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Whole Report (2)

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Whole Report (2)

  1. 1. Construction Work of Super Structural Components of a Seven Storied Residential Building Report by Md. Rubyat Islam ID#1216006 Program: BSCE IUBAT—International University of Business Agriculture and Technology Dhaka 28 October 2015
  2. 2. II “Construction Work of Super Structural Components of a Seven Storied Residential Building” A Practicum Report Submitted to Practicum & Placement Committee, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering & Technology (CEAT), IUBAT for the Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering (BSCE) Degree. Prepared By: Md. Rubyat Islam ID# 12106006 Program: BSCE Position Name Signature Chair, Dept. of Civil Engr. Prof. Dr. Monirul Islam Practicum Supervisor Syeda Rezwana Jannat Department of Civil Engineering College of Engineering & Technology (CEAT) IUBAT- International University of Business Agriculture and Technology 15th August 2015
  3. 3. III Letter of Transmittal August 01, 2015 Professor Dr. Engr. Md. Monirul Islam Chair, Department of Civil Engineering IUBAT- International University of Business Agriculture and Technology 4, Embankment Drive Road, Sector-10 Uttara Model Town, Dhaka-1230. Subject: Prayer for submission of practicum report. Dear Sir, It is a great opportunity & an immense pleasure for me to submit the report on “Construction Work of Super Structural Components of a Seven Storied Residential Building”. I have prepared this report for partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering program from IUBAT. All the necessary steps are taken to make this report up to standard. The main objective for conducting this academic paper is to explore the fundamental factors, which are directly or indirectly significant in the construction of structural work. The monitoring work is executed to find out all necessary data and information to implement of structural work on a better way. I got the opportunity to increase my practical knowledge while conducting the practicum and preparing reports. Now I am looking forward for your kind appraisal regarding this practicum report. It would therefore be my pleasure if I get the opportunity to interpret any terminology that might get still hazy for you to understand. Sincerely yours -------------------- Md Rubyat Islam ID# 12106006 Program: BSCE Department of Civil Engineering IUBAT- International University of Business Agriculture and Technology.
  4. 4. IV To Whom It May Concern This is to certify that Md Rubyat Islam, ID# 12106006 a student of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering (BSCE) of IUBAT− International University of Business Agriculture and Technology has successfully completed his practicum on “Construction Work of Super Structural Components of a Seven Storied Residential Building” from 15th May 2015 to 15th July 2015. He has submitted a copy of his practicum report to the Construction Manager of Evergreen Builders Ltd. Hence, he is permitted to submit his practicum report to IUBAT to fulfill the academic requirement. ..………………………………. Engr. A.M. Mahabubur Rahman Managing Director, Evergreen Builders Ltd
  5. 5. V Student Declaration I am Md Rubyat Islam (12106006) student of the BSCE program, declaring that I have individually prepared this report on “Construction Work of Super Structural Components of a Seven Storied Residential Building” under Evergreen Builders Ltd. during my internship. I am also confirming that this report is prepared only to fulfill the academic requirements of a Bachelor Degree from IUBAT. During preparing this report paper I have worked as a site engineer (trainee) at Evergreen Builders Ltd. moreover, I have learned lots of practical knowledge during this period of report preparation and hope this will come assistance of my career building. -------------------- Md Rubyat Islam ID# 12106006 Program: BSCE Department of Civil Engineering IUBAT- International University of Business Agriculture and Technology
  6. 6. VI Acknowledgement The report titled, as on “Construction Work of Super Structural Components of a Seven Storied Residential Building” has been prepared to fulfill the requirement of my practicum program. In the process of doing and preparing my practicum report, I would like to pay my gratitude to some persons for their enormous help and vast cooperation. At first, I would like to show my gratitude to the University authority to permit me to do my practicum. In this respect, I would like to mention the name of Prof. Dr. Engr. Md. Monirul Islam, Chair, Department of Civil Engineering, IUBAT. Then I would like to thank the management of Evergreen Builders Ltd. Abdul Mannan, Construction Management, who helped me a lot to prepare this report successfully. Especially, I would like to thank to our honorable teacher Syeda Rezwana Jannat, Faculty, Department of Civil Engineering, IUBAT (International University of Business Agriculture and Technology, Dhaka, for his valuable and patient advice, sympathetic assistance, cooperation, and contribution of new idea. Finally, I would like to thank again to the respected Vice- Chancellor of IUBAT, Prof. Dr. Md. Alimullah Miyan because he designated such an environment for learning through which I got the opportunity to acquire knowledge under the BSCE program, and that will be very helpful for my prospective career.
  7. 7. VII Executive Summary It is a practicum report “Construction Work of Super Structural Components of a Seven Storied Residential Building” is made based on the four months practical works in a construction project under Evergreen Builders Ltd. The observed project is “EBL Peace” located at Plot#8, Road#18, Sector#10, Uttara Model Town, Dhaka- 1230. Construction supervision is an important job to ensure that the construction work is running according to the design and to maintain the desired quality. In this report titled “Construction Work of Super Structural Components of a Seven Storied Residential Building” construction process of column, beam and slab are discussed as well as construction procedure. In chapter one introduction, source of the study, the scope of the study, limitation of the study, objective of the study and responsibility are discussed. In chapter two my project details and basic information about Evergreen Builders Ltd. are discussed. In chapter three formworks, leveling, reinforcement bar placing, tie binding, formwork placing, casting, curing and requisition of materials of seven storied residential building construction works is deeply discussed. In chapter four different types of problems during these works and their solutions are discussed. In chapter five I have discussed about work challenges. Finally, there is a conclusion chapter.
