Basic Computer Networking


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Basic Computer Networking

  1. 1. Basic Computer Networking Bowling Green Independent Schools School Technology Specialist Training 3/3/2001
  2. 2. Agenda for the Day <ul><li>Introduction and overview of training objectives </li></ul><ul><li>K12 Guide to Networking and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Walking tour of BGHS MDF & IDF#2, questions </li></ul><ul><li>Walking tour of 11 th St. MDF, questions </li></ul><ul><li>Hands on computer networking at TPDC Computer lab </li></ul><ul><li>Lab use of tutorial software: INTEL Guide to Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap-up </li></ul>
  3. 3. District Goal <ul><li>Assist schools to become self-sufficient with technology planning, budgeting, acquisition, installation and setup of technology equipment, network administration, and user training so that the school can handle the day-to-day technology tasks within the building </li></ul><ul><li>STS backgrounds and knowledge levels </li></ul><ul><li>School differences </li></ul>
  4. 4. Our School District <ul><li>Our school district is a collection of schools and special facilities where instruction occurs on a daily basis. </li></ul><ul><li>We have nine schools, WCRJF, District Office, CCSU, JJC, KERA Pre-School </li></ul><ul><li>Each school is a collection of computers, instructional and admin software, network equipment which comprise the school local area network (LAN) which is a part of the district wide area network (WAN) </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is a Computer Network? <ul><li>Group of computers, printers, and other devices connected together with or without cables </li></ul><ul><li>Allows users to exchange documents and data with each other, print to the same printers, and to share all hardware and software resources connected to the network </li></ul>
  6. 6. Example of a computer network <ul><li>Sample network diagram – the types of equipment that you can expect to discover on a typical computer network </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Need for Speed <ul><li>Bandwidth costs $$$. </li></ul><ul><li>The more users/applications that you have on the school network (and between networks) requires that you have greater bandwidth and faster switching capabilities </li></ul>
  8. 8. Benefits of Computer Networks <ul><li>Store and retrieve information across networks </li></ul><ul><li>Allows use of different equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Share information by collaborating </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective resource sharing (printers, CDROMs, email systems, networkable software, etc.) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Computer network usage within BGISD <ul><li>Instructional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom and lab instructional software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library automation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student home directories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AR, AM, STAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BreakThrough to Literacy, FastForward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nortel NetKnowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIE Keyboarding </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Computer network usage within BGISD <ul><li>Administrative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupil attendance, scheduling, grades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cafeteria management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel admin, payroll, insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email and Internet proxy services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty/staff home directories </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Computer Networks <ul><li>Peer to Peer </li></ul><ul><li>Client Server </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized </li></ul>
  12. 12. Peer to Peer Computer Networks <ul><li>A peer to peer network lacks a dedicated server and every computer acts as both a client and a server. This is a good networking solution when there are 10 or less users that are in close proximity to each other. A peer to peer network can be a security nightmare. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Peer to Peer Networks <ul><li>Example: Windows networking (via Win95 or Win98/ME) setup in a small office or home setting </li></ul>
  14. 14. Client Server Computer Networks <ul><li>Type of network designed to support a large number of users and uses dedicated server(s). Clients log on to the server(s) in order to run applications or obtain files. Security and permissions can be managed by one or more administrators. A centralized NOS can provide a host of other services. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Client Server Network <ul><li>Example: our Novell or WinNT server computer networks within the schools </li></ul><ul><li>Allow simultaneous access to multiple users to multiple network resources </li></ul>
