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  1. 1. Random Thoughts on the Evolution of the Internet Randy H. Katz CS Division, EECS Department University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-1776
  2. 2. What is the Internet? “It’s the TCP/IP Protocol Stack” <ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video/Audio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>Access Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet (LAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless (LMDS, WLAN, Cellular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADSL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul></ul>Applications Access Technologies “ Narrow Waist”
  3. 3. Evolution of the Computer Eniac, 1947 Telephone, 1876 Computer + Modem 1957 Early Wireless Phones, 1978 First Color TV Broadcast, 1953 HBO Launched, 1972 Interactive TV, 1990 Handheld Portable Phones, 1990 First PC Altair, 1974 IBM PC, 1981 Apple Mac, 1984 Apple Powerbook, 1990 IBM Thinkpad, 1992 HP Palmtop, 1991 Apple Newton, 1993 Pentium PC, 1993 Red Herring, 10/99
  4. 4. Evolution of the Computer Pentium PC, 1993 Atari Home Pong, 1972 Apple iMac, 1998 Pentium II PC, 1997 Palm VII PDA, 1999 Network Computer, 1996 Free PC, 1999 Sega Dreamcast, 1999 Internet-enabled Smart Phones, 1999 Red Herring, 10/99 Convergence, Competition, Divergence in Computing and Communications
  5. 5. Internet Evolution From www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.html
  6. 6. Internet Evolution ARPANet SATNet PRNet TCP/IP NSFNet Deregulation & Commercialization Web Hosting Multiple ISPs Internet2 Backbone Internet Exchanges Application Hosting ASP: Application Service Provider AIP: Application Infrastructure Provider (e-commerce tookit, etc.) 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 WWW ISP ASP AIP
  7. 7. NSFNet <ul><li>1985-1995: NSF supported network backbone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Generation (1985): 56 kbps backbone/LSI-11 routers, linking six supercomputer centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd Generation (1988): T1 backbone/IBM RTs linking key supercomputer sites plus regional networks (BARRNet, MIDnet, NWNet, SESQUInet, SURAnet, NYSERnet, JVNCnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd Generation (1991): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T3/RS6000 upgrade; NEARnet, SURAnet added </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration from SC Centers to MCI PoPs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1993: Commercialization plan; orderly phase out of NSF by April 1995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1994-1995: Commercialization, ISP connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network Access Points: WorldComm/MAE-East (DC), MAE-West (SiVal), PacBell SF; Sprint NY, Ameritech Chicago, ICS Big East </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1995-1999: vBNS </li></ul><ul><li>1996-Present: Internet2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1998: Abilene backbone among gigaPoPs </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Metropolitan Area Exchanges/ Network Access Points Tier 1 Connections: High speed FDDI switches + routers with huge routing tables Tier 2 Connections: regional connection points A MAE does not itself provide peering, just connection bandwidth to the co- located ISPs
  9. 9. vBNS Backbone
  10. 10. CalREN-2 N CalREN-2 S connections DS-3, OC-3, OC-12 connections supported at gigaPoPs Qwest Cisco NorTel
  11. 11. Qwest’s IP Backbone (Late 1999)
  12. 12. UUNet GTE Internetworking PSI Networks Digex
  13. 13. American ISPs, Ranked by Number of Subscribers (6/99) 17.6 Millions
  14. 14. Cisco View on Recent Evolution <ul><li>1995 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet, FDDI, Hubs/routers, 10 X </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Ethernet, OC-3 ATM, Switch/router, 100X </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1999 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gbit Ethernet, OC-12/48 ATM, Gbit Multilayer switching, 1000X </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Gbit Ethernet, OC-192 ATM/PoS, Enterprise Gbit Networking, 10000X </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ The old world is about strings; the new world is about clouds: distributed intelligence, no connection set-up, bigger + cheaper, strings handled, intrinsic reliability.” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Redback/Siara View on Next Generation Network <ul><li>CoS-aware Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policing, shaping, CoS marking, policy routing, statistics gathering per flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules-based packet inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtering and forwarding at the edge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorting and queuing in the core </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. New Technologies/Services to Enable Media Applications “ Radio on the Net” Broadcast.com CNN.com Streaming audio/video Entertainment sites Content-delivery Networks (intelligent routing + replicated content + service from closest/least congested location) Multicast? QoS/CoS? New Category: Infrastructure Technology Providers -- Media Servers (e.g., RealNetworks) -- Transformation Services (e.g., ProxyNet) -- Search Services (e.g., Inktomi) -- Content Delivery Services (e.g., Sandpiper Networks) -- Content Caches/Cache Management (e.g., Akamai, Inktomi) -- Multicast Network Overlays (e.g., FFNetworks)
