Assuming The Role of
The System Analyst
Types of Systems
Technologies for Systems
Roles of System Analyst
Information is a data that have been processed and
analyzed, so that the results are directly useful to
those in operation and management.
Information is derived from data by interpretation
Information is an organizational resource, which
must be managed as carefully as other resources.
Costs are associated with information processing.
The supervisor program or operating system on a
The entire computer system, including
Any large program.
Any method or algorithm.
Any collection of components that work together
to perform a task.
An organized method of achieving a goal.
A set of components that function together in a
meaningful way to accomplish a certain set of
A collection of subsystems that are interrelated and
interdependent, working together to accomplish
predetermined goals and objectives. All systems have input,
processes, output, and feedback. One example is a computer
information system; another is an organization.
Types of Systems:
Information systems fall into one of the following eight
Transaction processing systems (TPS).
Office automation systems (OAS).
Knowledge work systems (KWS).
Management information systems (MIS).
Decision support systems (DSS).
Expert systems (ES) and Artificial Intelligence (AI).
Group decision support systems (GDSS) and
Computer-Supported Collaborative Work Systems.
Executive support systems (EES).
Transaction Process System (TPS)
Developed to process large amount of data
for routine transaction.
People still must input data to computerized
Up-to-the-minute information about the
Example: Payroll , Inventory.
Office Automation Systems (OAS)
Support data workers who analyze
information as to transform data or
manipulate it before sharing it with
Word processor, spreadsheet, desktop
publishing, E-mail, video conferencing,
Knowledge work System (KWS)
Support professional workers such as
scientists, engineers, doctors.
Aiding professional to create new knowledge
Management information System
Definition: a computer-based system composed of
people, software, hardware, and procedures that
share a common database to help users interpret
and apply data to the business
Do not replace TPS , but it Includes TPS
Users share common data base ( Data & Models)
Output information that is used in decision making
Help unite functions of a business
Does not exist as a singular structure
Decision support system
Higher level class
Depends on a database as a source of data
support the decision making, but leave the
ultimate decision to decision maker
Closely tailored to the person or group using
Expert Systems and Artificial
(AI) machines behave intelligently by:
Understanding natural language
Reason through problems to its logical conclusion
Expert system use the approach of AI reasoning to
solve problem put to them by business users
Expert system = knowledge-based system
Select the best solution to a problem
component of expert system:
Knowledge base (SQL)
Group Decision Support System
Permit groups to interact with electronic specialized
software and special group facilitator
Bring group together to solve problem ex. polling,
questionnaires, brain storming.
Minimize negative group behavior
Lack of participation due to the fear of expressing unpopular
Domination by vocal group member
Computer-supported collaborative work system is another
general term for GDSS but include team collaboration via
Executive Support System
Help executives organize their interactions
with the external environment by providing
graphics and communication support in
boardrooms or personal offices
Relay on information generated by TPS and
Integrating Technologies for
E-Commerce application and web systems
Enterprise resource planning systems
System for wireless and handheld devices
Open source software
Ecommerce applications and web
Increase awareness of availability of a
service, product, industry, person, or group.
The possibility of 24 hour access for users
Standardizing the design of the interface
Creating a system that can extend globally
rather than remain local, thus reaching people
in remote locations without worry of the time
zone in which they are located.
Enterprise resource planning
Integrate many information systems existing
on different management level and within
Requires enormous commitment and
Software: SAP, PeopleSoft, and packages
Requires vender training for maintenance,
install , update and use.
Systems for wireless and handheld
Designing systems for wireless devises and
handheld computers. (Palm , PDAs)
Designing standard or wireless communication
network (voice, video, and email)
Wireless ecommerce is referred to as mcommerce.
Designing wireless local area network ( WLANs)
Designing intelligent agent software. (amazon.com)
Open Source Software
Software development in which proprietary code is
hidden from users.
Distributing software free and publishing its source
Code can be studied, shared and modified by many
users and programmers. Large problems may
solved through extensive collaboration.
How companies make money?
Providing support, customizing programs for users
Useful for handheld devices and communication
Need for System Analysis and
Analyze, design , and implement
improvements in the functioning of business
through the use of computerized information
Installing a system without proper planning
will lead to great dissatisfaction and
frequently causes the system to fall.
Roles of System Analyst
Systems analysts act as:
Outside consultants to businesses.
Supporting experts within a business.
As change agents.
System Analyst as Consultant
Analyst are hired to address information systems
issues within a business
Analyzing and designing appropriate information systems
Rely on info sys users to understand the org. culture from
Advantage: Bring with them a fresh prospective
that other member of an organization do not posses
Disadvantage: True organization culture can never
be known to an outsider
System Analyst as support expert
Draws on professional expertise concerning
the computer hardware and software and their
uses in business.
They are not managing the project but serving
as a resource for those who are.
System analyst as Agent of Change
Perform any activity in the system development life cycle.
Develops a plan for change and works with others in
facilitating the change
Interact with users and management from the very beginning
in order to understand what is happening in the organization.
If change seems reasonable after analysis the next step is to
develop a plan for the change with people who must enact the
Support a particular avenue of change involving the use of
Teach users the process of change, because changes in the
information system do not occur independently , but cause
change in the rest of the org.
Qualities of the System Analyst
Problem solver, view and analyze problems as a
challenge and enjoy devising workable solutions.
Communicator, relate to people over extended
periods of time.
Have strong personal and professional ethics to
help shape the relations with clients.
Self disciplined and self motivated who can manage
Define the term expert system. How expert system
differ from decision support system.(q5, p. 23)
List the problem of group interaction that group
decision support system (GDSS) and computer-
supported collaboration work system (CSCWS)
were designed to address ( q.6, p. 23)
List three roles that the system analyst is called
upon to play. Provide a definition for each one.