Copyright in Canada


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  • Bills are amendments to acts Media protected by lows of host country means that Canadian copyright laws (very stringent) are not applicable in US.
  • Pecuniary means right to make money from work or idea More and more govt works are copyright, good idea to ask permission Be careful about creating things at work or using work time or equipment. Document creation in own time.
  • Now what would be a substantial part?
  • Private research or private study news and news commentary, not Oprah, W5, etc.
  • Copyright law has not been tried in the fires of the courtroom (not the place to find out really)
  • Royalties are applied to the sale of blank media Rebut - To refute, especially by offering opposing evidence or arguments, as in a legal case Pecuniary rights can be argued as part of the infringment Difference between American and Canadian copyright law is that moral rights can be just as aggressively prosecuted as pecuniary in Canada
  • As a public place the school looses all rights that might be applied to a private place.
  • What about the copy rules in the library? Can copy 10% or 1 chpt out of a book or 1 article out of a multi article journal. Nothing legal about that, it is still violation but in most cases not prosecutable.
  • Example of using someone elses film or camera, they own the photo
  • right of transmission only to released works
  • 1. ok 2. violate Norton copyright but it is ok to reproduce shakespear because he has been dead over 50 years 3. No, licence on video tape says only for private viewing. 4. No 5. Yes, it is ok ot use in an exam 6. Yes, this is allowed
  • Copyright in Canada

    1. 1. Canadian Copyright
    2. 2. Legislation: Canadian Copyright <ul><ul><li>BNA Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright Act of 1924, 1979 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill C-60 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Charter of Rights for Creators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill C-32 (April 25, 1997) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Legislation:International Agreements <ul><ul><li>Berne Convention (1886) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rome revision of the Berne Convention (1928) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Copyright Convention (1962) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material protected by laws of host country </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Copyright Principles <ul><li>Creator’s right to control work </li></ul><ul><li>Work = intellectual property </li></ul><ul><li>Moral rights = Pecuniary rights </li></ul><ul><li>Government works not usually covered </li></ul><ul><li>Employers own copyright on products </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is a Copy “Right”? <ul><li>Reproduce all or substantial part </li></ul><ul><li>Publish </li></ul><ul><li>Translate </li></ul><ul><li>Perform in public </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunicate </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit in public </li></ul><ul><li>Authorize any of the above </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is Covered by Copyright? <ul><li>Literary works </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic works </li></ul><ul><li>Musical works </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic works </li></ul>
    7. 7. Example: Rented Videotape
    8. 8. Video Copy Protection
    9. 9. Concept of Fair Dealing <ul><li>Research or private study </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism or Review </li></ul><ul><li>News reporting </li></ul>
    10. 10. Concept of Fair Dealing <ul><li>Not “fair use” </li></ul><ul><li>Defense for established infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Factors illustrative, not prioritized for court </li></ul><ul><li>Does not include unpublished works </li></ul>
    11. 11. Miscellaneous Elements <ul><li>Home copying--royalty on material support </li></ul><ul><li>Every law is rebuttable </li></ul><ul><li>Pecuniary rights attached to infringement </li></ul>
    12. 12. Exceptions for Education <ul><li>Must be no motive or gain. Institutions may recover only costs (including overhead) </li></ul><ul><li>Very limited -- school is defined as public place </li></ul><ul><li>You can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce for use on an overhead projector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform a musical work in a classroom, receive a live broadcast, or play a sound recording in educational institution (audience primarily students) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit and retransmit a work within a building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use material in an examination (not an assignment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a copy for persons with perceptual disabilities (but not films and videos) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use news and news commentary for 1 year </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Blank Material Levy <ul><li>The Copyright Board has initiated a levy on blank recording material to compensate rights holders for copyright infringement due to home copying. </li></ul><ul><li>The only exemption is for production of material for persons with perceptual disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no educational exemption. </li></ul><ul><li>See FAQ at </li></ul>
    14. 14. Blank Material Levy
    15. 15. Writing and Publishing <ul><li>Includes maps, charts, plans </li></ul><ul><li>Blank forms not excluded </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries not exempt </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation for authors from libraries </li></ul><ul><li>50 years after death of author </li></ul>
    16. 16. The Visual Arts <ul><li>Painting, drawing, sculpture, photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Performances under different category </li></ul><ul><li>Negative owner owns photograph </li></ul><ul><li>Photofinisher not specifically excluded </li></ul><ul><li>50 years after death of author </li></ul>
    17. 17. Musical Works <ul><li>Public performances included </li></ul><ul><li>Public use of radios, televisions, recorders, jukeboxes included </li></ul><ul><li>Religious service exemption </li></ul><ul><li>Excludes “incidental” public performances </li></ul><ul><li>50 years after death of author </li></ul>
    18. 18. Cinematographic Works <ul><li>Includes any images in motion </li></ul><ul><li>Includes computer program interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Protected shorter of 50 years after publication or fixation </li></ul>
    19. 19. Computer Software <ul><li>Restrict any protected work from computer input </li></ul><ul><li>If you use word processor, you own the product </li></ul><ul><li>Back-up copy allowed </li></ul><ul><li>50 years after death of author </li></ul>
    20. 20. Sound Recordings <ul><li>Protected as separate category </li></ul><ul><li>Vests in individual or entity principally responsible for arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Religious service exemption </li></ul><ul><li>50 years following publication or fixation </li></ul>
    21. 21. Performers’ Performances <ul><li>Performers own first copyright </li></ul><ul><li>50 years following performance or fixation </li></ul>
    22. 22. Broadcasts <ul><li>Right of reproduction, transmission, retransmission </li></ul><ul><li>Right to authorize above </li></ul><ul><li>50 years following fixation </li></ul><ul><li>Exception for “ephemeral recordings” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pursuant to CRTC regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accommodate time zone differences (8 days) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Scenarios <ul><li>You buy a computer program for your Macintosh and rewrite the code so it will work on Windows PC. </li></ul><ul><li>You make a copy of Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” (Norton, 1992) and perform it in class. </li></ul><ul><li>You rent a videotape from Family Video and use it in class. </li></ul><ul><li>You copy a passage from John Grisham’s “The Rainmaker” and distribute copies to your class. </li></ul><ul><li>You use the same passage in an examination. </li></ul><ul><li>You bring your personal copy of the Beatles “White Album” and play “Revolution #9” for your class. </li></ul>