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Bias.pdf

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Bias.pdf

  1. 1. Rev 10/2010 1Report Writing Gramma
  2. 2. Avoiding Bias in One’s Language
  3. 3. Objectives  Understand types of bias  Give examples of language bias  Eliminate language bias from writing Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 3
  4. 4. Definition Tendency or preference towards a particular perspective, ideology or result, when the tendency interferes with the ability to be impartial, unprejudiced, or objective.. In other words, bias is generally seen as a 'one-sided' perspective. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bias  Everyone has biases Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 4
  5. 5. There is no truth. There is only perception. Gustave Flaubert Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 5 Escher
  6. 6. Perception  Our perceptions are our reality  Our biases are our perceptions  Our biases can blind one to reality  Our biases can exclude other  Our biases can limit one’s experience of life  Our biases can be dangerous Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 6
  7. 7. Diversity in the Work Place Advantages Disadvantages  Broader work force  Wider approach to problem solving  Exposure to interesting people  Expands outlook on life  Increases tolerance  Communication issues  Value issues  Conflict  Discrimination, harassment, and bullying Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 7
  8. 8. Sources of Bias Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 8 Environment Experience Education Peers Beliefs Ignorance Language
  9. 9. Environment  Bias is based on  How one is raised Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 9
  10. 10. Experience  Bias is based on  Induction – experience ○ Make-up is used only by women  Stereotypes ○ Computer geeks are inept with women  Faulty logic ○ Terrorists are bad people ○ Arabs are terrorists ○ Arabs are bad people Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 10 False
  11. 11. Education  Bias based on  When educated  Where educated  Amount of education  Exposure Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 11
  12. 12. Peers  Bias based on whom one socializes with  Fear of ostracism  Need to be in  Crowd (mob) mentality Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 12
  13. 13. Beliefs  Culture  Democracy is the best form of government  Women are equal to men  Chauvinism – kindness based on superiority ○ The poor people in Africa just need our help to lead better lives.  Religious Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 13
  14. 14. Ignorance  What is unknown may be miss understood  What is unknown can be frightening  What is unknown can be dangerous Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 14 Boroboro Tribesman -- Africa
  15. 15. Offensive Bias Offensive bias is the use of words or phrases that some readers may find insensitive. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 15 • Old people should not be allowed to drive.Blatant • I had a blond moment.Subtle • On Secretary's Day one should buy one’s secretary flowers and take her to lunch. Presumptive
  16. 16. Language Bias  Race and ethnicity  Sexual Orientation  Disability  Age  Religion  Gender Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 16 Language bias is bias based upon changes in social awareness and word usage.
  17. 17. Race and Ethnic Bias  Do not hyphenate multi-word names – Asian American  Unless the term is not a separate word – Afro-American  Either Black or African American is acceptable Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 17
  18. 18. Race and Ethnic Bias  Either American Indian or Native American is acceptable.  When practical use tribal names  Use Asian rather than Oriental  Do not use a singular when referring to a group of people  The Seminole fought a war.  The Seminoles fought a war. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 18
  19. 19. Sexual Orientation Bias  Use sexual orientation rather than sexual preference when discussing homosexuality or heterosexuality.  Lesbian and gay male is preferred to homosexual.  Avoid terms like – mannish, womanish, effeminate Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 19
  20. 20. Disability Bias  Put the people first not their disability  Avoid the and disability – the blind  Avoid comparisons that are not relevant  She dresses very well for a blind person.  Disabled person  person with a disability  Mentally ill person  person with mental illness  AIDS patient  person with AIDS  Wheelchair bound person  person who uses a wheel chair  Mentally retarded  mentally challenged Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 20
  21. 21. Age Bias  Avoid age stereotypes  Golden agers  Over the hill  Wet behind the ears  Old folks  Just a kid  Don’t use adjectives as nouns  Elderly – The elderly should not drive cars. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 21 X
  22. 22. Religion Bias  Be aware of historical words  Crusade, Inquisition  Avoid disparaging terms – holy roller, orthodox beliefs, fundamentalist  Preferred Islamic spellings  Moslem  Muslim  Koran  Qur’an  Mohammed  Muhammad Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 22
  23. 23. Gender Bias The goal is gender neutral writing.  Gender bias is ancient and is still pervasive  It arises from stereotypes of male/female roles  It is embedded in our language  It is often subconscious  Issues  Male/female  Transgender Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 23
