Lecture 6a


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Lecture 6a

  1. 1. Multimedia Production: Top Down & Bottom Up
  2. 2. Multimedia Development Isn’t Like IT Development <ul><li>We will look at </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The organisation and logistics of multimedia production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The computer tools which are used to create and assemble the different parts of the production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typically, multimedia does not follow the standard IT production cycles </li></ul><ul><li>The way a film is produced is a better model </li></ul>
  3. 3. IT Development <ul><ul><li>The SDLC/Waterfall/Spiral/Incremental development models are appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are a small number of roles in IT system development, which are closely related in tools used and knowledge required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data modeller </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analyst </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programmer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User interface specialist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tester </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documenter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These roles tend to be sequential in time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity is limited, both in extent and to a few of the roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Creativity is much less important than other aspects of the process) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. IT Development, 2 <ul><li>The tools used are small in number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps a modelling/diagramming product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project planning/documenting software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming language(s) with IDE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Version control software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Again, the tools are closely related in the knowledge required to use them. </li></ul><ul><li>While people specialise in different roles, a career tends include a number of different roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmer  analyst  manager </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. IT Development, 3 <ul><ul><li>There are only a few specialist roles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data communications specialist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes consultant data modeller </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes consultant analyst </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes an interface/interaction consultant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. MM Development, 1 <ul><li>Contrast this to the roles in MM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Script writer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actor/Character/Motion Capture Actor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video creation director </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video editor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musician (manual or electronic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound and music editor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic Designer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer artist -- 2D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer artist -- 3D and/or animation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non linear editor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Director </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And most of the IT roles given earlier!!!!! </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. MM Development, 2 <ul><li>Note that most of these roles do not overlap </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many roles require a unique skill set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the processes overlap, happen in parallel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the roles provide a small, discrete contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The problems of organisation, coordination and supervision are enormous. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All this sounds more like a movie, rather than a computer system! </li></ul>
  8. 8. MM Development, 3 <ul><li>The credits for a movie are in the reverse order of importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last comes the director </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next to last is the producer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(But this sequence is just to keep the director happy. Directors are hired and supervised by the producer!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very late the following come: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Art director </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cinematographer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Editor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even earlier come the more technical roles (What’s a “best boy”? A “gaffer”? A “grip”? A “wrangler?” A “Foley artist”? A “Set Dresser”? A “Focus Puller”?) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. MM Development, 4 <ul><li>Multimedia productions (with the exception of games) cost a lot less than films. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Games cost as much as “independent” (cheap) films </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many of the roles are combined. Most of them are “farmed out” </li></ul><ul><li>In my company we had: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A director/producer/writer (who is overloaded) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 2D artist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A programmer/analyst (me!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All the other roles weree “farmed” (contracted) out </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. MM Development, 5 <ul><li>In a typical production, we hired: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 3D/animation company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A video studio with cameraman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actors or clients who do the presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An editing company using a nonlinear editing suite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An editing company to assemble the product, including music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our primary roles were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design, write, schedule and coordinate the production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create cover art and coordinate printing, pressing and packaging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work with our customer to make sure we did what they wanted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standalone components linked in code to presentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated code which is part of the presentation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. MM Development, 6 <ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our productions were small scale, usually costing less than $100k, not counting the costs of pressing the CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often we created two versions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For in house use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For public distribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We dealt with some areas (like music) by buying off-the-shelf canned product. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jargon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bits and pieces assembled together are called assets in the business. This is because </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They cost money! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You’d like to be able to reuse them! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Tools <ul><li>2D Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe Illustrator, Freehand, Corel Draw </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raster art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe Photoshop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3D Art/Animation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro Am </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3D Studio Max – aka 3dsmax ($5,000 + add ons) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lightwave 3D ($3,000 + add ons) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alias Wavefront Maya ($4,000/$15,000 + add ons) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro Movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renderman </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: all these prices are per workstation. Most products require enough add ons to triple the price at least </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Tools, 2 <ul><li>For Reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon Graphics Reality Engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$2,000,000 in 1992 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size of refrigerator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Far less graphics power than the current Nvida graphics card </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialised Silicon Graphics machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Were the tools of necessity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now are almost unwanted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pixar Renderman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software of choice for motion picture animation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can run on multiple computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toy Story #1 averaged 7 hours rendering per frame (Some frames up to 90 hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrek = 800k polygons per character </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Tools, 3 <ul><li>Non-Linear Editors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used Macintosh hardware plus special video capture hardware, super SCSI disks, etc., etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is a non-linear editor? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can take lots of chunks of video, music and sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put them all onto hard disk ( big hard disk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assemble them together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Non-linear because of the way you used to have to do it, splicing together bits of film or video tape. All the chunks were linear, as was the process.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With increase of desktop power, price of NLE suites in freefall. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tools, 4 <ul><li>Further Standard Video Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe After Effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe Premier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Cut Pro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Cleaner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These both supplement and replace Avid and/or Media 100. </li></ul><ul><li>The future: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[I can do a whole lecture on the last 3 slides if you want] </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Some Common 3D Graphics Jargon <ul><li>B é zier Curve </li></ul><ul><li>B-spline </li></ul><ul><li>NURB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonuniform rational B-spline (ghasp!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sub-d: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subdivision Surfaces </li></ul></ul>