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Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Quick Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of monthly cable service...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The Story of Cable TV </li></ul><ul><li>Cable started in ru...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>FCC and Cable </li></ul><ul><li>In 1958, the FCC avoid regu...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Beginnings of Pay TV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1953, Pay experi...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Cable Growth - Technical and Regulatory </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Cable Growth - continued </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1975 to ...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Growth of Satellite TV </li></ul><ul><li>Year Subscribing H...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Alternatives to Cable </li></ul><ul><li>TVRO  (satellite te...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Home Video History and Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast v...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>DVDs and DVRs </li></ul><ul><li>DVDs are replacing home VCR...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The Video Store </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 1970s, the Vi...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The Internet and World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>The Inter...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The Birth of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Cold war strugg...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Would there be a dial tone? </li></ul><ul><li>Concern over ...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>ARPANET, Email and USENET </li></ul><ul><li>In 1969, first ...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Personal Computers: The new mass medium </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The Internet at last </li></ul><ul><li>NSFNET linked superc...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>In 1989, Tim Berners-L...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>In 1991, World Wide We...
Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2
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Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond

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Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond

  1. 1. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Quick Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of monthly cable service 1950: $3.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of monthly cable service 2006: $73 (w/high speed internet) </li></ul><ul><li>First satellite TV broadcast: NBC, 1962 </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of the first home satellite dish: $36,000 (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of DirecTV satellite system 2002: $0 (limited time offer - sign up for 1 year subscription) </li></ul><ul><li>First Consumer VCR: 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the Internet: 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the World Wide Web: 1991 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The Story of Cable TV </li></ul><ul><li>Cable started in rural towns such as Astoria, Oregon and Lansford, Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>Community Antenna TV literally meant sharing of a common antenna system to pick up television signals </li></ul><ul><li>By 1952, about 70 cable systems were serving 15,000 homes in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1961, about 650 systems serving 700,000 homes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>FCC and Cable </li></ul><ul><li>In 1958, the FCC avoid regulating cable but in 1966 decided it was really an ancillary service to broadcast television </li></ul><ul><li>In 1972, the FCC established more formal rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local communities, states and the FCC were to regulate cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New systems would have a minimum of 20 channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must carry all local stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulations on importing distant signals and nonduplication of signals approved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay cable services would be approved </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Beginnings of Pay TV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1953, Pay experiments in Palm Springs met with little consumer interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1977, HBO rents transponder on satellite to distribute movies via satellite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FCC delayed or cancelled certain implementation requirements for cable operators </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Cable Growth - Technical and Regulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite distribution of signals made it possible to distribute programming to local cable franchises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellites greatly simplify distribution issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Cable Communications Act of 1984 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced FCC control over cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made the local community the major force in cable regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large companies rushed to get local franchise rights to build cable systems </li></ul>
  6. 6. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Cable Growth - continued </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1975 to 1987 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of cable systems tripled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penetration increased from 14% in to 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1988, the cable industry was dominated by large multiple-system operators (MSOs) </li></ul><ul><li>Today most all homes (98%) could receive cable TV </li></ul><ul><li>2006 about 66% of all TV homes subscribe to cable </li></ul><ul><li>Annual revenue from subscribers is $45 billion in 2005 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Growth of Satellite TV </li></ul><ul><li>Year Subscribing Households </li></ul><ul><li>1995 2,200,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1998 8,700,000 </li></ul><ul><li>2001 17,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>2004 20,000,000 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Alternatives to Cable </li></ul><ul><li>TVRO (satellite television receive-only earth stations) popular option for people who could not get cable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1990, three million consumers had these large dishes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DBS took the nation by storm in the mid-1990s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today there are more than 20 million subscribers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless Cable (MMDS - multi-channel, multipoint distribution systems) uses microwave technology to distribute television programming. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2006 fewer than 1 million subscribers </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Home Video History and Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast video tape recorders debuted in 1956. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were quickly adopted by the television networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Videocassette recorder history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SONY introduced the Betamax VCR in 1975. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VHS system introduced in 1977, not compatible with Beta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movie companies claim ‘time-shifting’ a copyright infringement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1984, the Supreme Court rules that home taping did not violate copyright law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today about 95 million households own a VCR (about 90% penetration) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>DVDs and DVRs </li></ul><ul><li>DVDs are replacing home VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>DVDs provide better picture quality than VCRs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1998 about 1 million American homes had a DVD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2006 about 60 million homes own a DVD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) record television programs on hard disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 2002, approximately 1 million DVRs in U.S. homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to grow to 20% of all households in 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The Video Store </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 1970s, the Video Shack chain opened </li></ul><ul><li>Video rental stores sprung up across America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1984, about 20,000 specialty video rental shops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industry concentration has created several large rental chains. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockbuster Video became the market leader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long term, video rental faces competition from Video on Demand (VOD) services on cable and DBS </li></ul><ul><li>Internet surfing reduces time spent watching TV </li></ul>
  12. 12. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The Internet and World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is a global interconnection of computer networks using common communication protocols </li></ul><ul><li>The World Wide Web is one of several services available on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Gopher, FTP and email are other services available to Internet users </li></ul>
  13. 13. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The Birth of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Cold war struggles between the U.S. and the former Soviet Union’s launch of Sputnik speeds development of the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. creates DARPA to research new technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The SAGE Project (early warning radar system) provides the U.S. with advanced warning against a missile attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer and communication technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modem and video display terminal were outgrowths of the SAGE project </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Would there be a dial tone? </li></ul><ul><li>Concern over survivability of communication systems during national crisis help spur network development </li></ul><ul><li>Many contribute to the net’s development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Baran and Donald Davies, working independently, develop theoretical ideas for making computer networks less susceptible to attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob Taylor at DARPA decides to build trial network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological innovations spur network growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet switching provided for small data packets to be sent over distributed communications networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol provided switching to handle network traffic </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>ARPANET, Email and USENET </li></ul><ul><li>In 1969, first ARPA network connection is tested between UCLA and Stanford </li></ul><ul><li>Ray Tomlinson develops e-mail in the early 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn develop TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>USENET extended use of the system to many university researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Local Area Networks like Ethernet extend useful of networks </li></ul>
  16. 16. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>Personal Computers: The new mass medium </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Computer’s Macintosh revolutionized the personal computer market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal computers put intelligence at the ends of networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networks such as Compuserve and America Online provided social usage networking </li></ul><ul><li>Domain names such as .gov, .edu and .net extended the usefulness of networking </li></ul>
  17. 17. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The Internet at last </li></ul><ul><li>NSFNET linked supercomputer centers across the country together </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet was born in when NSFNET replaced ARPANET </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Service Providers (ISP) like AOL allowed everybody to connect to the new network </li></ul><ul><li>New services like FTP and WAIS set the stage for WWW </li></ul>
  18. 18. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee develops idea of using a graphical browser for retrieving information on network databases. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Hyperlinks’ inserted in the browser to call up information on remote computers </li></ul><ul><li>URL (universal resource locator) addresses are used to locate information on the network </li></ul><ul><li>The concept was called the World Wide Web </li></ul>
  19. 19. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2 <ul><li>The World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>In 1991, World Wide Web experiments start in Europe and the United States </li></ul><ul><li>In 1993, Marc Andreesen developed Mosaic, the forerunner of Netscape Navigator </li></ul><ul><li>The browser and WWW formed ‘killer applications’ that started an Internet craze </li></ul><ul><li>Today more than 1 million sites contain more than 2 billion pages of information, graphics, sound and video </li></ul>
  20. 20. Broadcasting, Cable, the Internet and Beyond Chapter 2

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