  17. 17. Cisco’s View of the Levelization of the Internet <ul><li>Internet Commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-line product sales, fee-subscriber-based company, on-line ads, on-line travel providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermediary/Market Maker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market maker in v ertical industry, on-line travel agent, brokerage, content-aggregator, portals/content providers, Internet ad brokers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet consultants, web server/Internet apps, multimedia, web developer, search engine, training, web db </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet backbone providers, ISPs, network hw/sw companies, PC/server manufacturers, security vendors, fiber optic makers, line acceleration hw manufacturer </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Corio View of Service Differentiation <ul><li>Applications Service Providers (ASPs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hosting 1 or more specific solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applications + business process integration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-business capability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-value chain capability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications Intrastructure Provider (AIPs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Center capabilities and network management capabilities to ASPs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SUN “CPU tone” and EMC “Storage tone” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Siara View of Evolution of Internet Infrastructure <ul><li>First Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ILEC, IXC, cable operators, consumer/business/wholesale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISPs: narrow focus on traditional markets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy/build network for voice/data/cellular/paging/Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Networks within a network” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid networks + feature richness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet/VPN/VoIP w/single IP connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Per packet service statistics for SLAs and billing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple service levels, customizable by user or application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame relay/ATM over IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASAP new feature configuration and dynamic flow b/w adjustment </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Siara View Continued <ul><li>Dynamic Service Delivery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerated new service develop and enhancement, enabled by network programmability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid service provisioning/configuration via software driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent service routing: CoS network awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-adjustment via signaling, routing, switching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near-zero incremental delivery costs </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Emerging Internet Service Business Model Global Packet Network Application-specific Overlay Networks (Multicast Tunnels, Mgmt Svrcs) Application-specific Servers (Streaming Media, Transformation) Internetworking (Connectivity) Appl Infrastructure Services (Distribution, Caching, Searching, Hosting) Applications (Portals, E-Commerce, E-Tainment, Media) ISP CLEC ASP Internet Data Centers AIP ISV
  22. 22. Next Generation Internet Infrastructure and Applications <ul><li>ASP Infrastructure Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Applications Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bluestone, Netscape, Silver Stream, Sun Microsystems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intira, Xevo, Verio, Eality, Corio, Marimba. WebSpective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers: Cacheflow, Infolibria, Lucent WebCache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache Appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco Cache Engine, Entera Tera Node, Net Appliance NetCache </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepacked Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cobalt CacheQube, Eolian InfoStore, PacketStorm WebSpeed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache Products: Microsoft ProxyServer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache Service Providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Akamai, Digital Island, Mirror Image, Sandpiper, Skycache </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alteon: machine room gigabit infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spyglass: Prism transformer/cache manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redback Networks/Siara Systems: CoS-aware network </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Internet Business Exchanges (IBXs) <ul><li>“ Equinix Gets $280 Million to Build on </li></ul><ul><li>In one of the largest financings of an Internet infrastructure company, Equinix Inc. of Redwood City will announce today that it has raised $280 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike other companies that are building the information superhighway, Equinix does not make computer servers, routers, switches or other hardware or software. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather, it builds secure and sophisticated buildings around the world where phone companies, Internet service and content providers can keep and connect their gear. </li></ul><ul><li>…” </li></ul><ul><li>SF Chronicle, 1 Dec 99 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Example: AboveNet <ul><li>Global Exchange with One-Hop Access to the Backbone </li></ul><ul><li>ISPs and content providers in central- ized facility </li></ul><ul><li>Direct-route backbone connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Instant scalability and b/w exceeding 24.7 Gbps. 301 peering agreements </li></ul>
  25. 25. AboveNet’s One Hop Global Network
  26. 26. Example: Exodus Networks “Internet Data Centers” multiple high-speed OC-3/OC-12 lines between IDCs Multiple public and private network interconnects
  27. 27. Example: SkyCache “Broadcast Overlay Network” <ul><li>Satellite-based broadcast overlay network to improve movement of Internet information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Wide Web content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usenet News </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio/video streaming media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web site replication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce router to router &quot;hops&quot; and packet loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate ISP Internet clogs during peak traffic or one-time event spikes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlimited reach beyond current fiber deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality streamed content & high volume data transmission </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Example: Akamai “Content Delivery Network” Number of Servers 1700 Number of Networks 100 Number of Countries 30