Human Voice Choral Singing


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Unison singing is the most valuable resource available to choral conductors and the most neglected, partly because conductors want to have the mass sound produced by mixed singing groups. The full chorus unison produces a very strong sound, flexible and adapts itself to almost any type of music.

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  • Cylert can damage the liver and cause death particularly in the young. Not recommended since deaths are reported. Abbot itself said not to use as a first line medication. Ritalin can be given in doses of 5-20 mgs 2 to 4x q.d. It comes in straight doses of 5, 10, and 15 mgs. There is too a 20 mgs slow release. Ritalin can thus be given as well with a doses of straight release plus 20-40 mgs of slow release. A new form of slow release Ritalin is Concerta . Combines straight release and slow release in a new and very effective delivery system. Concerta comes in 18, 36, and 54 mgs. One can combine if necessary 54+18 mgs to make 72 mgs for example. Last frequently 10-12 hours and there are not the up and downs observed when straight ritalin or dexedrine is given. Metadate CD is another form of extended release methylphenidate. Doses goes from 20 –60 mg. Presentation is 20 mg. First peak about one and a half hours after taken it with another peak at 4.5 hour after which it starts to go down. Thus it last 5-6 hours, rarely more. Dextroamphetamines such as Dextrostat or Dexedrine come in 5 mgs of straight release. Can be given as such in variable doses (according to severity of symptoms) 2x or 3x a day. Dexedrine comes in slow release as well, in doses of 5, 10, 15 mgs. Straight and slow release are combined with effects lasting 8-9 hours, rarely more. Benzedrine a dextro and levo form of amphetamine was used successfully 20 years ago. Was abandoned for the false believe that the levo component made amphetamines addictive. Hence the dextroamphetamines but they are just as addictive, except for people with ADHD. Tricyclics such as Norpramine, Desipramine, Nortriptyline had been used though the latter less so. Dirty drugs with many side effects. Levels need to be monitored, as well as cardiovascular side effects. Some deaths in children reported on tricyclics? Antihipertensives are mostly clonidine (Catapres), guanfacine(Tenex), and some beta blockers (Pindolol) . Catapress dosis is 0.1 mg up to 3x a day. Last dosis at h.s. can be 0.15 mg, but doses must be spaced not less than 6 hours. There is a transdermal patch Catapress TTS(1,2, or 3) programmed to deliver from 0.1-0.3 each day for a week according to size of the patch Guanfacine (Tenex) dosis is 1-3 mg q.d, must be spaced too. Monoamines such as Parnate or Eutonyl though effective are not recommended for obvious reasons, particularly in children or adolescents. Wellbutrin is not nearly as effective as psychostimulants in most cases. Blocks weakly serotonin and norepinephrine uptake. A weak dopamine agonist. Slight noradrenergic and dopaminergic effects. Neuroleptics should very rarely be used if ever. Focalin(Novartis) is dexmethylphenidate HCl . It is on the market now. Tablets are 2.5, 5 and 10 mg. Said to have been given at 3.5 and 5.5 hours interval (twice a day). See no reason to change to it. Atomoxetine (Lilly): New non-stimulant drug, not yet in the market. May be of interest being a non-stimulant perhaps it could be given in late afternoon or early evening.
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  • Human Voice Choral Singing