  8. 8. VIII Table of Contents Contents Page Report by II Letter of Transmittal III To Whom It May Concern IV Student Declaration V Acknowledgement VI Executive Summary VII Table of content VIII Chapter-1: Introduction 1 1.1 General 1 1.2 Source of the Study 1 1.3 Scope of the Study 1 1.4 Limitation of the Study 2 1.5 Objective of the Study 2 1.6 Activates 2 Chapter-2: Organization’s Overview 3 2.1 Company Name & Address 3 2.2 History 3 2.3 Mission of EBL 4 2.4 Activities of the EBL 4 2.4.1 Social 4 2.4.2 Business 4 2.5 Resource of the Company 4 2.6 Board of Director 5
  9. 9. VIII 2.7 Company Organogram 5 2.8 Completed Project 6 2.9 About my Project 7 2.9.1 Typical Floor Plan 9 2.9.2 Column Layout 10 2.9.3 Column Schedule 11 2.9.4 Stair Layout 12 2.9.5 Beam Layout 13 2.9.6 Beam Reinforcement Details 14 2.9.7 Slab Reinforcement Details 15 Chapter-3: Working Plan and Procedure 16 3.1 Column Construction 16 3.1.1 Column Kicker Construction 16 3.1.2 Column Formwork and Reinforcement Works 17 3.1.3 Column Casting 20 3.1.4 Column Curing 21 3.2 Stair Construction 22 3.2.1 Stair Formwork and Reinforcement Work 22 3.2.2 Stair Casting 26 3.2.3 Stair Curing 26 3.3 Beam and Slab Construction 27 3.3.1 Formwork of Beam 28 3.3.2 Formwork of Slab 28 3.3.3 Reinforcement Work of Beam 30 3.3.4 Reinforcement Work of Slab 35
  10. 10. VIII 3.3.5 Slab and Beam Casting 41 3.3.6 Curing of Slab 46 3.4 Type of work Duration of Removal 47 Chapter-4: Problems and Solution 48 4.1 Problem-1 48 4.2 Problem-2 48 4.3 Problem-3 49 4.4 Problem-4 50 4.5 Problem-5 50 4.6 Problem-6 51 4.7 Problem-7 51 4.8 Problem-8 52 Chapter-4: Working Challenges 53 5.1 My Performance during Accomplishing Work Tasks 53 5.2 The Measures I Take for Challenges 54 5.3 Drawing Shortage 54 5.4 Underestimation by workers such as engineers, contractor 54 Chapter-5: Recommendation 55 6.1 Recommendation 55 Chapter-4: Conclusion 55 7.1 Conclusion 55
  11. 11. VIII Table of Figure Figure Page Figure 2.1: 3D View of EBL Peace 8 Figure 3.1: Placing the formwork of column kicker 16 Figure 3.2: checking before the casting of kicker 17 Figure 3.3: column kicker casting 17 Figure 3.4: Checking the distance of tie of column 18 Figure 3.5: Cross-section of C1 column 18 Figure 3.6: Bamboo props used as a support to place the column formwork 19 Figure 3.7: Checking the clear covers 19 Figure 3.8: Observing the mixing ratio 20 Figure 3.9: Casting of Column 21 Figure 3.10: Curing of the column 22 Figure 3.11: Stair form work before placing steel sheet 23 Figure 3.12: Steel sheet placing in stair 23 Figure 3.13: Reinforcement placing of inclined distance of stair 23 Figure 3.14: Arrangement of reinforcement bar of landing slab 24 Figure 3.15: Riser and trade making 25 Figure 3.16: Checking the riser and trade. 25 Figure 3.17: Checking the clear cover of stair slab 25 Figure 3.18: Stair casting 26 Figure 3.19: Curing of the stair 27 Figure 3.20: Checking beam depth 28 Figure 3.21: Checking the width of the beam 28 Figure 3.22: Checking distance of wooden chamber 29
  12. 12. VIII Figure 3.23: Setting bamboo props and joist as a support 29 Figure 3.24: Wooden plank placement 29 Figure 3.25: Reinforced bar cutting 30 Figure 3.26: Real dimension of concealed beam 31 Figure 3.27: Only FB6 floor beam reinforcement details 32 Figure 3.28: Beam reinforcement bar binding 33 Figure 3.29: Extra top and extra bottom bar placing 33 Figure 3.30: Bar lapping of beam 34 Figure 3.31: Checking the stirrup placing 34 Figure 3.32: Arrangement of plain sheet and beam in formwork 35 Figure 3.33: Panel-1 reinforcement arrangement 36 Figure 3.34: One-way slab reinforcement arrangement in field 36 Figure 3.35: Panel-2 reinforcement arrangement 37 Figure 3.36: Main bars and distribution bars placement of slab 37 Figure 3.37: Binding the main bar with distribution bar of slab 38 Figure 3.38: Binding extra top & bottom reinforced Bars 38 Figure 3.39: Checking the cantilever reinforced bar length 39 Figure 3.40: Checking the slab leveling 39 Figure 3.41: Checking the clear cover of the slab 40 Figure 3.42: Arrangement of electrical pipe 40 Figure 3.42: Arrangement of electrical pipe 41 Figure 3.44: Using crane 42 Figure 3.45: Concrete placement 42 Figure 3.46: casting of beam-column joint portion 43 Figure 3.47: Beam casting 43
  13. 13. VIII Figure 3.48: Using vibrator machine 44 Figure 3.49: Slab panel casting 44 Figure 3.50: Using grouting 45 Figure 3.51: Casting after level checking 45 Figure 3.52: Finishing the slab panel portion 46 Figure 3.53: Slab ponding as curing 46 Figure 4.1: problem-1 48 Figure 4.2: Problem-2 49 Figure 4.3: Problem-3 49 Figure 4.4: Problem-4 50 Figure 4.5: problem-5 50 Figure 4.6: Problem-6 51 Figure 4.7: Problem-7 51 Figure 4.8: Problem-8 52