  16. 16. Centralized Computer Networks <ul><li>Most often seen in Unix environments, where the clients are “dumb terminals.” This means that the client may not have a floppy drive, hard disk or CDROM and all applications and processing occur on the server(s). Security is very high on this type of network. </li></ul><ul><li>Thin client networks connected to a Windows Transaction Server or Citrix server. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Characteristics of Computer Networks <ul><li>Topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media Access Control Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet – can be configured as bus or star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Token Ring – physically configured as star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCNet – physically configured as bus or star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FDDI – can be configured as bus or star </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protocols – such as 802.2, 802.3, Ethernet_II, TCP/IP, NetBEUI </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture and physical layout </li></ul>
  18. 18. Network Topologies <ul><li>Examples of network topologies </li></ul>
  19. 19. Physical bus topology
  20. 20. Distributed bus topology
  21. 21. Physical star topology
  22. 22. Distributed star topology
  23. 23. Physical star-wired ring topology
  24. 24. Components of computer networks <ul><li>Server </li></ul><ul><li>Server NOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell NetWare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Win NT and Win2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Components of computer networks <ul><li>Server backup equipment and software </li></ul><ul><li>Hubs </li></ul><ul><li>Switches </li></ul><ul><li>MAUs </li></ul><ul><li>Routers / Gateway </li></ul><ul><li>Cable Plant </li></ul>
  26. 26. Components of computer networks <ul><li>Terminal equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOS client software </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Components of computer networks <ul><li>Local area networks </li></ul><ul><li>Wide area networks </li></ul>
  28. 28. Network Interface Card (NIC) <ul><li>Typical NIC installed in classroom computer </li></ul>
  29. 29. Network Adapters (NIC) <ul><li>NIC’s come in more than one variety </li></ul><ul><li>They are made in many varieties for different types of equipment and for different media access control methods </li></ul>
  30. 30. Common guided transmission media <ul><li>Cable in many different forms is used as the media to connect computer networks </li></ul>
  31. 31. Transmission Media <ul><li>Cable and wireless media information </li></ul>
  32. 32. OSI Seven Layer Model <ul><li>Standards are very important in computer networking. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards were developed to make sure that all parts work together – even when made by different manufacturers. </li></ul><ul><li>The OSI seven layer model is the standard for how data transactions are handled on a computer network </li></ul>
  33. 33. OSI Seven Layer Model <ul><li>Additional information about OSI model. </li></ul>
  34. 34. OSI Seven Layer Model <ul><li>Examples of normal transactions as they move from the physical layer to the application layer </li></ul>
  35. 35. BGISD Visio Network Diagrams <ul><li>Novell NetWare Servers (Handouts) </li></ul><ul><li>Win NT Servers (Handouts) </li></ul><ul><li>Central Office File Servers (Handouts) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Thin Ethernet network (physical bus, logical bus)
  37. 37. 10Base-T Ethernet network (physical star, logical bus)
  38. 38. Logical ring topology
  39. 39. Switching
  40. 40. Various networking hardware connected to form a simple network
  41. 41. Internetworking through a bridge
  42. 42. Internetworking two networks using different types of network adapters (MAC) in one NetWare server, by means of the server's internal routers
  43. 43. Internetworking two networks using the same type of network adapter (MAC) in one NetWare server, by means of the server's internal routers
  44. 44. Internetworking multiple networks using different types of network adapters (MAC) in two NetWare servers, by means of internal and standalone routers
  45. 45. On 100Base-TX networks, the physical topology is a star and the logical topology is a bus. A broadcast signal travels to all parts of the cable
  46. 46. Host systems connected to a complex Multiserver NetWare network
  47. 47. On 100VG-AnyLAN networks, both the physical and logical topologies are stars. The signal from one node goes to the intelligent hub and is routed only to the correct destination node
  48. 48. A simple server-based backbone connecting two LAN segments
  49. 49. Frame relay is a WAN technology that enables companies to connect LANs through a telecommunications carrier's network
  50. 50. INTEL Guide to Networking <ul><li>A graphical interactive CAI Networking Tutorial (597k) </li></ul><ul><li>Install this program on your office or classroom workstation for additional training </li></ul><ul><li>Download at: /Training/BCN/Intel.exe </li></ul>
  51. 51. Further Readings <ul><li>Novell Documentation – NetWare 5.1 - </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Networking – Home Page - </li></ul><ul><li>Network Primer - </li></ul><ul><li>Networking Guide Basic LAN Architecture - </li></ul><ul><li>Washington State - K12 Guide to Networking – </li></ul><ul><li> (view and download) </li></ul><ul><li>This PowerPoint presentation – (download) or (view) </li></ul>