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HYPERMEDIA

cannot be the engine
HYPERMEDIA

cannot be the engine
Ruben Verborgh

Ghent University – iMinds
“REST APIS MUST BE

HYPERTEXT-DRIVEN.”
Roy T. Fielding
HYPERMEDIA

cannot be the engine
Hypermedia Heaven & Hell
Self-descriptive Salvation
Angels of Affordance
REST “REDUCES COUPLING”.
WS-*/ESB
RPC over HTTP
RESTful HTTP
Deg
Loo
Tigh
Des
Discovery
Identification
Binding
Platform
Interaction
Interface
Orientation Interface
Orientation
Model
Granularity
State
Evolution
Generated
Code
Generated
Code
Conversation
Discovery
Identification
Binding
Platform
Interaction
Model
Granularity
State
Evolution
Conversation
(a) RESTful HTTP (b) RPC over HTTP
Figure 3: Measuring the degree of coupling implied by different W
RESTful HTTP RPC over HTTP
REST RPC
C. Pautasso & E. Wilde, “Why is the Web Loosely Coupled? A Multi-Faceted Metric for Service Design”
REST HAS

A UNIFORM INTERFACE.
resources
representations
self-descriptiveness
hypermedia
RESOURCES
identify resources, not actions
resources are cacheable
REPRESENTATIONS
share identifiers across systems
different needs,

different representations
SELF-DESCRIPTIVENESS
no external documentation
clients interpret representations
HYPERMEDIA
no hard-coded URLs
retrieve a resource,
follow links
SO FAR

FROM HEAVEN
so close

to hell.
DOES SELF-DESCRIPTIVENESS
REDUCE COUPLING?
YES.
only the message itself

is needed for interpretation
“in-band”
DOES SELF-DESCRIPTIVENESS
REDUCE COUPLING?
NO.
REST APIs rely on media types.
“in-band”??
SO YOU UNDERSTAND JSON?
application/alto-costmap+json
application/alto-costmapfilter+json
application/alto-directory+json
application/alto-endpointprop+json
application/alto-endpointpropparams+json
application/alto-endpointcost+json
application/alto-endpointcostparams+json
application/alto-error+json
application/alto-networkmapfilter+json
application/alto-networkmap+json
application/jrd+json
application/json
application/json-patch+json
application/ld+json
application/reputon+json
application/vcard+json
application/vnd.api+json
application/vnd.bekitzur-stech+json
application/vnd.collection.doc+json
application/vnd.collection+json
application/vnd.collection.next+json
application/vnd.document+json
application/vnd.hal+json
application/vnd.heroku+json
application/vnd.oftn.l10n+json
application/vnd.siren+json
application/vnd.xacml+json
DOES SELF-DESCRIPTIVENESS
REDUCE COUPLING?
Clients can interpret the message

using only in-band information…
…if they understand

the media type…
…which is out-of-band.
DOES HYPERMEDIA
REDUCE COUPLING?
In each representation,
the server includes links
towards other resources.
DOES HYPERMEDIA
REDUCE COUPLING?
YES.
Clients don’t hard-code

a server’s URLs.
Clients don’t hard-code

the path to information.
DOES HYPERMEDIA
REDUCE COUPLING?
In each representation,
the server includes links
towards other resources.
NO.
How can the server know
what links its clients need?
DOES HYPERMEDIA
REDUCE COUPLING?
The server sends you an image.
Scale it.

Crop it.
But you want to do something else.
Black & white.

Make profile pic.
HYPERMEDIA

cannot be the engine
media type coupling
affordance coupling
HYPERMEDIA

cannot be the engine
Hypermedia Heaven & Hell
Self-descriptive Salvation
Angels of Affordance
ENOUGH WITH THE

MEDIA TYPES ALREADY.
CHOOSE A SELF-DESCRIPTIVE

MEDIA TYPE.
JSON is just JSON.
“image” likely has

a hundred meanings.
CHOOSE A SELF-DESCRIPTIVE

MEDIA TYPE.
JSON-LD is self-descriptive.
“image” is actually a URL.
Clients can look it up.
CHOOSE A SELF-DESCRIPTIVE

MEDIA TYPE.
The client still has to

understand this media type.
But it’s not task-

or application-specific.
ADD SELF-DESCRIPTIVE

HYPERMEDIA CONTROLS.
<form>
<label>Person:</label>
<input name=“person” />
</form>
What does this do?
ADD SELF-DESCRIPTIVE

HYPERMEDIA CONTROLS.
Hydra
inside JSON-LD response
relate controls

to data properties
DESCRIBE THE

API BEFOREHAND.
in a hypermedia-based way
describe the links
(imageA) —B&W—> (imageB)
DESCRIBE THE

API BEFOREHAND.
in a resource-based way
describe the functionality
(imageA) ——> (imageB&W)
HYPERMEDIA

cannot be the engine
Hypermedia Heaven & Hell
Self-descriptive Salvation
Angels of Affordance
HYPERMEDIA RESPONSES SHOULD
AFFORD GOING TO NEXT STEPS.
Server: Here’s an image.
Client: Thanks. I want to scale it.
Server: I thought you would,
so I included a link.
HYPERMEDIA RESPONSES SHOULD
AFFORD GOING TO NEXT STEPS.
Client: Now use it as my

Facebook profile picture.
Server: Err…

why would you want to do that?
IT’S HARD TO IMAGINE ALL WAYS

IN WHICH CLIENTS USE YOUR API.
IMPOSSIBLE
SELF-DESCRIPTIVENESS

GIVES THEM A CHOICE.
COMBINE SELF-DESCRIPTIVENESS

OF AN API’S RESPONSES…
…WITH SELF-DESCRIPTIVENESS

OF AN API’S FUNCTIONALITY
“This is a photo

of Ellen.”
“This API takes an image,

returns a black & white version.”
…TO COMPLETE THE INTERACTION

THAT HYPERMEDIA COULDN’T.
HYPERMEDIA
can be the engine
of a single API.
HYPERMEDIA
cannot the engine
of cross-API interactions.
BUILDING API
DESCRIPTIONS
is thinking about Web APIs
on a Web scale.

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Hypermedia Cannot be the Engine