  14. 14. VIII Chapter-1: Introduction 1.1 General Building construction work is a very complicated work because of its large number of item of works and involvement of a great number of people together at a place. So supervising the construction works by managing different working people in practical field is a complex job. During my practicum period I have observed the construction work of 6th floor of a seven storied residential building. As a result, the construction procedure of column, beam, stair and slab are described here in this report as the components of super-structural part. 1.2 Source of the Study Most of the information is collected for preparing this academic paper from Evergreen Builders Ltd. Essential part of the information I have collected from my project during the internship period. I have engaged other information from my project engineer. 1.3 Scope of the Study I work as a trainee engineer in the Evergreen Builders Ltd. So I got the opportunity to learn some working process of Real Estate Builders Company. I gathered some theoretical knowledge in the field of civil engineering during three years and eight months. But I did not have sufficient knowledge about practical construction works. I worked in Evergreen Builders Ltd for about more than three months as a trainee engineer mainly worked in site supervision. As a student it is very important to know the basic thinks of building construction which is got from internship period. It was an opportunity to observe the field construction works. Throughout my internship period, I had the opportunity to learn the followings- o How to work with different persons like labor, contractor, and engineer o Looking out the bridge between our academic study and the real life practices o Working system of a Building Construction Company
  15. 15. VIII 1.4 Limitation of the Study In my internship period, I didn‟t observe the sub-structure construction and also the finishing work of interior part of the building. Sometimes my site engineer absent in construction site that why I faced problems. Shortage of drawing and time to observed the whole building construction work. 1.5 Objective of the Study Main objectives of studies as follows: o Realized the working procedure of the building construction o Understood the design and drawing o Compared between field work with design and drawing o Optimum use of time and manpower o To understand the local language which is used rapidly in construction works o To overcome the challenging problems 1.6 Activities Though I worked as a trainee engineer, I maintained the regular activities which are given below: o Observing the working procedure on the field o Managing the contractor according to the order of the engineer o To catch the immediate mistake of worker at work time o Informing the project engineer about the daily work o Checking and confirming the project engineer about shortage of the elements of building construction
  16. 16. VIII Chapter-2: Organization’s Overview 2.1 Company Name & Address: EVERGREEN BUILDERS LTD. H# 51, R#14, S#11, Uttara Model Town Dhaka-1230 Mobile - 01199836852 Email: info@eblinfobd.com Web: www.eblinfobd.com 2.2 History: The company by name of Evergreen Builders Ltd has been registered on 9th February 2003 by a Certificate of Incorporation approved by the Registrar of Joist Stock Companies, Government of The People‟s Republic of Bangladesh with a view to carry on the business of Builders, Real- Estate, Engineers, Architecture Consultancy and Construction. Afterward the company started their 1st work of 6 storied residential buildings on 5th February 2004. On the basis of Joint Venture System with land work at Plot#17, Sector#19, Sector#11, Uttara Model Town, Dhaka-1230. The company has been complete the six storied apartment building successfully within 30 months of the contract period and they will successful sold 60% share of apartment in that building without any interruption. The company has owned five directors were two of them conducting the company basis on the Chair of Chairman and Managing Director.
  17. 17. VIII 2.3 Mission of EBL: To acquire, own, be in possession, merge, sell for the purpose of investment or resale and to speculate in land, land, house or other properties of any kind tenure and interest therein and to acquire, sell, specula and deal in freeholds and leasehold properties and generally to deal with, traffic and speculate by way of sell, lease, exchange or otherwise with land and horse properties and any other property and description whether real or personal movable or immovable. 2.4 Activities of the EBL: Activities of the EBL are mainly divided into two parts. 1. Social 2. Business 2.4.1 Social: Evergreen Builders Ltd.‟s objective is to create and run a successful boutique style real estate firm, servicing Dhaka Township and surrounding areas. To do this we aim to provide a personalized, professional service across the broad spectrum of real estate fields achieving the best possible outcomes for our clients and customers alike. Our business structure is simple and by keeping overheads down and utilizing modern technology, we are able to potentially pass on savings to our clients and customers alike. 2.4.2 Business: To accommodation constructed or to be constructed by the company for associations, societies or member thereof, and others on their behalf to secure loans from government, House Building Finance Corporation, Banks and other institutions, and sources and to do all things, deeds and acts that may be necessary and incidental to build and construct such buildings apartments, house, flats, room, huts and others accommodation on terms and conditions that may be agreed upon by and between the parties. 2.5 Resource of the Company: The company has got in-house skilled professionals, including a full-fledged engineering department with Architects, Structural Designers, Electrical Engineers, Draftsmen and Estimators etc. who use the latest technology and software during entire design work.
