occurs about one week post transfusion. Plasmapheresis is the recommended treatment </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>IMMUNE SUPPRESSION is a debatable complication. The transfusion of leukocyte-containing blood products appears to be immunosuppressive causing a decrease in Natural Killer cell function, decreased phagocytosis and decreased helper to suppressor cell ratios. The reason for this is unclear. The effect was first seen in renal transplant patients in whom preoperative blood transfusions appeared to improve graft survival. The clinical significance of this effect on such things as cancer recurrence and post-operative infection is still unclear </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>NON-IMMUNE COMPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The non-immune complications can also be classified into two broad categories: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complications associated with massive blood transfusion </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious complications </li></ul><ul><li>Massive Transfusion is usually defined as the need to transfuse from one to two times the patient's normal blood volume. In a &quot;normal&quot; adult, this is the equivalent of 10-20 units. Potential complications from this include coagulopathy, citrate toxicity, hypothermia, acid-base disturbances and changes in serum potassium concentration </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>COAGULOPATHY is common with massive transfusion. The most common cause of bleeding following a large volume transfusion is dilutional thrombocytopenia. This should be suspected and treated first before moving on to factor deficiencies as the cause of coagulopathy </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>CITRATE TOXICITY results when the citrate in the transfused blood begins to bind calcium in the patient's body. Clinically significant hypocalcemia does not usually occur unless the rate of transfusion exceeds one unit every five minutes or so. Citrate metabolism is primarily hepatic - so hepatic disease or dysfunction can cause this effect to be more pronounced. Treatment is with intravenous calcium administration - but identification of the problem requires a high index of suspicion </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>HYPOTHERMIA should not occur on a regular basis. Massive transfusion is an absolute indication for the warming of all blood and fluid to body temperature as it is being given </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>ACID-BASE BALANCE can be seen after massive transfusion. The most common abnormality is a metabolic alkalosis. Patients may initially be acidotic because the blood load itself is acidic and there may be a prevailing lactic acidosis from hypoperfusion. However, once normal perfusion is restored, any metabolic acidosis resolves and the citrate and lactate are then converted to bicarbonate in the liver </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>SERUM POTASSIUM can rise as blood is given. The potassium concentration in stored blood increases steadily with time. The amount of potassium is typically less than 4 milliequivalents per unit - so you can see that large amounts of blood at a high rate of delivery is required to raise serum levels of potassium </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. INFECTIOUS AGENTS can be passed along with blood transfusion as well Hepatitis AIDS Other viral agents (CMV, EBV, HTLV) Parasites and bacteria
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>HEPATITIS has been an ongoing problem. Until recently, the incidence of hepatitis following transfusion was as high as 10% with the overwhelming majority of these infections caused by hepatitis C. Now that this virus is identified and tested for, the risk is decreased. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently the risk from transfusion is estimated to be in the range of 1:1,000,000 for hepatitis A, 1:30,000 - 250,000 for hepatitis B and 1:30,000 - 150,000 for hepatitis C </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><ul><li>AIDS is a feared disease but the actual risk is quite low. All blood is tested for the anti-HIV-1 antibody which is a marker for infectivity. Unfortunately, there is a 6-8 week period required for a person to develop the antibody after they are infected with HIV and therefore infectious units can go undetected. The current risk for HIV infection due to transfusion is estimated to be 1:200,000 to 2,000,000 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><ul><li>CMV and EBV are usually the cause of only asymptomatic infection or mild systemic illness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, some of these people become asymptomatic carriers of the viruses and the white blood cells in blood units are capable of transmitting either virus. Immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients are particularly susceptible to CMV and should receive CMV negative units only </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><ul><li>PARASITIC DISEASES reported to be transmitted via blood transfusion include malaria, toxoplasmosis, and Chagas' disease . Fortunately, such cases are rare and the prevalence of these diseases is very low in the United States. Therefore, these are of very little concern in this country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BOTH GRAM-POSITIVE AND GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA can rarely contaminate blood transfusions. To avoid the possibility of significant bacterial contamination, blood should be administered over a period of shorter than four hours </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><ul><li>Human T cell Lymphocytic Viruses (HTLV-1 responsible for tropical spastic paresis and HTLV-II) are leukemia and lymphoma retro-viruses that have been reported to be transmitted via transfusion. Screening is done for these, but again those in the window before antibodies are made can be missed. Current risk is estimated at 1:250,000 - 2,000,000. