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  1. 1. Assuming The Role of The System Analyst Lecture 1 MSCH 241 Wid Yamani
  2. 2. Agenda  Information  System  Types of Systems  Technologies for Systems  Roles of System Analyst
  3. 3. Information  Information is a data that have been processed and analyzed, so that the results are directly useful to those in operation and management.  Information is derived from data by interpretation  Information is an organizational resource, which must be managed as carefully as other resources.  Costs are associated with information processing.
  4. 4. System Definition:  The supervisor program or operating system on a computer.  The entire computer system, including input/output devices  Any large program.  Any method or algorithm.  Any collection of components that work together to perform a task.  An organized method of achieving a goal.  A set of components that function together in a meaningful way to accomplish a certain set of objectives
  5. 5. System  A collection of subsystems that are interrelated and interdependent, working together to accomplish predetermined goals and objectives. All systems have input, processes, output, and feedback. One example is a computer information system; another is an organization. Input System Output Processing
  6. 6. Types of Systems: Information systems fall into one of the following eight categories:  Transaction processing systems (TPS).  Office automation systems (OAS).  Knowledge work systems (KWS).  Management information systems (MIS).  Decision support systems (DSS).  Expert systems (ES) and Artificial Intelligence (AI).  Group decision support systems (GDSS) and Computer-Supported Collaborative Work Systems.  Executive support systems (EES).
  7. 7. Transaction Process System (TPS)  Operational level  Developed to process large amount of data for routine transaction.  Reduces time  People still must input data to computerized systems  Up-to-the-minute information about the companies Example: Payroll , Inventory.
  8. 8. Office Automation Systems (OAS)  Knowledge level  Support data workers who analyze information as to transform data or manipulate it before sharing it with organization  Word processor, spreadsheet, desktop publishing, E-mail, video conferencing, voice mail.
  9. 9. Knowledge work System (KWS)  Knowledge level  Support professional workers such as scientists, engineers, doctors.  Aiding professional to create new knowledge
  10. 10. Management information System (MIS)  Definition: a computer-based system composed of people, software, hardware, and procedures that share a common database to help users interpret and apply data to the business  Higher level  Do not replace TPS , but it Includes TPS  Users share common data base ( Data & Models)  Output information that is used in decision making  Help unite functions of a business  Does not exist as a singular structure
  11. 11. Decision support system  Higher level class  Depends on a database as a source of data  support the decision making, but leave the ultimate decision to decision maker  Closely tailored to the person or group using them
  12. 12. Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence  (AI) machines behave intelligently by:  Understanding natural language  Reason through problems to its logical conclusion  Expert system use the approach of AI reasoning to solve problem put to them by business users  Expert system = knowledge-based system  Select the best solution to a problem  component of expert system:  Knowledge base (SQL)  user interface
  13. 13. Group Decision Support System  Permit groups to interact with electronic specialized software and special group facilitator  Bring group together to solve problem ex. polling, questionnaires, brain storming.  Minimize negative group behavior  Lack of participation due to the fear of expressing unpopular viewpoint  Domination by vocal group member  Group thinking.  Computer-supported collaborative work system is another general term for GDSS but include team collaboration via networked computers
  14. 14. Executive Support System  Help executives organize their interactions with the external environment by providing graphics and communication support in boardrooms or personal offices  Relay on information generated by TPS and MIS
  15. 15. Integrating Technologies for Systems  E-Commerce application and web systems  Enterprise resource planning systems  System for wireless and handheld devices  Open source software
  16. 16. Ecommerce applications and web systems  Increase awareness of availability of a service, product, industry, person, or group.  The possibility of 24 hour access for users  Standardizing the design of the interface  Creating a system that can extend globally rather than remain local, thus reaching people in remote locations without worry of the time zone in which they are located.
  17. 17. Enterprise resource planning systems  Integrate many information systems existing on different management level and within different functions  Requires enormous commitment and organizational change  Software: SAP, PeopleSoft, and packages from oracle.  Requires vender training for maintenance, install , update and use.
  18. 18. Systems for wireless and handheld devices  Designing systems for wireless devises and handheld computers. (Palm , PDAs)  Designing standard or wireless communication network (voice, video, and email)  Wireless ecommerce is referred to as mcommerce.  Designing wireless local area network ( WLANs)  Designing intelligent agent software. (
  19. 19. Open Source Software  Software development in which proprietary code is hidden from users.  Distributing software free and publishing its source code  Code can be studied, shared and modified by many users and programmers. Large problems may solved through extensive collaboration.  How companies make money? Providing support, customizing programs for users  Useful for handheld devices and communication equipment.
  20. 20. Need for System Analysis and Design  Analyze, design , and implement improvements in the functioning of business through the use of computerized information system  Installing a system without proper planning will lead to great dissatisfaction and frequently causes the system to fall.
  21. 21. Roles of System Analyst  Systems analysts act as:  Outside consultants to businesses.  Supporting experts within a business.  As change agents.
  22. 22. System Analyst as Consultant  Analyst are hired to address information systems issues within a business  Analyzing and designing appropriate information systems  Rely on info sys users to understand the org. culture from others viewpoint.  Advantage: Bring with them a fresh prospective that other member of an organization do not posses  Disadvantage: True organization culture can never be known to an outsider
  23. 23. System Analyst as support expert  Draws on professional expertise concerning the computer hardware and software and their uses in business.  They are not managing the project but serving as a resource for those who are.
  24. 24. System analyst as Agent of Change  Perform any activity in the system development life cycle.  Develops a plan for change and works with others in facilitating the change  Interact with users and management from the very beginning in order to understand what is happening in the organization.  If change seems reasonable after analysis the next step is to develop a plan for the change with people who must enact the change  Support a particular avenue of change involving the use of information system.  Teach users the process of change, because changes in the information system do not occur independently , but cause change in the rest of the org.
  25. 25. Qualities of the System Analyst  Problem solver, view and analyze problems as a challenge and enjoy devising workable solutions.  Communicator, relate to people over extended periods of time.  Computer experience  Have strong personal and professional ethics to help shape the relations with clients.  Self disciplined and self motivated who can manage numerous projects.
  26. 26. Homework  Define the term expert system. How expert system differ from decision support system.(q5, p. 23)  List the problem of group interaction that group decision support system (GDSS) and computer- supported collaboration work system (CSCWS) were designed to address ( q.6, p. 23)  List three roles that the system analyst is called upon to play. Provide a definition for each one. (q13 ,p.23)