  18. 18. VIII Experienced Civil Engineers supervise the quality of construction materials and quality of workmanship at every stage of construction up to the satisfaction of our customers. 2.6 Board of Directors:  Engr. A. M. Mahabubur Rahman- Managing Director  Engr. Dr. Ferdouse Khaleque - Director  Feroj Mahmud Hossain - Director  Monjur Mahmud Hossain- Director  Md. Abul Hossain Sikder – Director  Nahid Mahmud Hossain- Director 2.7 Company Organogram: Chairman Managing Director Architect Engineer Structural Engineer Engineering Director Project Engineer Trainee Engineer
  19. 19. VIII 2.8 Completed Projects: Some completed projects are following: SL. NO Project Name Project Type & Area Address Picture 01 EBL Uttaran (Completed) 6-Storied Residential Building. (1600sqf) Plot#51, Road#14, Sector#11, Uttara Model Town, Dhaka- 1230 02 EBL Jagoron (Completed) 6-Storied Residential Building (2752sqf) Plot#77, Road#19, Sector#11, Uttara Model Town, Dhaka- 1230 03 EBL Molika (Completed) 6-Storied Residential Building (2700sqf) Plot#25, Road#10B, Sector#11, Uttara Model Town, Dhaka- 1230
  20. 20. VIII 04 EBL Nahar (Completed) 7-Storied Residential Building (2250sqf) Plot#478, East Kafrul, Kafrul, Dhaka 05 EBL Mayer Chaya (Completed) 6-Storied Residential Building (1396sqf) Plot#121, Old Kachukhet, Dhaka Cantonment, Dhaka- 1206 2.9 About My Project: Project Name EBL Peace No of Storey 7 Storied (As Per Design) Address Plot#8, Road#18, Sector#10, Uttara Model Town, Dhaka- 1230 Land Area 2160 SFT Floor Area 1498 SFT (One Unit) Decorated by (2 Master, Bed, 1 Guest Room, Drawing, Dining, Kitchen, 3 Toilet, 3 Veranda, Lift, Parking place)
  21. 21. VIII Fig: 3D View of EBL Peace
  22. 22. VIII 2.9.1 Typical Floor Plan
  23. 23. VIII 2.9.2 Column Layout
  24. 24. VIII 2.9.3 Column Schedule
  25. 25. VIII 2.9.4 Stair Layout
  26. 26. VIII 2.9.5 Beam Layout
  27. 27. VIII 2.9.6 Beam Reinforcement Detail
  28. 28. VIII 2.9.7 Slab Reinforcement Detail
  29. 29. VIII Chapter-3: Working Plan and Procedure In my internship period, observing the super-structural residential building construction works where I got the 5th floor to 6th floor development work with column, stair, beam, and slab construction. The detail discussion of super-structural construction working procedure is given bellow sequentially: 3.1 Column Construction: 3.1.1 Column Kicker Construction: First day, we made C1 column kicker; used a hammer to removal of all dust below the column portion and cleaned the dust by using brush. After that, 6" height column kicker formworks placed and provided column kicker with wooden formworks. I found that the kicker helped to maintain the clear cover and the dimension of the column. Fig: Placing the formwork of column kicker
  30. 30. VIII Subsequent to finishing the wooden formwork of column kicker, we used grouting and immediately dropped the cement concrete mixture in the column kicker portion uniformly. At the time of column kicker casting I checked the mixing ratio about 1:1.5:3. Here I checked the dimension of kicker of C1 and C4 column where the cross-section of C1 column was (18"×10") and the cross-section of C4 column was (20"×10"), and clear cover of column maintained 1.5". After 12 hours the formwork of column kicker removed. Fig: checking before the casting of kicker Fig: column kicker casting 3.1.2 Column Formwork and Reinforcement Works: Column reinforcement placing is the important part. Total 15th column placed in 5 categories whose are identified by the name of C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5 where all columns were rectangular shape. Here, C1 column kicker construction works at first I followed the design of C1 column. In C1 column construction, the length was 18" and the width was 10" and the C1 column height was 10”. We used the total reinforcement bar in two sides where four 20mm reinforcement bars used in four corners and four 16mm reinforcement bars used in the middle. I checked the C/C distance of each reinforcement bar was 3.5" and clear cover was 1.5" in four sides.
  31. 31. VIII In tie arrangement, we used rectangular ties which was 135-degree hooks at the bar end of 90- degree hooks at the bar end. We attached ties 10mm reinforcement bars using 6" C/C distance above and below in 2‟ distance from beam/flat slab and the rest of the middle portion 10mm reinforcement bars using 10" C/C distance. I watched that there was lapping length 30" distance where two reinforcement bars is wiped together with a rough between them by hand. At the same time the tie binding and fixing the lapping length work done. Fig: Checking the distance of tie of column Fig: Cross-section of C1 column The function of column formwork was to enable after completing the column reinforcement placing. Wooden boards gave great advantages because of their easy workability‟s, such as by sawing, planning, boring and nailing. So, we made the column formwork using wooden formwork. I used the individual wooden part normally consist of 1” thick and approximately 6” or 4” wide boards. We laid all the boards and fixed together using steel nails and small steel sheet to remove the gap between two wooden parts. The dimension of wooden formwork maintained the C1 column dimension. After finishing the wooden formwork for column, the column formwork placed in the column portion. The bamboo props and wooden parts used to hold the formwork accurately according to the preparation of the column and also helped to keep the accurate alignment of columns. I watched the formwork height made equal to the column height about 10‟.
  32. 32. VIII . Fig: Bamboo props used as a support to place the column formwork. Above the formwork of columns, steel wire attached with formwork to fixed distance and other side of the steel wire attached with a brick for measuring the vertical alignment of the column. I checked the distance between the steel wire and column formwork of top and bottom sides of the column. Fig: Checking the clear cover.
