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Towards Wireless Overlay Network Architectures

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Towards Wireless Overlay Network Architectures

  1. 1. The Post-PC Era: It’s All About the New Services-Enabled Internet Prof. Randy H. Katz Computer Science Division, EECS Department University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-1776 [email_address] Some slides contributed by Prof. Eric Brewer and Dr. Steve McCanne
  2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Convergence, Divergence, Competition </li></ul><ul><li>The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Infotech “Blown to Bits” </li></ul><ul><li>Content Delivery Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Convergence, Divergence, Competition </li></ul><ul><li>The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Infotech “Blown to Bits” </li></ul><ul><li>Content Delivery Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Convergence? ... Eniac, 1947 Telephone, 1876 Computer + Modem 1957 Early Wireless Phones, 1978 First Color TV Broadcast, 1953 HBO Launched, 1972 Interactive TV, 1990 Handheld Portable Phones, 1990 First PC Altair, 1974 IBM PC, 1981 Apple Mac, 1984 Apple Powerbook, 1990 IBM Thinkpad, 1992 HP Palmtop, 1991 Apple Newton, 1993 Pentium PC, 1993 Red Herring, 10/99 WinTel
  5. 5. … Divergence and Competition Pentium PC, 1993 Atari Home Pong, 1972 Apple iMac, 1998 Pentium II PC, 1997 Palm VII PDA, 1999 Network Computer, 1996 Free PC, 1999 Sega Dreamcast, 1999 Internet-enabled Smart Phones, 1999 Red Herring, 10/99 Game Consoles Personal Digital Assistants Digital VCRs (TiVo, ReplayTV) Communicators Smart Telephones E-Toys (Furby, Aibo) Proliferation of diverse end devices and access networks
  6. 6. Information Appliances <ul><li>Different design constraints based on intended use, enhances ease of use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop “Smart” Phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set-top Box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital VCR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from computer design to consumer design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous “standards,” hybrid networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive networking, access on demand, QoS </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Fast Projected Growth in Non-PC Terminal Equipment Red Herring, 10/99 1998 2002 0 15 45 60 30 Millions Units Shipped All Non-PC Information Appliances Videogame Consoles Internet TVs Smart Phones
  8. 8. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Convergence, Divergence, and Competition </li></ul><ul><li>The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Infotech “Blown to Bits” </li></ul><ul><li>Content Delivery Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusions </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is the Internet? “It’s the TCP/IP Protocol Stack” <ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video/Audio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>Access Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet (LAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless (LMDS, WLAN, Cellular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADSL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul></ul>TCP/IP Applications Access Technologies “ Narrow Waist” Transport Services and Representation Standards Open Data Network Bearer Service Middleware Services Network Technology Substrate
  10. 10. Critical Evolution of the Internet <ul><li>NSFNet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Gen (1985): 56 kbps /LSI-11s, six SC centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd Gen (1988): T1/IBM RTs, SC sites + regional nets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd Gen (1991): T3/RS6000; Migration to MCI PoPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1993: Commercialization plan; NSF phase out by 4/95; NCSA Mosaic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1994-1995: Privatization of the NSFNet , ISP connectivity, Network Access Point (NAP) Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1995- : vBNS, Internet2, Abilene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WWW, Netscape </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications Act of 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive mergers yielding giants like SBC, MCI-Worldcom-Sprint, AT&T-TCI, AOL-Time Warner, and new service providers like Qwest </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Metropolitan Area Exchanges/ Network Access Points Tier 1 Connections: High speed FDDI switches + routers with huge routing tables Tier 2 Connections: regional connection points MAE does not provide peering, just connection b/w to co-located ISPs
  12. 12. Various Backbones Qwest IP Backbone (Late 1999) Digex Backbone GTE Internetworking Backbone
  13. 14. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Convergence, Divergence, Competition </li></ul><ul><li>The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Infotech “Blown to Bits” </li></ul><ul><li>Content Delivery Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusions </li></ul>
