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MELAKAR (SKETCHING)
Abd Samad Hanif
0146235854
hanifsun@Gmail.com.my
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/mars/program.html
HASIL PEMBELAJARAN
 Konsep lakaran
 Definasi lakaran
 Tujuan dan kegunaan
 Teknik lakaran
 Kategori lakaran
SKETCHING CONCEPT
 Sketching is the oldest written method of
communication ever known
 Sketching in a pictorial drawing,...
DEFINASI MELAKAR (SKETCHING)
 Lukisan mengggunakan tangan bebas (rough
freehand drawing)
 Untuk menzahirkan idea dalam b...
TECHNICAL
SKETCHING PURPOSES
Convey an ideation
problem solving in fast track
pictorial view
communication
multiview s...
MENGAPA PERLU MELAKAR ?
1.Sebahagian dari proses reka bentuk –
‘ideation’
2.Menjana konsep2 pelesaikan masalah lebih
panta...
WHY SKETCHING ?
 Persediaan Dokumentasi
 Komunikasi
 Kreativiti
TUJUAN LAKARAN BEBAS
1. Dapat memberikan penerangan konsep dan idea
BUKAN menunjukkan perincian.
2. Untuk tujuan berkomuni...
LATIHAN 1
 Lakarkan dua kotak secara rupa
 Kotak ini mempunyai ukuran yang sama
 Tetapi satu menunjukkan ianya jauh dan...
SKETCHING
• Core skill for most low-fidelity prototyping
• Not about drawing ability! Simple symbols
• Cruder sketch will ...
PICTURE CAN TELL US MANY THING
• Storyboards scenarios, bringing detail and a
chance to role play
•Series of scene sketche...
EXAMPLE OF SKETCHING PROJECTIONS
 perspective  axonometric, e.g. isometric
 oblique  orthogonal, multiview
1. Anda menyaksikan satu kejadian kemalangan
2. Satu daripada kereta itu tersangkut di atas
pokok.
3. Lakarkan kereta dan ...
SKETCHING TECHNIQUES
 line types
 line precedence's
 straight lines
 circles
 ellipses
 blocking
 grid paper
 shap...
SKILL NEEDED
 Stroke –line and round
 Pencil type – hard and soft
 Technique – measure, size and Proportions
 Shading ...
LANKAH LAKARAN BEBAS
Secara amnya ada 3 langkah asas;
1. Lakaran dirancang dgn visualisasi
• Orientasi lakaran
• Saiz laka...
SKILL : STROKE TO DRAW A STARLIGHT LINE V
AND H
Vertical
line
Horizontal
line
TEKNIK MELAKAR BULATAN DAN ELIP
Garis lurus Garisan-garisan
lakaran selalunya
dilukis dgn satu urutan
terdiri dari dua ata...
KESEPADAN DAN PEMBINAAN.
(PROPORTIONS AND CONSTRUCTION LINES)
Kesesuaian
dimensi-dimensi
asas sesuatu
object adalah lebih
...
Sketching
Kategori lukisan lakaran
Multi-pandangan
(Multi view)
Gambar
(Pictorial)
Axometri
*Isometri
Oblik Perspektif
Pictorial dra...
Sistem Unjuran (Projection Systems)
Setiap lukisan sesuatu
objek melibatkan
pertalian ruang
antara;
1. Mata pemerhati,
ata...
PERBANDINGAN ANTARA LUKISAN-LUKISAN ISOMETRI,
OBLIK, AND PERSPEKTIF
1. Multiview Projection 2. Axonometric Projection
3. O...
PERSPECTIVE SKETCHES – EYE VIEW
Lukisan perspektif “satu-, dua-, dan tiga-titik”
Lukisan perspektif:
1. Garisan menegak (HL)-
pandangan mata (EV)
2. Jarak...
PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION
CHARACTERISTICS
 Center of Projection (CP) is a finite distance from object
 Projectors are rays ...
PERSPECTIVE SKETCH
 Horizon – observer’s eye level
 Ground Line – plane on which object rests
 Vanishing point – positi...
