Operating Systems Operating Systems Operating Systems ...


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Operating Systems Operating Systems Operating Systems ...

  1. 1. Central Bank of Barbados SECONDARY SCHOOLS OUTREACH PROGRAMME Information Technology Fair “Information Technology and Education - Investing in our Future” November 8 - 10, 2004 Operating Systems Evolution & In- An In-depth Look at Macintosh Compiled by Vision Systems Software
  2. 2. Introduction In Computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations as well as, running application software such as word processing programs and Web browsers. Without an operating system, each program would have to have drivers for your video card, sound card, hard drive, and other peripherals. Early computers lacked any form of operating system. The user had sole use of the machine; he or she would arrive at the machine armed with his or her program and data, often on punched paper tape. The program would be loaded into the machine, and the machine set to work, until the program stopped, or maybe more likely, crashed. Programs could generally be debugged via a front panel using switches and lights. Later, machines came with libraries of support code that were linked to the user's program to assist in operations such as input and output. This would become the genesis of the modern-day operating system. However, machines still ran a single job at a time. Early operating systems were very diverse, with each vendor producing one or more operating system specific to their particular hardware. Every operating system, even from the same vendor, could have radically different models of commands, operating procedures, and such facilities as debugging aids. Typically, each time the manufacturer brought out a new machine, there would be a new operating system.
  3. 3. As a result, large number of operating systems came into being. Below is a sample list of some of these operating systems. Apple/ Apple/Macintosh Microsoft ! Apple DOS ! MS-DOS ! A/UX ! Microsoft Windows ! ProDOS ! Windows 1.0 ! GS/OS ! Windows 2.0 (for 80286) ! Mac OS ! Windows 3.0 the first version to ! Mac OS X make substantial commercial impact Digital/Compaq Digital/Compaq/HP ! Windows 3.1 ! ITS (for the PDP-6 and PDP-10) ! Windows 95 ! TOPS-10 (for the PDP-10) ! Windows 97 ! TENEX (from BBN) ! Windows 98 there was a 98 2nd ! TOPS-20 (for the PDP-10) edition as well ! RSTS/E (ran on several ! Windows ME machines, chiefly PDP-11s) ! Windows NT (developed at ! RSX-11 (multiuser, multitasking Microsoft by a team led by OS for PDP-11s) David Cutler) ! RT-11 (single user OS for PDP- ! Windows NT 3.5 11) ! Windows NT 4 ! VMS (by DEC for the VAX mini- ! Windows 2000 (aka Windows computer range; later renamed NT v5.0) OpenVMS) ! Windows XP (based on Win2K ! HP/UX internally; 2 versions: Home and Professional) IBM ! Windows Server 2003 ! IBSYS ! Xenix (licensed version of Unix;
  4. 4. ! OS/2 sold to SCO in '90s) ! AIX (a version of Unix) ! Windows CE (compact edition, ! OS/400 for handhelds) ! VM/CMS ! DOS/360 Sun Microsystems ! DOS/VSE ! Solaris, Unix-like ! OS/360 (first OS planned for ! SunOS, Unix-like, (became the System 360 architecture) Solaris) ! MFT (later called OV/VS1) ! Java Desktop System ! MVT (later called OV/VS2) ! MVS (latest variant of MVT) ICT/ICL ICT/ICL ! OS/390 ! GEORGE ! z/OS, Unix-like, (latest version ! VME of IBM mainframe OS) ! DME ! TME ! z/VM (latest version of the VM line) ! z/VSE (latest version of the VSE line) ! PC-DOS (MS-DOS when purchased via Microsoft) You also had the competitors to Windows. Some of these were • DR-DOS (MS-DOS compatible OS from Digital Research, later from Novell, Caldera, still being used for special purpose projects) • CCPM – Concurrent CPM. The first (and arguably the only) PC single user operating system. • FreeDOS (an open source MS-DOS work-alike)
  5. 5. • GEM (GUI for MS-DOS / DR-DOS from Digital Research) Everyone knows about Windows XP, Windows 2000 and Windows 97/98. During the session today I thought it would be beneficial to look at another operating system, the Macintosh Steve Jobs, the Macintosh. founder of Apple Computing developed the first commercially viable personal computer operating system. Since then Microsoft has become the popular provider of personal computer operating systems, and Apple has been regulated to a small share of the computing market. The Mac OS can be divided into two families of operating systems: • "Classic" Mac OS, the system which shipped with the first Mac Classic" OS in 1984 and its descendants, culminating with Mac OS 9 and the “Newer” Mac OS X Newer” Classic Mac OS The "classic" Mac OS is characterized by its total lack of a command line, it is a completely graphical operating system. Heralded for its ease of use, it is also criticized for its cooperative multitasking, almost total lack of memory management, and susceptibility to extension conflicts. "Extensions" are program modules that extend the operating system, providing additional functionality (such as networking) or support for a particular device. Some extensions are prone not to work properly together or only when loaded in a particular order. Troubleshooting Mac OS extensions can be a time-consuming process of trial and error.
  6. 6. Mac OS 9 Mac OS 9 is the last version of what has become known as the classic Mac OS, introduced by Apple Computer on October 23, 1999. Widely considered as the most functional and stable version of the original Mac OS, OS 9 still does not have some features common to modern operating systems, such as protected memory and pre-emptive multitasking. However, it did ship from Apple with many improvements The Newer Mac OS X Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS operating system for Macintosh computers. It provides the stability of a Unix operating environment and adds popular features of the traditional Macintosh user interface. The operating system was first commercially released in 2001. The pronunciation of X as ten is favored by Apple, to emphasize continuity with previous Macintosh operating systems such as Mac OS 9. Mac OS X is open source – which means that the source is not controlled by Apple and hence is not proprietary as is Windows. Mac OS X brought Unix-style memory management and pre- emptive multitasking to the Mac platform. Vastly improved memory management allowed more programs to run at once and virtually eliminated the possibility of one program crashing another. It is also the first Mac OS to include a command line, although it is never seen unless the user launches a "terminal" program. However, since these new features put higher demands on system resources, Mac OS X is only officially supported on PowerPC G3 and newer processors. Even then, it runs slowly on older G3
  7. 7. systems for many purposes. Interestingly, every update to Mac OS X since the original public beta has had the peculiar quality of being noticeably faster and more responsive than the version it replaced, the opposite trend of most operating systems. Mac OS X has a compatibility layer for running older Mac applications, the Classic Environment (known to programmers as "the blue box"). This runs a full copy of the older Mac OS 9.x as a Mac OS X process. Most well-written "classic" applications function properly under this environment, but compatibility is only assured if the software was written to be unaware of the actual hardware, and to interact solely with the operating system. Many fans of the original Mac OS accepted OS X, but a few criticized it as being more difficult and less user-friendly than the original Mac OS. However compared to the Windows operating system it is still significantly easier to use. Enhancements have continued and Microsoft has even made its Office suite of products available on the Macintosh – so programs such as Word, Excel word naively on the Mac. Additionally the Mac OS allows, through software called Virtual PC, to run Windows operating systems (XP, 2000, NT, 98) concurrently. This means that you can run Windows specific applications at the same time as Mac OS specific applications.