  14. 15. New Internet Business Model in the Post-PC Era Global Packet Network Application-specific Overlay Networks (Multicast Tunnels, Mgmt Svrcs) Application-specific Servers (Streaming Media, Transformation) Internetworking (Connectivity) Appl Infrastructure Services (Distribution, Caching, Searching, Hosting) Applications (Portals, E-Commerce, E-Tainment, Media) ISP CLEC ASP Internet Data Centers AIP ISV
  15. 16. The Evolution of the Enterprise Private Corporate Network Dedicated facilities/ computer centers Dedicated applications/ 3rd party DBMS E.g., Oracle Late-1980s Internal users Limited customer/ external access
  16. 17. The Evolution of the Enterprise Private Corporate Network Dedicated facilities/ computer centers Outsourced “ Enterprise Resource Planning” Apps e.g., PeopleSoft, BAAN 1995 Internal users Limited customer/ external access
  17. 18. The Evolution of the Enterprise Outsourced Web Hosting Dedicated Facility Outsourced ERP Apps 1997 Internal users Internet External Customers Virtual Private Network ISP Mesh
  18. 19. The Evolution of the Enterprise Outsourced Web Hosting Dedicated Facility Outsourced ERP Apps 1997 Internal users Internet External Customers Virtual Private Network ISP Mesh Internet Services Search Caching Ads EComm P o r t a l
  19. 20. The Evolution of the Enterprise Applications Service Provider 1999 Customers Content Delivery “Net” 3rd Party Facilities Mgmt Caching + Media Servers Internet Services Search Cache Ads EComm Outsourced Web Hosting ISP Mesh VPNs P o r t a l
  20. 21. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Convergence, Divergence, Competition </li></ul><ul><li>The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Infotech “Blown to Bits” </li></ul><ul><li>Content Delivery Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusions </li></ul>
  21. 22. Services Within the Network: Caching and Distribution “ Internet Grid” Parallel Network Backbones Internet Exchange Points Co-Location Scalable Servers Web Caches
  22. 23. <ul><li>Move data closer to consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone caches save b/w </li></ul><ul><li>Edge caches for QoS </li></ul><ul><li>4 billion hits/day@AOL! </li></ul><ul><li>Even more crucial for broadband access networks, e.g., cable, DSL </li></ul>Caching Advantages for Service Providers ISP Backbone Local POP Local POP Local POP Internet $ $ Eric Brewer $ $
  23. 24. Reverse Caching <ul><li>Forward Proxy Cache </li></ul><ul><li>Cache handles client requests </li></ul>Reverse Proxy Cache Cache fronts origin server Eric Brewer Internet $ Internet $
  24. 25. Surge Protection via Clustered Caches <ul><li>Reverse caches buffer load across multiple sites </li></ul>www.site 3.com www.site 5.com www.site 4.com www.site 6.com Internet www.site 1.com Hosting Provider Network Reverse Proxy Cluster www.site 2.com Eric Brewer $ $ $ $
  25. 26. Content Distribution <ul><li>We can connect these caches! </li></ul>Internet Hosting Provider Network Reverse Proxy Cluster Forward Caches ISP Network Push content out to the edge Eric Brewer $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
  26. 27. Example: Application-level Multicast <ul><li>Solve the multicast management and peering problems by moving up the protocol stack </li></ul>Isolated multicast clouds Traditional unicast peering Steve McCanne multicast cloud multicast cloud multicast cloud multicast cloud multicast cloud
  27. 28. Example: Application-level Multicast <ul><li>Solve the multicast management and peering problems by moving up the protocol stack </li></ul>Steve McCanne
  28. 29. Multicast as an Infrastructure Service <ul><li>Global multicast as an “infrastructure service”, not a core network primitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumvents technical/operational/business barriers of no interdomain multicast routing, management, billing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No coherent architecture for infrastructure services, because of end-to-end principle </li></ul><ul><li>Needed: Service stack to complement the IP protocol stack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open redirection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content-level peering </li></ul></ul>Steve McCanne
  29. 30. The Service Stack TCP service IP service Applications End Host Router Network Services End host Services End-to-end argument here Steve McCanne
  30. 31. The Service Stack IP service Applications DNS End Host Overlay Router Network Services End host Services Infrastructure Services TCP service DNS stub Steve McCanne
  31. 32. The Service Stack TCP service IP service Cache Services Proxy Services Applications DNS End Host Overlay Router Network Services End host Services Infrastructure Services DNS stub Steve McCanne
  32. 33. The Service Stack IP service Cache Services Proxy Services Applications DNS redirection End Host Overlay Router Network Services End host Services Infrastructure Services TCP service DNS stub Steve McCanne
  33. 34. Service Elements for Internet Broadcast TCP service IP and Scoped IP Multicast Network Services End host Services Infrastructure Services Broadcast Redirection DNS stub Applications DNS End Host Overlay Router redirection stub Steve McCanne