CLASSES OF PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION
 One-Point Perspective
 Two-Point Perspective
 Three-Point Perspective
View from Above
VANISHING POINTS
 Object edges parallel to projection plane
remain parallel in a perspective projection
 Object edges no...
ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE
 One principal axis cuts
projection plane  one
principal vanishing point
 Projection plane parall...
TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE
 Two principal axes cut
projection plane 
two principal
vanishing points
 Projection plane
parall...
THREE-POINT PERSPECTIVE
 Three principal
axes cut
projection plane
 three principal
vanishing points
LATERAL MOVEMENT OF CP
• Kedudukan teks dimensi yg tidak betul
• Garisan dimensi sengit
•Anak panah ada yg hilang!
POST MORTEM
Bolehkah kamu tent...
• Garisan nyata sengit
•Garisan tengah/simetri tiada
• Kedudukan teks dimensi yg tidak betul
• Garisan dimensi sengit
• Garisan terlindung tidak kemas
Terdapat beberapa kelemahan dlm
lakaran:
•Dimensi perlu lengkap
•Dimensi perlu berada pada kedudukan
yg sesuai
•Elakkan di...
•Dimensi perlu lengkap
•Dimensi perlu berada pada kedudukan
yg sesuai
•Garisan terlindung ada yg tertinggal
•Garisan tenga...
•Dimensi perlu berada pada kedudukan
yg sesuai
•Jarak garisan dimensi hampir dgn
sempadan objek
•Garisan tengah/simetri ti...
•Dimensi perlu berada pada
kedudukan yg sesuai
•Garisan tengah/simetri tiada.
•Ketebalan garisan nyata, dimensi,
dan nyata...
Lakaran kemas dan bersih, tetapi…
•Dimensi perlu berada pada
kedudukan yg sesuai
•Satu lagi garisan tengah/simetri
tiada.
...
•Orientasi lakaran yg tidak tepat.
•Bulatan menjadi elips….tidak
‘propotional’
•Dimensi perlu berada pada
kedudukan yg ses...
VARYING DISTANCE FROM CP
PROJECTION PLANE LOCATION
• Size of projected image depends upon location of projection plane with
respect to object
VANISHING POINTS REVISITED
A vanishing point is
found by passing a
line through the
center of projection,
parallel to a se...
Lukisan Multi Pandangan
Orthogonal Drawaing
48
4 ANGLE PROJECTION/MULTI VIEW
 Orthogonal drawing- 1st, 2nd , 3rd and 4 th
 Can you distinguish between this 4 view ?
Aa...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
50
The “Alphabet of Lines”…
Lines have both style
and precedence.
Object (visible) lines
are ...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
51
Examples of Sketches:
Multiview Sketch
Pictorial Sketch
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
52
Sketches use “proportion”, not scale!
Proportion allows the designer to
use approximate va...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
53
Classification of Sketches:
Each classification of sketch
has a particular purpose from
pr...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
54
Projection types:
Here’s how the same object may look using different projection
styles.
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
55
Projection types:
Projection type is
defined by the “line
of sight” from the
observer.
Let...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
56
Let’s now take another look at
multiview drawings in more
detail…..
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
57
We have already seen
how views are aligned
with the surface of an
object.
Using the “glass...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
58
Here we can see all the
principle views of an object
as the glass box is unfolded.
It is e...
CGT 110 – TECHNICAL GRAPHICS COMMUNICATION
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
59
Using miter and projection
lines, we can easily...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
60
Projection methods:
3RD Angle (US Standard)
ISO (1ST Angle Metric Standard)
NOTE:
Reverse ...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
61
Here, we can see
that surface C is
shown as both as
object and hidden
lines depending on
t...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
62
When choosing which of the principle views to draw,
remember these rules:
1. Choose as man...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
63
Always try to draw views
in their most natural
position.
This is obviously more difficult ...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
64
Why is the left side view not required?
ANSWER: It doesn’t add any new information!
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
65
Why is the left side
view not required?
ANSWER: It has too many hidden lines!
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
66
Surfaces will appear as edges at times. Edges may be
foreshortened (shorter than normal), ...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
67
Oblique edge lines are created
by oblique surfaces.
These are surfaces that are
neither tr...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
68
Even simple, primitive
shapes often need
several views to fully
describe their
topology.