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parvovirus B19 has been reported to be transmitted by factor concentrates and occurs in approximately 1:10,000 transfusions. It is associated with aplastic anemia and liver failure, especially in immunologically compromised children </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><ul><li>TESTING OF BLOOD </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EVERY UNIT OF BLOOD IS TESTED FOR </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 (AIDS). An antibody is protein in the blood produced by the body in response to a foreign protein (antigen) such as the AIDS virus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Antibodies to HBc produced during and after infection with Hepatitis B Virus </li></ul><ul><li>3. Antibodies to HCV produced after infection with the Hepatitis C virus </li></ul><ul><li>4. Antibodies to HTLV-I/II produced after infection with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Antibodies to HBsAg produced after infection with Hepatitis B </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>6. HIV-1 p24, a test for the HIV (AIDS) antigen </li></ul><ul><li>7. For blood type (ABO) and Rh factor </li></ul><ul><li>8. Tp, the agent that causes syphilis </li></ul><ul><li>9. ALT, an elevated ALT may indicate liver inflammation, which may be caused by a hepatitis virus </li></ul><ul><li>10. The presence of unexpected antibodies that may cause reactions after the transfusion </li></ul><ul><li>11. CMV, a test for the cytomegalovirus (performed on physician request) </li></ul><ul><li>12. NAT (Nucleic Acid Testing) - a new technology that can detect the genetic material of Hepatitis C and HIV. This test, which is still under investigation, has the potential to identify these viruses faster and more accurately </li></ul>
  37. 37. About 70% of the blood products are filtered to remove leukocytes (white blood cell) that fight foreign material such as bacteria, viruses and abnormal cells that may cause disease. When leukocytes are present in donated blood, they may not be tolerated by the person receiving the blood and cause some types of transfusion complications
  39. 39. <ul><li>BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENT </li></ul>Whole blood Packed red blood cells : Platelet-rich plasma Platelet concentrates Platelet-poor plasma Fresh plasma : Fresh frozen plasma Cryoprecipitate : Cryoprecipitate is a concentrated source of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, factor VIII and fibronectin Cryosupernant (Cryosuper) : Cryosupernant is the remaining plasma after removal of the pelleted cryoprecipitate. This is a source of all coagulation and plasma proteins, except for factor VIII, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and fibronectin Frozen plasma
  40. 40. Preparation of blood component
  41. 41. <ul><li>TRANSFUSION OF PACKED RED BLOOD CELLS (PRBC) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hemorrhagic shock due to: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trauma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invasive procedure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Medical conditions (e.g., GI hemorrhage)
  42. 42. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active bleeding with: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood loss in excess of 20% of the patient’s calculated blood volume, or </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood loss with 20% decrease in blood pressure and/or 20% increase in heart rate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symptomatic anemia with </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin less than 8 g/dL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angina pectoris or CNS symptoms with hemoglobin less than 10 g/dL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asymptomatic anemia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preoperative hemoglobin less than 8 g/dL, AND </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipated surgical blood loss greater than 500 mL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>TRANSFUSION OF RANDOM DONOR PLATELETS OR PLATELETAPHERESIS UNITS </li></ul><ul><li>1. Prophylactic Platelet Transfusions (to prevent bleeding in the patient with Thrombocytopenia).* </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Platelet count equal to or less than 10,000 per microliter blood. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets are not to be transfused when thrombocytopenia is due to platelet destruction (e.g. antibody mediated thrombocytopenia such as ITP or drug induced, TTP, HUS, HELLP syndrome, etc), unless the patient has life threatening bleeding not treatable by other means. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Platelet transfusions MAY be given to patients who have platelet counts equal to or less than 50,000 per microliter blood AND have bleeding due to thrombocytopenia* or platelet dysfunction . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* Patients who have intracranial hemorrhage MAY be given platelet transfusions to maintain the platelet count at 100,000 per microliter blood. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Platelet transfusions MAY be given to patients who have platelet counts equal to or less than 50,000 per microliter blood AND have a potential for bleeding from an invasive procedure such as surgery, placement of a subclavian venous access, lumbar spinal puncture, etc.* # </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* Patients who have central nervous system or ophthalmic surgical procedures MAY be given platelet transfusions to maintain the platelet count at 100,000 per microliter blood. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li># Platelet transfusions ARE NOT to be given to patients solely for prophylaxis before having a bone marrow biopsy or aspiration. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>4. Platelet count greater than 100,000 and evidence of bleeding due to platelet dysfunction not responsive to DDAVP or cryoprecipitate (consultation with a Hematologist and/or a Blood Bank Physician is mandatory) </li></ul>
  47. 47. TRANSFUSION OF FRESH FROZEN PLASMA Dilutional coagulopathy (i.e. massive transfusion), active bleeding, surgery or invasive procedure and at least one of the following: Prothrombin Time (PT) greater than 18 seconds (1.5 times the mid range of normal at UTMB) Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) greater than 54 seconds (1.5 times the upper range of normal at UTMB) Specific clotting factor deficiency( < 25% of normal) for which other safer replacement product is not available.
  48. 48. <ul><li>TRANSFUSION OF CRYOPRECIPITATE </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding and/or potential for bleeding associated with surgery or an invasive procedure and at least one of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrinogen levels less than 115 mg/dL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factor XIII deficiency (less than 25% of normal) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Platelet count greater than 100,000 with evidence of platelet dysfunction and no response to DDAVP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>