"Introduction to Epoxies" by Hubert Monteiro, Royce International


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Hubert presents an introduction to epoxies.

Hubert Monteiro is a Technical Consultant for Royce International and, as an active member of the Thermoset Resin Formulators Association (TRFA) since it was founded 10 years ago, has a unique perspective on the role industry associations play in the technical community.

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"Introduction to Epoxies" by Hubert Monteiro, Royce International

  1. 1. Dr. Hubert A. Monteiro Technical Director Royce International
  2. 2. What are Epoxy resins?A family of thermosetting resins which have the following chemical group:When reacted with a hardener(or curing agent), they set to a hard mass which does not melt or dissolve in solvents.Hardeners are typically amine or anhydride based chemistry.
  3. 3. In what forms are Epoxies and Hardenerssupplied?LiquidsSolidsSolutionsSemi-formulated pastes
  4. 4. What are the advantages of Epoxies?• Bonds strongly to most materials including metals, concrete, glass, ceramics, stone, wood, leather. Exceptions are plastics materials like polyethylene, polypropylene, Teflon, etc.• Excellent resistance to chemicals and solvents.• Very good electrical insulating properties.• Outstanding mechanical strength including tensile, compressive, flexural and modulus.• Very little shrinkage on curing, thus providing good dimensional stability.
  5. 5. What are the limitations of Epoxies?Limited pot life when resin and hardener are mixed.Cured systems have poor resistance to U.V. Thus, outdoor exposure over time tends to yellow and chalk coatings and electrical insulators can begin to “track”.Limited temperature resistance: Ambient cure: 150-250°F Heat cure: up to 360° FResins and Hardeners need to be handled with care in sensitive individuals to prevent dermatitis or rash.
  6. 6. Industries in which Epoxies are utilized• Coatings, Paints and Lacquers.• Civil Engineering and Construction.• Aerospace and Industrial Composite.• Electrical & Electronics (i.e. casting, impregnation, insulation, laminates, potting, etc).• Adhesives and Sealants.• Recreational and Sporting Equipment (i.e. golf shafts, skies, snowboards, tennis racquets).• Foundries and tooling (i.e. automotive).
  7. 7. Epoxy Coatings Epoxy Coatings Solvent Free Solvent Containing Water basedLiquid Solid Ambient Heat Water Soluble Water Powder Cure Cure Anodic Dispersible Coatings Cathodic Electrodepositio n
  8. 8. Coating Applications• Civil Engineering• Construction• Flooring• Industrial Maintenance• Marine• Powder Coatings• Can/Coil/Packaging• Automotive
  9. 9. Epoxies for Civil Engineering and Construction ApplicationsCoatings Solvent-free lining of concrete and steel tanks, Water-based coatings for concrete. Powder coatings for rebars.Mortars Self-leveling and trowellable floors Pothole repair for roads and airfields. Grouting of heavy machinery.Bonding Bonding of prefabricated elements in bridges and other structures. Bonding new to old concrete. Bonding external reinforcement to concrete.Injection Systems Grouting and repair of concrete cracks.
  10. 10. Epoxy Mortars vs. Cement ConcreteMechanical Units Epoxy Mortar CementProperties (Filler: Binder=4.1) ConcreteCompressive Kg/cm² 800 – 1200 300-500StrengthTensile kg/cm² 150-250 40-60StrengthFlexural kg/cm² 250-400 50-80StrengthModulus of kg/cm² 1.6 x 10⁵ 30 x10⁵ElasticityElongation % 0.1 0.02At BreakCoefficient of °C¯¹ 2.5x10⁵ 1.2x10¯⁵Expansion
  11. 11. Epoxies for Electrical Applications• Ambient cure potting, casting and encapsulation of small low voltage components.• Battery sealing compounds.• Joints and termination in electrical cables and gas seals in telecommunication cables.• High voltage insulators and bushings.• Switch gear parts in circuit breakers.• Current and potential measuring transformers.• Impregnation of large rotating machines (VPI process).• Resin-rich mica-paper tapes and resin-poor tapes for insulation of coils in large rotating machines.
  12. 12. Epoxies for Electronic Applications• Transfer molding compounds for encapsulating of semiconductors.• Liquid casting resins for potting active and passive components.• Brominated resins for base laminates for printed wiring boards.• Conductive solders for mounting heat sensitive components.• Dip-coating and conformal coatings for components and assemblies.
  13. 13. Advantages of Composites High Strength to Weight RatioMaterial Strength to Weight RatioAluminum 0.8Steel 1.0Titanium alloy 1.0Glass/ Epoxy 2.86Carbon/Epoxy 3.8Aramid (Kevlar)/Epoxy 5.09
  14. 14. Epoxies for Reinforced Plastic Applications• Filament winding• Pultrusion• Hand lay-up• Resin transfer moulding (RTM)• Vacuum bag/ pressure bag moulding• “Prepreg” processing Autoclave processing under pressure Flat laminates.
  15. 15. DDS Hardener for Aerospace and Electronics Applications4,4’DDSNormal grade for solution prepregs and laminates.4,4’ DDS MicroMicropulverized grade for hot melt prepregs and laminates.3,3’ DDSAerospace composite applications.
  16. 16. Epoxy ResinsDiglycidyl ether of Bisphenol ADiglycidyl ether of Bisphenol FEpoxy NovolacLong chain aliphatic diglycidyl ethersCycloaliphatic epoxy resinsMultifunctional resinsBrominated epoxy Resins
  17. 17. Epoxy HardenersAliphatic amines/ adductsCycloaliphatic amines /adductsPolyaminoamides /AmidoaminesPhenalkaminesAromatic aminesFormulated anhydridesBF₃ and BCL ₃ adducts with amines
  18. 18. Choice of Hardener Factors related to ProcessingToxicityEase of mixing with the resinViscosityMixing proportion – Tolerance to variationsPotlifeConditions of applicationCure Time & Temperature
  19. 19. Choice of Hardener Factors related to cured system Heat Deflection TemperaturePhysical, mechanical, electrical propertiesThermal stability (class of insulation)Chemical resistanceLight stabilityCost
  20. 20. AcceleratorsTertiary amines BDMA DMP-10 DMP-30Imidazoles 1-methyl imidazole 2-methyl imidazole EMI-24Phenols Phenol Nonyl phenol Cardanol Salicylic acid