Antibiotics by class


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Antibiotics by class

  1. 1. Antibiotics by class Brand Mechanism Generic name Common uses[2] Possible side effects[2] names of action Aminoglycosides Binding to theAmikacin Amikin bacterial 30S ribosomalGentamicin Garamycin subunit (some Infections work byKanamycin Kantrex caused by Gram- binding to theNeomycin Mycifradin negative 50S subunit),Netilmicin Netromycin bacteria, such as inhibiting the Escherichia coli translocationStreptomycin and Klebsiella of the  Hearing lossTobramycin Nebcin particularly peptidyl-  Vertigo Pseudomonas tRNA from  Kidney damage aeruginosa. the A-site to Effective against the P-site and Aerobic bacteria also causing (not misreading of obligate/facultati mRNA,Paromomycin Humatin ve anaerobes) leaving the and tularemia. bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. AnsamycinsGeldanamycin Experimental, as antitumorHerbimycin antibiotics Carbacephem prevents bacterial cellLoracarbef Lorabid division by inhibiting cell wall synthesis. Carbapenems
  2. 2. Ertapenem Invanz Bactericidal for both Gram-Doripenem Finibax  Gastrointestinal positive andImipenem/Cilastatin Primaxin upset and Gram-negative diarrhea organisms and  Nausea therefore useful Inhibition of  Seizures for empiric cell wall  Headache broad-spectrum synthesis  Rash andMeropenem Merrem antibacterial allergic coverage. (Note reactions MRSA resistance to this class.) Cephalosporins (First generation)Cefadroxil Duricef Same mode of  Gastrointestinal action as otherCefazolin Ancef upset and beta-lactamCefalotin or diarrhea antibiotics: KeflinCefalothin  Nausea (if disrupt the alcohol taken synthesis of concurrently) the  Allergic peptidoglycanCefalexin Keflex reactions layer of bacterial cell walls. Cephalosporins (Second generation)Cefaclor Ceclor Same mode of  Gastrointestinal action as otherCefamandole Mandole upset and beta-lactamCefoxitin Mefoxin diarrhea antibiotics:Cefprozil Cefzil  Nausea (if disrupt the alcohol taken synthesis of concurrently) the Ceftin,  Allergic peptidoglycanCefuroxime reactions layer of Zinnat bacterial cell walls. Cephalosporins (Third generation)Cefixime Suprax  Gastrointestinal Same mode of Omnicef, upset and action as otherCefdinir Cefdiel diarrhea beta-lactam  Nausea (if antibiotics:Cefditoren Spectracef
  3. 3. Cefoperazone Cefobid alcohol taken disrupt theCefotaxime Claforan concurrently) synthesis of  Allergic theCefpodoxime Vantin reactions peptidoglycanCeftazidime Fortaz layer of bacterial cellCeftibuten Cedax walls.CeftizoximeCeftriaxone Rocephin Cephalosporins (Fourth generation) Same mode of  Gastrointestinal action as other upset and beta-lactam diarrhea antibiotics:  Nausea (if disrupt theCefepime Maxipime alcohol taken synthesis of concurrently) the  Allergic peptidoglycan reactions layer of bacterial cell walls. Cephalosporins (Fifth generation) Same mode of  Gastrointestinal action as other upset and beta-lactam diarrhea antibiotics:  Nausea (if disrupt the Used to treatCeftobiprole alcohol taken synthesis of MRSA concurrently) the  Allergic peptidoglycan reactions layer of bacterial cell walls. GlycopeptidesTeicoplanin inhibiting peptidoglycanVancomycin Vancocin synthesis Macrolides Zithromax, Streptococcal  Nausea, inhibition ofAzithromycin Sumamed, infections, vomiting, and bacterial Zitrocin syphilis, diarrhea proteinClarithromycin Biaxin respiratory (especially at biosynthesis
  4. 4. Dirithromycin Dynabac infections, higher doses) by binding mycoplasmal  Jaundice irreversibly to Erythocin,Erythromycin infections, Lyme the subunit Erythroped disease 50S of theRoxithromycin bacterialTroleandomycin TAO ribosome, thereby Visual Disturbance, inhibitingTelithromycin Ketek Pneumonia Liver Toxicity.[3] translocation Antimetabolite, of peptidylSpectinomycin Anticancer tRNA. Monobactams Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt theAztreonam Azactam synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. Penicillins Novamox,Amoxicillin AmoxilAmpicillin PrincipenAzlocillin  Gastrointestinal Same mode ofCarbenicillin upset and action as otherCloxacillin Tegopen Wide range of diarrhea beta-lactam infections;  Allergy with antibiotics:Dicloxacillin Dynapen penicillin used serious disrupt theFlucloxacillin Floxapen for streptococcal anaphylactic synthesis ofMezlocillin infections, reactions the syphilis, and  Brain and peptidoglycanMeticillin Lyme disease kidney damage layer ofNafcillin (rare) bacterial cellOxacillin walls.PenicillinPiperacillinTicarcillin
