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Computer Architecture Computers through the Ages


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Computer Architecture Computers through the Ages

  1. 1. Computer Architecture Computers through the Ages Praxis Dr Helen Ashton [email_address]
  2. 2. What were the Drivers?
  3. 3. Counting <ul><li>Abacus - Babylon (Iraq) - 4 th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Antikythera – 1 st century BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clocklike mechanism for registering positions of stars and planets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Napier (Scot) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napiers Bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiplication aid </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Counting Mechanically <ul><li>Wilheim Schickard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1623 -1 st mechanical calculator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1642 – Pascaline, mechanical 8 digit calculator </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Counting Mechanically <ul><li>Joseph-Marie Jacquard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1820 – automatic loom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>controlled by punch cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles Babbage (1791-1871) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1820 – conceived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of Difference Engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical Engine - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st general purpose computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(mechanical calculator) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1889 -US census </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Electrically Operated Computers
  7. 7. Electrically Operated <ul><li>Konrad Zuse (1910-1995) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1941 – Z3, 1 st programmable computing machine </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Electrically Operated <ul><li>Alan Turing (1912-1954), “Father of the computer” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Turing Machine – essentially the same concept as today's computers </li></ul></ul>The Enigma Machine
  9. 9. Colossus – 1943 - used for code breaking
  10. 10. Electrically Operated <ul><li>ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzor and Computer) – 1946 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ballistics Research Lab in Maryland to assist in preparing firing tables for artillery. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stored Program concept 1945/1946 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENIAC creators, John William Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert Jr., conceived of stored program computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Von Neumann (1903-1957), “First Draft” paper (Consultant to ENIAC and EDVAC) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Bugs <ul><li>Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed work that lead to COBOL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1945 - Discovery of the 1 st computer bug </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Transistors <ul><li>1948 – transistor (Bell Telephone Labs) – replaced larger vacuum tubes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in computers by 1956 – 2 nd Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1951 – can store 12,000 digits in RAM. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Computer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1952 – Ordinance department. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John von Neumann (1903-1957) – EDVAC (1945) (1 st Gen) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. After the Transistor <ul><li>Transistors are much better than vacuum tubes - but give off a lot of heat – damage to some internal parts of computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Circuit –1958 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jack Kilby (Texas Instruments) eliminate the heat problem. 3 electronic components onto one chip. (Later semiconductor allowed more components on a single chip). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operating Systems developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allowed many programs to be run at once with a central program monitoring & coordinating. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Pace of Development
  15. 15. Mini Computers <ul><li>1959 cost ~$1000 1965 cost < $10. </li></ul><ul><li>IBM 360 – 1964 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quickly becomes standard institutional mainframe computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue by mid 80’s of 360 and descendants > $100 billion in revenue for IBM. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1965 – Moore’s law (Gordon Moore) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no. of components in an Integrated Circuit will double every year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intel founded in 1968 – Gordon Moore & Robert Noyce </li></ul>
  16. 16. Micro Computers <ul><li>1970 – Intel 4004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1K RAM chip and a 4-bit microprocessor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1972 – 8008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8-bit microprocessor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1972 – PL/M </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st high-level programming language for Intel microprocessor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1975 – BASIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed by Bill Gates and Paul Allen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft is born </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Micro Computers <ul><li>1977 – Apple II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>up to 4K to 48K RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1MHz processor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1980 – Apple has 50% of PC market </li></ul><ul><li>1981 – 1 st IBM PC released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1981 – 2 million PC’s in use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1982 – 5.5 million </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Sinclair Computers <ul><li>1980 - ZX80 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>kit form, £100 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1981 - ZX81 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>under $200. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1982 </li></ul><ul><li>- ZX Spectrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>£125 </li></ul></ul>ZX81 & printer
  19. 19. Micro Computers <ul><li>1984 – Apple MAC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8MHz, 32-bit CPU, 9 inch B&W monitor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could move icons on screen rather than typing instructions. Used a mouse. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1985 – Microsoft Windows 1.0 ships in November </li></ul><ul><li>1989 – Microsoft sales reach $1 billion. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Networks <ul><li>50’s/60’s – idea of timesharing developed at MIT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>linking large number of users to a single computer via remote terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1973 – Basic ideas of internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1987 > 10,000 network hosts </li></ul><ul><li>1989 > 100,000 network hosts </li></ul><ul><li>1991 – Tim Berners-Lee develops WWW </li></ul><ul><li>1992 > 1,000,000 network hosts </li></ul>
  21. 21. The future... <ul><li>Holographic Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular Switches </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Nano Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum Theory </li></ul>
  22. 22. More Information <ul><li>General Computing History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Virtual Museum of Computing (VMoC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Konrad Zuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Analytical Engine (Babbage) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enigma & Colossus </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apple History </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pioneers in Computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>