  33. 33. VIII 3.1.3 Column Casting: At first, all materials arranged such as mixer machine, vibrator machine and enough workers then started casting of columns. I saw in my project mixing ratio (1:1.5:3) according to design. My responsibility ensured the mixing ratio and water-cement ratio. Fig: Observing the mixing ratio. We conveyed the mixing concrete cement by the manual way. We utilized additional work at the season of mixer concrete throwing. As a result of thought about the expensive rent of the pulling crane and the expensive rent of additional work, it was costly to lease the pulling crane for lifting cement to the point of the concrete throwing. We used the vibration machine rapidly for proper compaction and reduce the air bubbles that trapped in concrete during the mixing process during of column casting. We used the vibration machine inside of column formwork and dropped concrete into the column formwork and sometimes used grouting. Unfortunately, I noticed a problem during column casting, the needle
  34. 34. VIII of vibrator machine damaged, we had no another needle. So, we used the bamboo props for compaction. In column casting period, I checked the leakage of formwork, mixer quality, and proper compaction procedure. Fig: Casting of Column 3.1.4 Column Curing: Curing of the column is very important after casting. The accepted time to remove the column formwork after casting is 24 hours. But in my project, the column formwork removed after 20 hours after casting and used hessian cloths for column curing. All columns were holding surrounding the surface by hessian cloths. The hessian cloths kept wet and it carried maximum moisture contain the surface of the column. Curing was essential for temperature and shrinkage effect on the member and it ensured by providing enough water for proper water-cement hydration. In a day, we sprinkle water by using a hosepipe to wet the hessian cloths.
  35. 35. VIII Fig: Curing of the column 3.2 Stair Construction: The stair design, the length of stair was 7‟-6" and landing slab length was 4‟. Here, the tread was 10" width, the riser was 6" height, and the waist slab thickness was 5". In practicum field stair construction was different from stair design which I observed carefully and described below: 3.2.1 Stair Formwork and Reinforcement Work: First, wooden plank arranged in 2‟-2.5‟ distance below the landing slab portion and stair. Bamboo props and joist used as support the wooden planks. 18" BWG (Birmingham Wire Gage) steel plain sheet used to smooth the base surface of the stair over the wooden boards. Every single wooden part joined utilizing steel nails. At the time of making stair formwork, checked the alignment and level of the stair steps and landing slab maintained consciously.
  36. 36. VIII Fig: Stair form work before placing steel sheet Fig: Steel sheet placing in stair We used 12mm reinforcement bars in stair as a main bar in the inclined longitudinal direction to maintain 4” C/C distance and 10mm reinforcement bars used in stair as a distribution bar in the lateral direction to maintain 10" C/C distance and 12mm reinforcement bar used as top extra reinforcement bar to maintain 8” C/C distance in top and bottom portion of the waist slab to cover 2‟-6" distance. Fig: Reinforcement placing of inclined distance of stair
  37. 37. VIII The landing slab thickness was 6" which was not same as stair thickness design. There were used three 20mm reinforcement bars in the short column and landing slab joint portion in longitudinal direction and rest of the portion same as stair reinforcement design. In stair design, one conceal beam was given, but in field work, I found, there was no conceal beam used and three extra 20 mm reinforcement bars used as alternative of conceal beam according to the order of project engineer. Fig: Arrangement of reinforcement bar of landing slab I checked alignment and measured the dimensions of riser and tread. Every riser height was 6" and tread wide was 10", landing slab thickness was 6" and the waist slab thickness was 5". ·75" height blocks used below the reinforcement bar for maintain the clear cover. Here I noticed the landing slab of stair was different from landing slab design. In design part have one conceal beam given but in field work, there was no conceal beam and also all reinforcement arrangement of landing slab was not accurate, there was some different, which I found in the field.
  38. 38. VIII Fig: Riser and trade Making Fig: Checking the riser and trade. Fig: Checking the clear cover of stair slab.
  39. 39. VIII 3.2.2 Stair Casting: All the materials arranged before the day of casting. Before stair casting, the stair formwork wetted by water. In my project, the mixing ratio of the stair (1:2:3) according to design. The vibrator machine properly used to remove air void from mixing concrete. The vibration machine used inside the stair formwork and dropped concrete into the stair formwork and sometimes used grouting. My responsibility ensured the mixing ratio of concrete and checked the dimension of tread and riser of stair. Fig: Stair casting 3.2.3 Stair Curing: Used the hessian curing method for stair curing which was almost same like column curing. The hessian cloths used to cover surface area of stair and hosed all time by holding moisture contains. Generally the acceptable time is 28 days to remove the stair formwork after casting. But here, we removed the stair formwork 21 days after casting and used hessian cloths for stair curing.
  40. 40. VIII Fig: Curing of the stair 3.3 Beam and Slab Construction: In Residential building construction work, slab and beam formwork making, casting and curing `happened at a time. So in my report, I consider beam and slab construction both. In my project, there were made seven categories beam, whose are identified by the name of FB1, FB2, FB3, FB4, FB5, FB6 and CB (conceal beam) where all beams were rectangular shape. Here the designer placed the concealed beam in one side of the floor slab where two slab panels were covered by concealing beam. On the other hand, the slab thickness was 6", total 5 panels of slab surface reinforcement bar placed to consider the category of slab panel shape. In the slab design, I found two category of slab panel, one panel was one-way slab and four panels were the two- way slab.