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
69
“Limiting Elements” are lines that show the outer boundaries
of cylindrical or conical obj...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
70
Remember: In multiview drawings, tangency is shown
between to surfaces by the absence of
a...
Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1
71
Holes and cylinders may appear “True Shape and Size”
(TSS), or foreshortened depending on ...
THE DIRECTION OF PROJECTION CAN BE TOP-LEFT, TOP-
RIGHT, BOTTOM-LEFT, OR BOTTOM-RIGHT. THE
RECEDING AXIS IS TYPICALLY DRAW...
PERSOALAN LAKARAN BEBAS
1. Adakah lakaran bebas masih sesuia
diera CAD?
• Ya kerana ia merupakan teknik
lukisan paling asa...
PRACTICE ACTIVITY
 Sketch this objek in 3D form
1. Find out type of drawing ?
2. Fill the missing angle
3. Draw it back i...
LATIHAN Q
1. Pictorial drawings have a disadvantages. List
out all of it
2. Describe an orthographic (multi-view) sketch.
RUMUSAN
 Lakaran bertujuan untuk:
______________________________
 Lakaran boleh berlaku pada objek yang sudah
ada atau y...
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Ting 1 bab 4 rbt

  1. 1. MELAKAR (SKETCHING) Abd Samad Hanif 0146235854 hanifsun@Gmail.com.my http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/mars/program.html
  2. 2. HASIL PEMBELAJARAN  Konsep lakaran  Definasi lakaran  Tujuan dan kegunaan  Teknik lakaran  Kategori lakaran
  3. 3. SKETCHING CONCEPT  Sketching is the oldest written method of communication ever known  Sketching in a pictorial drawing, can be viewed and understood by individuals with no background in engineering design  One of the technique to draw an objek in fast track to show an idea or copy the existence objek  Image/ graphic much easy to understand, explain and memories rather then word.
  4. 4. DEFINASI MELAKAR (SKETCHING)  Lukisan mengggunakan tangan bebas (rough freehand drawing)  Untuk menzahirkan idea dalam bentuk grafik  Dijadikan dokumentasi awal, maklumat pembuatan, berkomunikasi dan perbincangan.  Sesuai dalam percambahan idea (ideation phase) dan proses reka bentuk  Dalam bentuk lukisan bergambar 3D atau pelbagai gambar 2D.  z1Perlu mematuhi amalan piawaian lukisan kejuruteraan
  5. 5. TECHNICAL SKETCHING PURPOSES Convey an ideation problem solving in fast track pictorial view communication multiview specification
  6. 6. MENGAPA PERLU MELAKAR ? 1.Sebahagian dari proses reka bentuk – ‘ideation’ 2.Menjana konsep2 pelesaikan masalah lebih pantas 3.Menyampaikan maklumat mengenai imej- imej mental secara perspektif, 4.Mempermudahkan konsep2 reka bentuk 5.Memperhalusi lukisan dengan lebih cepat
  7. 7. WHY SKETCHING ?  Persediaan Dokumentasi  Komunikasi  Kreativiti
  8. 8. TUJUAN LAKARAN BEBAS 1. Dapat memberikan penerangan konsep dan idea BUKAN menunjukkan perincian. 2. Untuk tujuan berkomunikasi tentang konsep reka antara jabatan dengan cepat 3. Perlu dilukis dengan pantas dan jelas.
  9. 9. LATIHAN 1  Lakarkan dua kotak secara rupa  Kotak ini mempunyai ukuran yang sama  Tetapi satu menunjukkan ianya jauh dan satu lagi dekat  Dalam rajah yang sama, bagaimana anda menunjukkan kotak itu mempuyai satu permukaan yang melengkung.  Bagaimana anda menetukan saiz kotak itu tanpa memberi dimensi?