  34. 35. Incremental Path TCP service IP and Scoped IP Multicast Network Services End host Services Infrastructure Services Broadcast Redirection Applications End Host Overlay Router DNS DNS stub G2, WMT, QT4 RTSP, RTP Steve McCanne
  35. 36. Broadcast Overlay Architecture Clients Broadcasters Steve McCanne Content Broadcast Management Platform and Tools Edge Servers Load Balancing Thru Server Redirection; Content Broadcast Network Content Distribution Through Multicast Overlay Network Redirection Fabric Inter-ISP Redirection Peering
  36. 37. A New Kind of Internet <ul><li>Actively push services towards the edges: caches, content distribution points </li></ul><ul><li>Manage redirection, not routes </li></ul><ul><li>New applications-specific protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push content to the edge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invalidate remote content for freshness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collate remote logs into a single log </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet TV/Radio: streaming media that works </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Twilight of the end-to-end argument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trusted service providers/network intermediaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service providers create own application-specific overlays, e.g., cache and streaming media content distribution </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. A New Kind of Internet Customer  Application Services Web Site Caching Comparison Shopping Interactive TV Guide Local Ad Insertion Streaming Media Infrastructure Services Terminal Equipment & Access Network PC, Set-top Box. Smart Phone, Game Console, E-toys Server Computing Web Hosting Server “Platform” ISP Caching Search Engine Applications Web, E-mail, Chat, E-commerce, E-tainment Regional Communications ISP Wide-Area Communications High Performance Backbone
  38. 39. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Convergence, Divergence, Competition </li></ul><ul><li>The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Infotech “Blown to Bits” </li></ul><ul><li>Content Delivery Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusions </li></ul>
  39. 40. The Post-PC Era <ul><li>Services spanning access networks, to achieve high performance and manage diversity of end devices </li></ul><ul><li>Not about specific Information Appliances </li></ul><ul><li>Builds on the New Internet: multiple application-specific “overlay” networks, with new kinds of service-level peering </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive support for services within “intelligent” networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic replication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document routing to caches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression & mirroring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data transformation </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Edge Services vs. Core Services <ul><li>Potentially high local b/w over access networks </li></ul><ul><li>Wide-area bandwidth efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Fast response time (and more predictable) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate localized content </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with client (actually ISP), not server </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caching: exploits response time, b/w efficiency, high local b/w </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtering: form of local content transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet TV: b/w efficiency, high local b/w, predictable response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation: adapt content for end user/diverse access devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software Rental: sxploits high local b/w </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games, chat rooms, …. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. The Post-PC Research Agenda <ul><li>New Definition of “Quality of Service” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived quality depends on services in the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage caches, redistributors, NOT bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 1 ISP backbones rapidly moving towards OC 192 (9.6 gbs!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better interconnection: hops across ASs decreasing over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging broadband access networks: cable, DSL, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End-to-end latency/server load dominate performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporting Old Services in the New Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Multicast, DNS, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rethinking the End-to-End Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service/content-level peering, just like routing-level peering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure end-to-end connection compatible with service model? </li></ul></ul>

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