  41. 41. VIII 3.3.1 Formwork of Beam: At first, we pointed all the columns by using water level measurement and joined the wooden part with the column where we found the accurate measurement of beam depth comparing the distance between the joint parts and marking point. Bottom wooden part arranged where bamboo props and joist used as a support. In time of making formwork of beam, continuously we checked vertical and horizontal alignment and level of beam formwork. After completing the setting of the bottom frame, side wooden parts joined using steel nails and wooden parts. After completing the total frame of the beam, I checked depth and width of the formwork of beam. Fig: Checking beam depth Fig: Checking the width of the beam 3.3.2 Formwork of Slab: Slab formwork making is a long time and complex procedure which is describe below: We used the wooden planks to fix with beam frame. Wooden planks placed parallel to the top of the chamber wood with the beam formwork. The joist supported wooden planks and the bamboo props supported joists.
  42. 42. VIII The chamber seated each other about 3‟ gap. The wooden planks fixed sequentially one by one. The slab formwork must be made stable. Fig: Checking distance of wooden chamber Fig: Setting bamboo props and joist as a support Fig: Wooden plank placement
  43. 43. VIII 3.3.3 Reinforcement Work of Beam: At first, we counted all the reinforcement bar of beam in two categories, one was 16mm bar and another was 20mm bar and stirrup making we consider 10mm bar. All reinforcement bar prepared by using cutting machine according to the beam length and bending reinforcement bar like “L” shape for extra top and bottom reinforcement bar of the beam. Fig: Reinforced bar cutting After completing beam formwork, the reinforcement bar manually lifted using a rope from the ground floor to top of the slab.
  44. 44. VIII Here, I show Conceal beam CB reinforcement construction works. The dimension of concealed beam was (18"×6") in design but in real field work, I found the cross section of the conceal beam was (13"×6"), the thickness of concealed beam was 6" like slab thickness, we used five 20mm reinforcement bar in top and bottom layers. The arrangement of the stirrup, we used 10mm reinforcement bars to maintain 5" C/C distance both joint side and the rest of the middle portion 10mm reinforcement bars used 7" C/C distance. There was no lapping length found in conceal beam. In the stirrup arrangement, we used 10mm reinforcement bar as stirrup which was more or less correct for placing. Fig: Real dimension of concealed beam Here, I show only FB6 beam reinforcement construction works. In FB6 beam design, the cross section of length was 10" and the depth was 20", the total reinforcement bar used in two layers where first, we used three 20mm reinforcement bars in bottom and three 20mm reinforcement bars in top. I checked the C/C distance of each reinforcement bar is 3.1" for top and bottom side and the clear cover is 1.5".
  45. 45. VIII Fig: Only FB6 floor beam reinforcement details The bottom and top reinforcement arranged with beam stirrup, so we used 10mm reinforcement bars to maintain 6" C/C distance both joint side and the rest of the middle portion 10mm reinforcement bars to maintain 9" C/C distance. After completing the arrangement of bottom reinforcement bar, top reinforcement bar and stirrup, We used four 20mm reinforcement bar as extra bottom reinforcement bar in ¼ distance of clear distance of beam and also three 20mm reinforcement bar as extra top reinforcement bar in ¼ distance of clear distance of beam in both side of beam length.
  46. 46. VIII Fig: Beam reinforcement bar binding Fig: Extra top and extra bottom bar placing I checked the floor beam clear cover to maintain using the 1.5" block. Beam-column joint portion, we used 5" hook which was equal to that number of reinforcement wire. As per drawing 2" inclined reinforcement added with the top and bottom reinforcement bar but there was no 2” inclined reinforcement bar.
  47. 47. VIII Fig: Bar lapping of beam Fig: Checking the stirrup placing In my project, I noticed that plain steel sheet placement and beam reinforcement bar placement done at a time. After completing the wooden formwork of the slab, we used 18 BWG
  48. 48. VIII (Birmingham Wire Gauge) steel plain sheets for smooth the bottom surface of the slab. Every steel plain sheet sequentially fixed in wooden parts. Fig: Arrangement of plain sheet and beam in formwork 3.3.4 Reinforcement Work of Slab: Slab reinforcement bar placing procedure is the most important part in a building construction work. In my project, the slab thickness was 6”, total 5 panels of slab surface reinforcement bar placed to consider the category of slab panel shape. I found the one-way slab panel and two-way slab panel reinforcement construction work. Here I describe about two panel reinforcement work whose are same like rest of the panel reinforcement work: At first, I noticed that in slab design the panel number was none-recognize. So in my job's benefits, I identified every panel such as panel-1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Here, panel-1 was one-way slab and panel-2, 3, 4 and 5 were two-way slab.