  10. 10. SKETCHING • Core skill for most low-fidelity prototyping • Not about drawing ability! Simple symbols • Cruder sketch will emphasize conceptual design over superficial, physical design
  11. 11. PICTURE CAN TELL US MANY THING • Storyboards scenarios, bringing detail and a chance to role play •Series of scene sketches showing user progression through a task flow •Series of screenshots illustrating use case Checkout: Product List, Shipping, Payment, Confirmation
  12. 12. EXAMPLE OF SKETCHING PROJECTIONS  perspective  axonometric, e.g. isometric  oblique  orthogonal, multiview
  13. 13. 1. Anda menyaksikan satu kejadian kemalangan 2. Satu daripada kereta itu tersangkut di atas pokok. 3. Lakarkan kereta dan pokok itu dalam bentuk 3D? Latihan 2
  14. 14. SKETCHING TECHNIQUES  line types  line precedence's  straight lines  circles  ellipses  blocking  grid paper  shape primitives
  15. 15. SKILL NEEDED  Stroke –line and round  Pencil type – hard and soft  Technique – measure, size and Proportions  Shading – light  Angle projection
  16. 16. LANKAH LAKARAN BEBAS Secara amnya ada 3 langkah asas; 1. Lakaran dirancang dgn visualisasi • Orientasi lakaran • Saiz lakaran • Perincian yg diperlukan 2. ‘Outline’ lakaran dibuat menggunakan garisan2 halus (light lines) • Tentukan orientasi, saiz, proportion, ciri2 umum. 3. Garisan2 ditajamkan serta dihitamkan. • Bina perincian lakaran berkenaan.
  17. 17. SKILL : STROKE TO DRAW A STARLIGHT LINE V AND H Vertical line Horizontal line
  18. 18. TEKNIK MELAKAR BULATAN DAN ELIP Garis lurus Garisan-garisan lakaran selalunya dilukis dgn satu urutan terdiri dari dua atau tiga laluan (passes) dgn pensil. Garisan lengkuk Menggunakan titik-titik panduan (multiple guide points). Ellips Boleh menggunakan satu cebisan dgn kaedah ‘trammel method’.
  19. 19. KESEPADAN DAN PEMBINAAN. (PROPORTIONS AND CONSTRUCTION LINES) Kesesuaian dimensi-dimensi asas sesuatu object adalah lebih penting dari saiz fizikal sebenarnya. Kesesuaian adalah nisbah antara dua dimensi sesuatu objek. Bagaiaman anda menetukan saiz tanpa menunjukkan dimensi?
  20. 20. Sketching
  21. 21. Kategori lukisan lakaran Multi-pandangan (Multi view) Gambar (Pictorial) Axometri *Isometri Oblik Perspektif Pictorial drawings show the shape of an object viewed by the human eye. Pictorial sketches are sketches that show height, width, and depth all in one view
  22. 22. Sistem Unjuran (Projection Systems) Setiap lukisan sesuatu objek melibatkan pertalian ruang antara; 1. Mata pemerhati, atau titik station. 2. Objek. 3. Satah unjuran. 4. Projektor (visual rays or line of sight)
  23. 23. PERBANDINGAN ANTARA LUKISAN-LUKISAN ISOMETRI, OBLIK, AND PERSPEKTIF 1. Multiview Projection 2. Axonometric Projection 3. Oblique Projection 4. Perspective Projection
  24. 24. PERSPECTIVE SKETCHES – EYE VIEW
  25. 25. Lukisan perspektif “satu-, dua-, dan tiga-titik” Lukisan perspektif: 1. Garisan menegak (HL)- pandangan mata (EV) 2. Jarak objek dari satah gambar. (OS) 3. Kedudukan titik ‘station’. 4. Kedudukan garisan bumi (ground line) 5. Jumlah titik-titik lenyap (vanishing point) OS
  26. 26. PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION CHARACTERISTICS  Center of Projection (CP) is a finite distance from object  Projectors are rays (i.e., non-parallel)  Vanishing points  Objects appear smaller as distance from CP (eye of observer) increases  Difficult to determine exact size and shape of object  Most realistic, difficult to execute
  27. 27. PERSPECTIVE SKETCH  Horizon – observer’s eye level  Ground Line – plane on which object rests  Vanishing point – position on horizon where depth projectors converge  Projection plane – plane upon which object is projected
  28. 28. CLASSES OF PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION  One-Point Perspective  Two-Point Perspective  Three-Point Perspective View from Above
  29. 29. VANISHING POINTS  Object edges parallel to projection plane remain parallel in a perspective projection  Object edges not parallel to projection plane converge to a single point in a perspective projection  vanishing point (vp)  Vanishing point of a principal axis  principal vanishing point (pvp)
  30. 30. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE  One principal axis cuts projection plane  one principal vanishing point  Projection plane parallel to one principal plane object image
  31. 31. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE  Two principal axes cut projection plane  two principal vanishing points  Projection plane parallel to one principal axis object image
  32. 32. THREE-POINT PERSPECTIVE  Three principal axes cut projection plane  three principal vanishing points
  33. 33. LATERAL MOVEMENT OF CP
  34. 34. • Kedudukan teks dimensi yg tidak betul • Garisan dimensi sengit •Anak panah ada yg hilang! POST MORTEM Bolehkah kamu tentukan kelemahan lakaran ini?