    1. 1. HUMAN VOICE AND CHORAL SINGING Jocson College, Inc. Angeles City MR. RODEL E. SINAMBAN MAPEH Teacher
    2. 2. Human Voice and Choral Singing
    3. 3. Diaphragm and lungs The diaphragm, located below the lungs, is the major muscle of respiration. It is a large, dome-shaped muscle that contracts rhythmically and continually, and most of the time, involuntarily. Upon inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and flattens and the chest cavity enlarges. This contraction creates a vacuum, which pulls air into the lungs. Upon exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and returns to its domelike shape, and air is forced out of the lungs.
    4. 4. <ul><li>Inhale deeply. 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to inhale. Resist the urge to hiccup by inhaling vigorously </li></ul><ul><li>Keep inhaling until your lungs hurt. Don’t worry, your lungs are designed for this kind of stuff. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep inhaling even if you think you can’t inhale anymore. This is just one long single inhale; don’t exhale yet. You are streching the diaphragm. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Keep inhaling as long as you can. Exhale if absolutely necessary. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Survival Tips For Choral Singers Aside from singing in the shower, choral groups offer abundant performance opportunities for the amateur vocalist. Whether one participates in a church choir, more competitive community chorus, or in the company of a local musical theater production, the following guidelines should help to get the most out of the experience: WARM UP, ENERGIZE - Most choral singers arrive at evening rehearsals exhausted after a long day's work, so it's important to begin with an overall physical warm up. Stretching, &quot;loosening&quot; exercises and calisthenics &quot;wake up&quot; the body, while &quot;yawning&quot; and relaxed humming gradually get the voice going before more extensive vocalizing. Warming up should begin in the careing route to the rehearsal.
    6. 6. THINK POSTURE - A &quot;collapsed&quot; posture limits breathing capacity and puts stress on laryngeal muscles. Most choral singers rehearse sitting down, with music in hand a position that often becomes inefficient, through &quot;slumping&quot; back in the chair, crossing the legs, etc. &quot;Sitting up&quot; may seem to require effort, but in fact, an erect, well balanced sitting posture is less tiring in the long run. A good concept is to imagine the head &quot;floating&quot; directly above the pelvis, and the rib cage expanded. The music should be raised to eye level, however the shoulders must remain relaxed. Both feet should be &quot;flat on the floor&quot;. When standing during a performance, be careful not to &quot;lock&quot; the legs. Always wear comfortable shoes, no high heels. A rigid stance, combined with nervous tension and inadequate ventilation can cause choir members to feel faint, and occasionally lose consciousness!
    7. 7. BREATHE - This may seem obvious, but many choral singers simply do not allow themselves an adequate breath, and instead, &quot;gasp&quot; for air in order to stay with the conductor's beat. Admittedly, breath management can be challenging in group singing. Good choral directors are aware of this, and endeavor to indicate breathing with their conduction gestures. Ultimately, however, it is the singer's own responsibility to maintain efficient breath support.
    8. 8. SING THE RIGHT PART - Singers may be incorrectly classified in order to accommodate the needs of the choral group. Tenors are often scarce, so baritones may be induced to sing the tenor part, which can strain the voice. It is possible to use certain vocal techniques, such as singing falsetto in the upper register, to render the voice more versatile. If you are uncomfortable singing in the required range, and suspect that you are &quot;misplaced&quot;, request a change of part or help with vocal technique. It is hoped that choral conductors will guide singers in the best possible use of their voice.
    9. 9. DON'T OVER-SING - Singing loudly in order to hear oneself over other singers usually stresses the voice. &quot;Showing off&quot; one's voice is inappropriate in group singing -- it doesn't contribute well to a choral &quot;blend,&quot; and it is usually resented by fellow singers! If you need to check the accuracy of your pitch, simply put a finger in one ear. Even when fortissimo singing is required, it is wise not to push the voice -- always sing on the &quot;interest,&quot; not the &quot;principal&quot;! ARTICULATE WISELY - Discomfort in singing is often caused by tension in the articulation of consonants and vowels. Choral singers are generally encouraged to enunciate clearly, but care should be taken that the jaw, tongue, and lips remain as relaxed as possible. Furthermore, it is necessary to modify pronunciation for efficiency and ease of vocal production; for example, sopranos need to &quot;open&quot; vowels on high notes.
    10. 10. PREPARE YOUR MUSIC - Whenever possible, try to learn your part before coming to the rehearsal. If you are insecure about pitch, it is unlikely that you will sing well. Hesitation impedes good vocal technique! AVOID TALKING - Not only is chatting disruptive to others (especially the conductor!), but it tires the voice. TAKE CARE OF YOURSELF - Being a choir member is the same as being a member of an athletic team, and you have a responsibility to safeguard your health. Avoid smoke and alcohol, partying should be postponed until after the final performance. Get plenty of sleep and aerobic exercise. &quot;Hydrate&quot;, drink plenty of fluids in order to reduce irritating phlegm. Use common sense when you're sick, if possible, miss a rehearsal rather then sing over a cold or flu, and avoid exposing other choir members to your germs.
    11. 11. TAKE VOICE LESSONS - If you really want to maximize your enjoyment of choral singing, a few voice lessons can provide valuable insight. Ideally, your teacher should understand and appreciate both choral and solo singing techniques.
    12. 13. THE ART OF SINGING <ul><li>THE VOICE </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECT POSTURE </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECT BREATHING (Inhalation and Exhalation) </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECT PLACEMENT OF THE VOICE </li></ul><ul><li>DICTION </li></ul><ul><li>INTERPRETATION </li></ul>
    13. 14. VOICE CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>WOMEN’S VOICE </li></ul><ul><li>Soprano </li></ul><ul><li>Mezzo-Soprano </li></ul><ul><li>Contralto or Alto </li></ul><ul><li>MEN’S VOICE </li></ul><ul><li>Tenor </li></ul><ul><li>Baritone </li></ul><ul><li>Bass </li></ul>
    14. 15. Unison a. Identity of pitch; the interval of a perfect prime. b. The combination of parts at the same pitch or in octaves. c. The act or an instance of speaking the same words simultaneously by two or more speakers. d. An instance of agreement; concord. UNISON PART SINGING Unison singing is the most valuable resource available to choral conductors and the most neglected, partly because conductors want to have the mass sound produced by mixed singing groups. The full chorus unison produces a very strong sound, flexible and adapts itself to almost any type of music.
    15. 16. TWO-PART SINGING <ul><li>Two-part singing can be done in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>a) girls singing part 1 (first voice) and the boys singing part 2 (second voice) </li></ul><ul><li>b) girls and boys with high and lighter voice singing the first voice and the girls and boys with lower and heavier voice singing second voice. </li></ul><ul><li>The choice of combination to be used depends upon the teacher/conductor task. </li></ul>
    16. 17. THREE-PART SINGING <ul><li>Three-part singing can be done in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>a) girls having high and light voice singing the soprano part, and the girls with lower and heavier voice sing the alto part and </li></ul><ul><li>b) the boys, singing the bass part </li></ul><ul><li>c) The girls and boys are divided into 3 groups; first group singing the third voice. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called equal-part singing. </li></ul>
    17. 18. FOUR-PART SINGING <ul><li>The combination of the unison, two-part and three-part singing. </li></ul>
    18. 19. THANK YOU!
    19. 22. Ano Kaya Yun?!!