  49. 49. VIII Fig: Panel-1 reinforcement arrangement Panel-1, it was one-way slab, we placed 10mm reinforcement bars 10" C/C distance in short direction as a main bar and 12mm reinforcement bars 10"C/C distance in the long direction as a distribution bar. We placed 10mm extra bottom reinforcement bars 10" C/C distance in short direction and 10mm and 12mm extra top reinforcement bars 5" C/C distance in the both direction. The cantilever with one-way slab portion, we placed 12mm reinforcement top bars in 4" C/C distance. Fig: One-way slab reinforcement arrangement in field Panel-2, We placed 10mm reinforcement bars 10" C/C distance in short direction and 12mm reinforcement distribution bar 10" C/C distance in the long direction. We placed 10mm
  50. 50. VIII reinforcement extra bottom bars 10" C/C distance in short direction and 10mm and 12mm reinforcement extra top bars placed 4"-4.5" C/C distance in the both direction. Fig: Panel-2 reinforcement arrangement Note: I know, in two-way slab, the main reinforcement bar and distribution bar acted like main bars, so both are called main reinforcement bar. But in my report, I use the word main bar and distribution bar for easy to understand the two-way slab reinforcement works procedure. It‟s completely my job‟s benefits. Fig: Main bars and distribution bars placement of slab
  51. 51. VIII After arrangement of the main bar of the slab in one-way and two-way both panels, placed the distribution bars above the main bars. The distribution bars and the extra bottom reinforced bar bound at a time. Fig: Binding the main bar with distribution bar of slab After completing the arrangement of main and distribution bars, we placed the extra top and bottom reinforced bars according to slab design. Fig: Binding extra top & bottom reinforced Bars.
  52. 52. VIII As per design, 2" hook added with extra top and bottom reinforcement bars placed which was called crank. But actually we didn‟t use 2" hook with extra top and bottom reinforcement bars. Here we didn‟t use corner reinforced bars. I noticed another thing that in cantilever portion the reinforcement bars only used in top layer. Fig: Checking the cantilever reinforced bar length After completed the slab reinforcement bar placing, I watched and observed that leveling all portion of the slab measuring from the water level marking point. It was essential to make sure the equal surface area of the slab before slab casting. Fig: Checking the slab leveling.
  53. 53. VIII Block and cylinders placement are important for maintaining the reinforcement bar position. We maintain the slab clear cover ·75" (from bottom reinforcement bar to bottom surface of slab) by using block and 4" (from extra top reinforcement bar to bottom surface of slab) by using cylinders. Here I checked the clear cover of the slab. Fig: Checking the clear cover of the slab The electrical pipe placed by using steel wire and electrical joint box after completing leveling of the slab. Fig: Arrangement of electrical pipe.
  54. 54. VIII 3.3.5 Slab and Beam Casting: After completing of slab and beam formwork, bar placing, leveling, and electrical pipeline placing, it was ready for casting. Before casting arrangement of all types of machine, equipment and casting materials such as rocks, sand, water etc. was necessary. In my projects, this kind of machinery such as mixer machine, vibrator machine, and crane arranged before the day of casting. Casting work goes through a short-term procedure. But it must be maintained the quality. To maintain the sequence here, I am going to discuss the casting work of beam, slab and stair according to my observation. Blending of cement is a vital part in the development work. To produce good quality concrete mixing should be done properly. I observed the mixing work carefully. I saw the setting up of all machinery. After setting up the entire thing, we started casting. In this part, my job was to monitor the mixing procedure. I saw if mixing works, whether it maintained properly or not. In my project mixing ratio of the beam, slab and stair were, 1:2:4. Here I checked the mixing ratio. Fig: Monitoring the mixing ratio After that mixed material pulled into a crane. We used crane for pulling up the concrete to the top of the building for casting. I saw the total procedure of pulling up of concrete and placing them in nearby the crane on steel sheet. .
  55. 55. VIII Fig: Using crane After that raw materials were placed in a certain place. From this place, materials send by hand to the different corners of the slab for casting. Fig: Concrete placement At first, we casted all the beam and column joint and immediately measuring the leveling which was help to maintain the slab thickness. After that, gradually all the beam, the slab panel, and the
  56. 56. VIII stair were being cast. In this part, I checked the concrete block and cylinder placement in the right place or not during casting and the depth of the slab. Fig: casting of beam-column joint portion. Fig: Beam casting We used vibrator machine at 45° in concrete which was essential product required for making a strong structure.
  57. 57. VIII Fig: Using vibrator machine As slab thickness was 6", so we marked a place up to which we will be casting. Sometimes we checked the level of casting. Sometimes concrete block displaced, I asked to place a concrete block in the right position, also removed the dust from mixing concrete and to use vibrator machine properly. Fig: Slab panel casting.
  58. 58. VIII At the time of slab casting it was rainy-day, I observed that maximum raw materials separated from cement. We made up the problem using a large amount of grouting in slab casting period. Fig: Using grouting Before finishing the casting surface, we checked the alignment of casting and also made the parallel line by using concrete materials. Fig: Casting after level checking
  59. 59. VIII After checking all the alignment, we used finishing tools such as wooden parts and patta on wet surface for finishing. Fig: Finishing the slab panel portion. 3.3.6 Curing of Slab: First, we made a boundary surrounding the slab area of two inches height after 24 hours of slab casting. We waited for few hours until boundary got strength. After that water pond curing method could be done after the slab casting. Water pond typically used to cure flat surfaces on smaller jobs. Fig: Slab ponding as curing
  60. 60. VIII 3.4 Type of work Duration of Removal: Formwork removal period in our site Vertical column 20 hours Formwork to slab and beam 21 days Bamboo props to slab and beam 14 days
  61. 61. VIII Chapter-4: Problems and Solution In residential building construction works, every work are not controlled by machines, it was done by human. So, here and there were a few errors which were created unconsciously. In my project, maximum labor was not expert for every work. So, we faced many problems, some important problem show in my report which was effectively recognized: 4.1 Problem-1: At time of column reinforced bar binding, I have found that sometime labor unconsciously bound column ties. Fig: problem-1 Solution: I suggested for solve the problem replacing the 10mm reinforcement bars used 6" C/C distance above and below in 2‟ distance from beam/slab and the rest of the middle portion of column 10mm reinforcement bars used 10" C/C distance. 4.2 Problem-2: At the time of column casting, I found some of the blocks displaced and the column clear cover was not accurate.