  24. 24. Gender Terms  Use girls and boys to refer to people under the age of 18  Use parallel terms – ladies and gentlemen, men and women, husband and wives  Do not use coed to describe only female students  Avoid using sex when gender is meant. Sex can be unclear because it refers to the sex act as well as gender.  She didn’t get the job because of her sex. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 24
  25. 25. Gender Substitutions  Man  Humans, persons, people  Manpower  Workforce, workers  Businessman  Business person  Chairman  Chair, chairperson  Salesman  Salesperson  Actress  Actor  Waitress  Server, wait staff  Policeman  Police officer  Fireman  Firefighter  Mailman  Letter carrier  Mothering Parenting, nurturing  Secretary  Administrative Assistant Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 25
  26. 26. Gender Bias -- Pronouns The goal is gender neutral writing.  Our language has no personal pronoun besides it which is gender neutral.  Few would like to be referred to as it.  It took the money to the bank for deposit.  Our language is being challenged and changed,  150 years ago the singular forms of you fell from common usage. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 26
  27. 27. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 27 Gender Gender is used to indicate the sex of what the pronoun refers to. Gender has three sexes: masculine, feminine and neuter. Gender is only used in the third person singular personal pronouns—he, she it.
  28. 28. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 28 Gender — Forms Personal Pronouns I Me My/Mine We Us Our/Ours Thee Thou Thine Ye You Your Masc. He Him His Fem. She Her Hers Neuter It It Its They Them Their/Theirs Plural Singular Plural 1st 2nd Person 3rd Possessive Case Plural Number Subjective Objective Gender Singular Singular
  29. 29. Gender Agreement  Pronouns must be consistent in gender with what they refer to  The book for the class is on my desk. She is difficult to read.  English only uses masculine and feminine gender for people and animals that have true sex characteristics Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 29
  30. 30. Gender Exceptions  Boats and cars are sometimes referred to as she  Very young children are occasionally referred to as it ○ Mabel has a new baby, and it is so sweet.?  Animals are neuter unless the animal has a clear gender ○ The dog was big. It was ferocious too. ○ My dog Betty is a sweetie. She brings me the paper every day. ○ The hen stopped laying eggs, so she is soup now. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 30
  31. 31. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 31 Gender Bias – What to Do  Need to avoid using masculine pronouns when the antecedent can be either male or female.  A student should study daily if he wants to be successful.
  32. 32. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 32 Gender Bias — Solution  Some experts suggest new pronouns,  zhe,zher,zhis  ne, ner, nis.  But most thoughtful writers seek solutions within the confines of current English usage.
  33. 33. Gender Bias – Solution 1  Replace with he or she  A student should study daily if he or she wants to be successful.  S/he He/she is not acceptable in formal writing  Avoid awkward repetitions  The student should have his or her textbook with him or her in class. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 33
  34. 34. Gender Bias – Solution 2  Use an indefinite pronoun  A student should study daily if one wants to be successful. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 34
  35. 35. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 35 Gender Bias – Solution 3  Change nouns to plural  Students should study daily if they want to be successful.
  36. 36. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 36 Gender Bias – Solution 4  Remove pronouns  The student should have his or her textbook with him or her in class.  The student should have the textbook in class.
  37. 37. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 37 Gender Bias – Grammar Error  Do not mix singulars with plurals  A student should study daily if they want to be successful.  Each of the students should study daily if they want to be successful.
  38. 38. Gender Exercise 1 . He or she should use gender neutral writing if he or she want to be sensitive to the reader. The actor performed her role well Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 38 C I C I
  39. 39. Gender Exercise 2 . Timothy was constantly mothering his 13 year old daughter. Everyone should be proficient in word processing because they will use it every day Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 39 C I C I
  40. 40. Gender Exercise 3 . Tiffany Wong is Oriental by heritage, but American by culture. Oscar was a queer as a three dollar bill. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 40 C I C I
  41. 41. Gender Exercise 4 . An effective business man always has his cell phone handy. Stephanie was known for her catholic tastes in music. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 41 C I C I
  42. 42. Summary  Respect people  Be aware and sensitive  Slang and vulgar words are always inappropriate  Be specific when possible  Hispanic  Cuban, Mentally ill  paranoid  Do not mention issues which are not important  The female doctor was very good diagnostician.  Follow the wishes of the group being described.  Ask if in doubt. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 42
  43. 43. Resources  APA http://www.apastyle.org/styletips.html  A Guide to Bias Free Writing http://tps.studentorg.wisc.edu/TPS/facultysenate/bia sfree.pdf  Guidelines for Inclusiveness http://www.elcic.ca/docs/inclusive.html Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 43

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