  35. 35. • Garisan nyata sengit •Garisan tengah/simetri tiada
  36. 36. • Kedudukan teks dimensi yg tidak betul • Garisan dimensi sengit • Garisan terlindung tidak kemas
  37. 37. Terdapat beberapa kelemahan dlm lakaran: •Dimensi perlu lengkap •Dimensi perlu berada pada kedudukan yg sesuai •Elakkan dimensi yg berulang (redundant)
  38. 38. •Dimensi perlu lengkap •Dimensi perlu berada pada kedudukan yg sesuai •Garisan terlindung ada yg tertinggal •Garisan tengah tiada. •Dimensi jejari tiada
  39. 39. •Dimensi perlu berada pada kedudukan yg sesuai •Jarak garisan dimensi hampir dgn sempadan objek •Garisan tengah/simetri tiada. •Ketebalan garisan nyata, dimensi, dan nyata kelihatan sama.
  40. 40. •Dimensi perlu berada pada kedudukan yg sesuai •Garisan tengah/simetri tiada. •Ketebalan garisan nyata, dimensi, dan nyata kelihatan sama. •Dimensi ada yg berulang •Ada kesilapan kecil pada garisan terlindung (jgn ada ruang, mesti sentuh sempadan objek)
  41. 41. Lakaran kemas dan bersih, tetapi… •Dimensi perlu berada pada kedudukan yg sesuai •Satu lagi garisan tengah/simetri tiada. •Ketebalan garisan nyata dan terlindung kelihatan sama.
  42. 42. •Orientasi lakaran yg tidak tepat. •Bulatan menjadi elips….tidak ‘propotional’ •Dimensi perlu berada pada kedudukan yg sesuai •Satu lagi garisan tengah/simetri tiada. •Ketebalan garisan nyata, tengah dan terlindung kelihatan sama.
  43. 43. VARYING DISTANCE FROM CP
  44. 44. PROJECTION PLANE LOCATION • Size of projected image depends upon location of projection plane with respect to object
  45. 45. VANISHING POINTS REVISITED A vanishing point is found by passing a line through the center of projection, parallel to a set of parallel object edges. The point where the line pierces the projection plane is the vanishing point. object image
  46. 46. Lukisan Multi Pandangan Orthogonal Drawaing 48
  47. 47. 4 ANGLE PROJECTION/MULTI VIEW  Orthogonal drawing- 1st, 2nd , 3rd and 4 th  Can you distinguish between this 4 view ? Aa DB C A
  48. 48. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 50 The “Alphabet of Lines”… Lines have both style and precedence. Object (visible) lines are the MOST important…then hidden lines…then center lines…etc.
  49. 49. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 51 Examples of Sketches: Multiview Sketch Pictorial Sketch
  50. 50. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 52 Sketches use “proportion”, not scale! Proportion allows the designer to use approximate values to create a balanced looking object. Sketches are…accurate freehand drawings which use single lines to represent edges and features. Multi-line sketching is NOT used in engineering design. (Scribbling!)
  51. 51. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 53 Classification of Sketches: Each classification of sketch has a particular purpose from production use…to technical illustration.
  52. 52. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 54 Projection types: Here’s how the same object may look using different projection styles.
  53. 53. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 55 Projection types: Projection type is defined by the “line of sight” from the observer. Let’s look at some of these…..