  62. 62. VIII Fig: Problem-2 Solution: So I proposed them to place the 1.5” block properly. 4.3 Problem-3: During column casting, the mixing material of concrete was dropping into the column frame. Some of the raw material was wasted at the time of dropping. Fig: Problem-3
  63. 63. VIII Solution: I suggested doing the work carefully. 4.4 Problem-4: Sometimes the worker did not place the extra top reinforcement bar of the floor beam. Fig: Problem-4 Solution: I recalled them placing the extra top reinforcement bar of beam. 4.5 Problem-5: After completed the stair casting, sometime did not make sure operate proper stair curing. Fig: problem-5
  64. 64. VIII Solution: I requested to cover the hessian cloths to total surface area of stairs. 4.6 Problem-6: Several times I have found vibrator machine was not used properly. Fig: Problem-6 Solution: So as my contribution I suggested them to use vibrator machine at 45° angle for proper compaction. 4.7 Problem-7: At the time of slab casting, it was a rainy day. So during slab casting, it was raining, for this reason, the cement was separating from mixed materials Fig: Problem-7
  65. 65. VIII Solution: I recommended using more grouting in this portion. 4.8 Problem-8: After finishing the slab casting, it was raining. Fig: Problem-8 Suggestion: I told the workers to rearrange polythene on the slab after immediate slab casting.
  66. 66. VIII Chapter-5: Working Challenges Construction projects are complex and time-consuming undertakings that require and cooperation of many different persons to realize. The construction work is typically divided into specialty areas, with each area requiring different skills, resources, and knowledge to participate effectively in it. In order to integrate and work closely in each section, it is a challenging task to one person, especially when he is fresh or beginner. There are some of the challenges faced during my internship: o Communication problem with workers in the office and at the site. o Shortage of working drawings like structural, architectural, electrical and some other details. o Weather condition of the site. o Shortage of knowledge in some portion of the work at the site. o Underestimation by workers such as engineers, contractor. o Satisfactory answers to questions from engineers. In fact, some challenges may be solved by me, but some are above my limit and even the workers at the site also. In general, I have faced the following challenges in the internship period. 5.1 My Performance during Accomplishing Work Tasks: Absolutely good the reason behind this performance was I integrate with all workers within a short time and get involved in different site works to gain more knowledge about the working environment in the site and improve myself with more site works and office work. Since the site work is very repetitive. Especially the work tasks I have been performing in the site work were very impressive because I didn„t have any knowledge about the quantity works, cost and report writing, etc. In general, in the last three months I perform all my duties regularly and get knowledge of the practical world and relate it to the theory I have learnt in the class in the last three years and eight months. Also, I transform myself to another level of skill, morals, knowledge and leadership using this internship class and I try to perform it well.
  67. 67. VIII 5.2 The Measures I Take for Challenges: Communication challenge was the most dangerous challenge from all challenges because of that it blocks me from finding more knowledge from skilled workers and other persons those are closed to the site work. Their language at the site was mostly a local word that makes me more confused and it was uneasy to know those words within a few days. At last I was able to understand those words through experience and by working with the employees. Those words are: o Stirrup ......... tie frame...... Shear resistance members of beams and shear walls o Plumb bob ... Shol... It used for checking verticality and alignment of structural members o Sideboard ..........Batta..... Used as a formwork for beams and slabs on the vertical sides o Scaffolding.....Table.... Used as a support of formworks of a slab and beam at the bottom Those are the main site language I able to understand, but there is some other language they used to communicate that I didn't able understand still. 5.3 Drawing Shortage: Since I worked on the site, we asked together the project engineer and he gives as in soft copy and hard copy as we want within a week. The hard copy of drawing and design was very bad condition, so sometimes I unable to understand the measurement. 5.4 Underestimation by workers such as engineers, contractor: Shortage of knowledge in some portion of works like quantity, bill of quantity, taking off, bar schedule and report writing was some challenges I have faced in the site. To solve these problems I try to ask workers at the site and read related literature to know more about these works. Lastly, I knew how to work those things. The underestimation and the answer were not solved throughout the month with some workers, but I try to communicate friendly with some workers to make myself clear and to know more knowledge from workers. We asked the design, supervision, team when they come for supervision and the monthly meeting of the tea parties and know how the structural design was designed and some other misunderstanding.
  68. 68. VIII Chapter-6: Recommendation 6.1 Recommendation: Most works on the site needs careful attention and successive supervision of works, but then in some case the site works go improperly due to different causes. This kind of carelessness is not good for either the worker or the contractor. I have worked as a trainee engineer under a project of Evergreen Builders Ltd. During this period I have experienced so many things by working at EBL. I have specified some places where they need improvement. As a trainee engineer, I must recommend something during my internship: o Should be conscious about reinforcement bars placing according to design o Because of electricity problem ensure alternative power source in the project for work smoothly o Enough knowledge about the daily weather because of maintain the working schedule Chapter-7: Conclusion 7.1 Conclusion: As a trainee engineer, I was there to monitor the execution of EBL construction work properly. In the project, the instruction was given by experienced engineer. The durability of a building construction depends mainly on proper construction processes. I have achieved practical experience as a trainee engineer. It seems to me that the practicum knowledge is essential to be an efficient engineer. Finally, during my internship, I have served as a trainee engineer and conduct the activities mentioned in this report paper.

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