  5. 5. Polypeptides Inhibits isoprenyl pyrophosphate , a molecule which carries Eye, ear or the buildingBacitracin bladder blocks of the infections; peptidoglycan usually applied Kidney and nerve bacterial cell directly to the damage (when given by wall outside of eye or inhaled injection) the inner into the lungs; membrane [4] rarely given byColistin injection Interact with the bacterial cytoplasmicPolymyxin B membrane, changing its permeability. Quinolones Cipro,Ciprofloxacin Ciproxin, Urinary tract Ciprobay infections, inhibit theEnoxacin Penetrex bacterial bacterial DNA prostatitis, gyrase or theGatifloxacin Tequin Nausea (rare), community- topoisomerase irreversible damage toLevofloxacin Levaquin acquired IV enzyme, central nervous system pneumonia, therebyLomefloxacin Maxaquin (uncommon), bacterial inhibitingMoxifloxacin Avelox tendinosis (rare) diarrhea, DNANorfloxacin Noroxin mycoplasmal replication and infections, transcription. Floxin, gonorrheaOfloxacin OcufloxTrovafloxacin Trovan WithdrawnGrepafloxacin Raxar WithdrawnSparfloxacin Zagam WithdrawnTemafloxacin Omniflox Withdrawn SulfonamidesMafenide Urinary tract  Nausea, Folate synthesisSulfonamidochrysoidi Prontosil infections vomiting, inhibition. They
  6. 6. ne (archaic) (except and diarrhea are competitive sulfacetamide  Allergy inhibitors of theSulfacetamide and mafenide); (including enzyme Micro- mafenide is used skin rashes) dihydropteroateSulfadiazine Sulfon topically for  Crystals in synthetase, DHPS.Sulfamethizole burns urine DHPS catalyses  Kidney the conversion ofSulfanilimide failure PABA (para-(archaic)  Decrease in aminobenzoate) toSulfasalazine Azulfidine white blood dihydropteroate, aSulfisoxazole cell count key step in folate  Sensitivity synthesis. Folate is to sunlight necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids (nucleic acids areTrimethoprim Trimpex essential building blocks of DNA and RNA), and in its absence cells will be unable to divide.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Bactrim,(Co-trimoxazole) Septra(TMP-SMX) TetracyclinesDemeclocycline Declomycin  PotentiallyDoxycycline Vibramycin Permanent inhibiting the Syphilis,  Gastrointestinal binding ofMinocycline Minocin chlamydial upset aminoacyl-Oxytetracycline Terramycin infections, Lyme  Sensitivity to tRNA to the disease, sunlight mRNA- mycoplasmal  Potential ribosome infections, acne toxicity to complex. rickettsial mother and They do so infections, fetus during mainly by Sumycin, *malaria *Note: pregnancy binding to theTetracycline Achromycin Malaria is  Enamel 30S ribosomal V, Steclin caused by a hypoplasia subunit in the protist and not a (staining of mRNA bacterium. teeth) translation  transient complex. depression of
  7. 7. bone growth Others SpirochaetalArsphenamine Salvarsan infections (obsolete) meningitis, MRSA, topical Inhibits use, or for low bacterial cost internal protein Chloromycet treatment.Chloramphenicol Rarely: aplastic anemia. synthesis by in Historic: typhus, binding to the cholera. gram 50S subunit of negative, gram the ribosome positive, anaerobes acne infections,Clindamycin Cleocin prophylaxis before surgery acne infections,Lincomycin Lincocin prophylaxis before surgeryEthambutol Myambutol AntituberculosisFosfomycin MonurolFusidic acid FucidinFurazolidoneIsoniazid I.N.H. AntituberculosisLinezolid Zyvox VRSAMetronidazole Flagyl GiardiaMupirocin Bactroban MacrodantinNitrofurantoin , MacrobidPlatensimycinPyrazinamide AntituberculosisQuinupristin/Dalfopri Syncercidstin mostly Gram- Binds to the βRifampicin (Rifampin Reddish-orange sweat, positive and subunit ofin US) tears, and urine mycobacteria RNA
  8. 8. polymerase to inhibit transcription A chloramphenic Gram-negative, ol analog. Gram-positive, May inhibit anaerobes. Lacks known anemic bacterialThiamphenicol widely used in side-effects. protein veterinary synthesis by medicine. binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosomeTinidazoleDapsone Avlosulfon AntileproticClofazimine Lamprene Antileprotic Brand Common Mechanism Generic Name Possible Side Effects[2] Names Uses[2] of action