  54. 54. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 56 Let’s now take another look at multiview drawings in more detail…..
  55. 55. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 57 We have already seen how views are aligned with the surface of an object. Using the “glass box” method of visualization helps us understand the relationship views have with one another, i. e. the front view is next to the top and right side views, etc.
  56. 56. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 58 Here we can see all the principle views of an object as the glass box is unfolded. It is easy to see that some of the principle views have more detail through the use of object (visible) lines than others. Always choose views that have the least amount of hidden lines in them and show the most detail.
  57. 57. CGT 110 – TECHNICAL GRAPHICS COMMUNICATION Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 59 Using miter and projection lines, we can easily transfer “space dimensions” between views.
  58. 58. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 60 Projection methods: 3RD Angle (US Standard) ISO (1ST Angle Metric Standard) NOTE: Reverse construction methods work just as well in 1ST Angle projection.
  59. 59. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 61 Here, we can see that surface C is shown as both as object and hidden lines depending on the view we are looking at. Remember: One definition of a “line” is that it is the geometry on the edge of a surface. (Surface C appears in its edge view in the front and top views.)
  60. 60. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 62 When choosing which of the principle views to draw, remember these rules: 1. Choose as many views as it takes to show ALL the details of the object. The front view usually shows the most detail, or best view of the general shape of the object in its natural position. 2. Choose views that shows a majority of object (visible) lines, and a minimum of hidden lines. 3. Choose views that show features as surfaces first, and as lines second.
  61. 61. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 63 Always try to draw views in their most natural position. This is obviously more difficult to visualize!
  62. 62. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 64 Why is the left side view not required? ANSWER: It doesn’t add any new information!
  63. 63. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 65 Why is the left side view not required? ANSWER: It has too many hidden lines!
  64. 64. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 66 Surfaces will appear as edges at times. Edges may be foreshortened (shorter than normal), or “True Length” (TL).
  65. 65. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 67 Oblique edge lines are created by oblique surfaces. These are surfaces that are neither true shape or true size in any principle view.
  66. 66. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 68 Even simple, primitive shapes often need several views to fully describe their topology.
  67. 67. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 69 “Limiting Elements” are lines that show the outer boundaries of cylindrical or conical objects. How many views of such objects are usually needed to show its shape?
  68. 68. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 70 Remember: In multiview drawings, tangency is shown between to surfaces by the absence of any line. Here, the arched and planar surfaces are tangent. Arched and planar surfaces which are NOT tangent.
  69. 69. Week 3: Multiview Drawings 1 71 Holes and cylinders may appear “True Shape and Size” (TSS), or foreshortened depending on the view in which they appear. (Foreshortened circles will appear as ellipses.)
  70. 70. THE DIRECTION OF PROJECTION CAN BE TOP-LEFT, TOP- RIGHT, BOTTOM-LEFT, OR BOTTOM-RIGHT. THE RECEDING AXIS IS TYPICALLY DRAWN AT 60, 45, OR 30 DEGREES. Top Left Top Right Bottom Left Bottom Right
  71. 71. PERSOALAN LAKARAN BEBAS 1. Adakah lakaran bebas masih sesuia diera CAD? • Ya kerana ia merupakan teknik lukisan paling asas, murah dan pantas. • Hanya memerlukan kemahiran tangan (yang boleh digilap) tanpa bekalan elektrik, hanya kertas dan pensel. • PDA.Pad dan HP sudah menyedikan kemudahan lakaran menggunaan ‘stylus’ /jari pada skrin sentuh!
  72. 72. PRACTICE ACTIVITY  Sketch this objek in 3D form 1. Find out type of drawing ? 2. Fill the missing angle 3. Draw it back in 3D view
  73. 73. LATIHAN Q 1. Pictorial drawings have a disadvantages. List out all of it 2. Describe an orthographic (multi-view) sketch.
  74. 74. RUMUSAN  Lakaran bertujuan untuk: ______________________________  Lakaran boleh berlaku pada objek yang sudah ada atau yang belum pernah wujud  _________________________________  Lakaran boleh jadi dalam ___atau ___  Dalam lakaran reka bentuk ialah mengutamakan ____________________

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