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Roy Belton: Design manual for roads and bridges - loads for highway bridges

Design Manual for Roads and Bridges

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Roy Belton: Design manual for roads and bridges - loads for highway bridges

  1. 1. DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES THE HIGHWAYS AGENCY SCOTTISH EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY FOR WALES CYNULLIAD CENEDLAETHOL CYMRU BD 37/01 THE DEPARTMENT FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT NORTHERN IRELAND Loads for Highway Bridges Summary: This Standard specifiesthe loadingto be used for the designof highway bridges and associatedstructures through the attached revisionof Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2.This revisionto BS 5400: Part 2 also includes the clausesthat relateto railway bridge live load. 0
  2. 2. Published with the permission of the Highways Agency on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. 0 Crown Copyright 2001 All rights reserved. Copyright in the typographical arrangement and design is vested in the Crown. Applications for reproduction should be made in writing to the Copyright Unit, Her Majesty’sStationery Office, St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ. ISBN 0 I1 552354 5 Standing Order Service Are you making full use of The Stationery Office’s Standing Order Service? The Standing Order Service is a free monitoring of the publications of your choice from over 4,000 classifications in 30 major subject areas. We send you your books as they are published along with an invoice. With a standing order for class 05.03.039 you can be supplied automatically with future titles specific to Volume 1 or 05.03.052 for all Design Manual for Roads and Bridges volumes as they are published. The benefits to you are: automatic supply of your choice of classification on publication no need for time-consuming and costly research, telephone calls and scanning of daily publication lists saving on the need and costs of placing individual orders We can supply a wide range of publications on standing order, from individual annual publications to all publications on a selected subject. If you do not already use this free service, or think you are not using it to its full capacity, why not contact us and discuss your requirements? You can contact us at: TheStationeryOffice StandingOrderDepartment PO Box 29 DukeStreet NorwichNR3 1GN TelO870 600 5522;fa0870 600 5533 E-mail books.standing.orders@theso.co.uk Stcrispins We look forward to hearing from you. 0 Printedin the United Kingdom for The Stationeryoffice TIOO5209 C15 08/01 9385 15480 I
  3. 3. DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES VOLUME 1 HIGHWAY STRUCTURES: APPROVAL PROCEDURES AND GENERALDESIGN e SECTION3 GENERALDESIGN PART14 BD 37/01 / LOADSFORHIGHWAYBRIDGES SUMMARY This Standardspecifiesthe loadingto be used for the design of highway bridges and associated structures throughthe attachedrevisionof CompositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2. Thisrevision to BS 5400:Part 2 also includesthe clausesthat relateto railway bridge live load. INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE This is a revised documentto be incorporatedinto the Manual. 1. RemoveBD 37/88,which is supersededby BD 37/01 ahd archive as appropriate. Insert BD 37/01into Volume 1,Section 3.2. 3. Archive this sheet as appropriate. Note: A quarterlyindexwith a full set of Volume Contents Pages is availableseparately from The StationeryOffice Ltd. August2001
  4. 4. I ... 1 ' 0 c DESIGN MANUAL'FOWROAD AND BRI Volume 1 Highway Structures: Approval Procedures and General Design Section 3 General Design LOADS FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES BD 37/01 CORRECTION Replace the existing pages A/43 - A/48 with the pages enclosed. Highways Agency February 2002 London: The Stationery Office
  5. 5. CORRECTIONS WITHIN DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES MAY 2002 OF CORRECTION - BD 12/01 VXme 2, Section 2, Part 6 DESIGN OF CORRUGATED STEEL BURIED STRUCTURES WITH SPANS GREATER THAN 0.9 METRES AND UP TO S O METRES In November 2001, page 7/1 - 7/2, was issued incorrectly. (The page number was incorrect as it read 7/1 - 7/4.) Please amend this page by crossing out page number 7/4 and writing 7/2. SUMMARY OF CORRECTION - BD 37/01 Volume 1,Section 3, Part 14 LOADS FOR HIGHWAYS BRIDGES In August 2001, page A/46, was issued incorrectly. (Clause 5.4.2 paragraph 2, had a typing error in the sentence.) Please remove this page and insert new one attached, dated May 2002. SUMMARY OF CORRECTION - BD 86/01 Volume 3, Section4, Part 19 THE ASSESSMENT OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES FOR THE EFFECTS OF SPECIAL TYPES GENERAL ORDER (STGO) AND SPECIAL ORDER VEHICLES ~ In November 2001, pages B/I - B/4 inclusive and C/3 - C/12 inclusive, were issued incorrectly. (The images were printed in black and white and incomplete, instead of colour). Subsequently replacement pages were sent out dated January 2002. The changes mainly affected the paper version of BD 86/01, but to be consistent we have reflected the changes in the CD-Rom version to mirror the paper version. We must also add that the changes made to BD 86/01 should have been issued as a correction and not an amendment. SUMMARY OF CORRECTION - TA 85/01 Volume 6, Section I,Part 3 GUIDANCE ON MINOR IMPROVEMENTS TO EXISTING ROADS In November 2001, pages 5/1 - 5/14 inclusive, Al/I - A1/2 and A1/9 - A1/10, were issued incorrectly. (The images were printed in black and white, instead of colour). Subsequently replacement pages were sent out dated January 2002. The changes mainly affected the paper version of TA 85//01, but to be consistent we have reflected the changes in the CD-Rom version to mirror the paper version. We must also add that the changes made to TA 85/0I should have been issued as a correction and not an amendment. Highways Agency I May 2002 London: The Stationery Office
  6. 6. Published with the permission of the Highways Agency on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. aCrown Copyright 2002 All rights reserved. Copyright in the typographical arrangement and design is vested in the Crown. Applications for reproduction should be made in writing to the Copyright Unit, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 IBQ. lSBN 0 I I 552583 I Standing Order Service Are you making full use of The Stationery Office’s Standing Order Service? The Standing Order Service is a free monitoring of the publications of your choice from over 4,000 classifications in 30 major subject areas. We send you your books as they are published along with an invoice. ith a standing order for class 05.03.039 you can be supplied automatically with future titles for Volume I , or @5.03.033 for Volume 2, 05.03.041 for Volume 3, 05.03.044 for Volume 6 or 05.03.031 for all Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works as they are published. The benefits to you are: 0 0 0 automatic supply of your choice of classification on publication no need for time-consuming and costly research, telephone calls and scanning of daily publication lists saving on the need and the costs of placing individual orders We can supply a wide range of publications on standing order, from individual annual publications to all publications on a selected subject. If you do not already use this free service, or think you are not using it to its full capacity, why not contact us and discuss your requirements? You can contact us at: The Stationery Office Standing Order Department PO Box 29 @)t;;igm; Norwich NR3 1GN TelO870 600 5522; fa0870 600 5533 E-mail: books.standing.orders@theso.co.uk We look forward to hearing from you. Printedin the United Kingdom for The Stationery Office 9 ~ 0 6C I S os/m 938s 1 7 ~ 6
  7. 7. Design Manual for Roads and Bridges Summary of Corrections for Voluines’2, I , 3 and 6 9 ISBN 0 I I 552583 I 7 8 0 1 1 5 5 2 5 8 3 4 t For comprehensive desk top access to the information contained within the Design Manual for Roadsand Bridges, TheManual of ContractDocumentsfor Highway Works and the Trunk Road Maintenance Manual, I,--~ 0 >’ I watch out for the: Available quarterly on subscription the Standards for Highway Works CD Rom offers you the opportunity to access all Volumes at your fingertips. Complete with user booklet, this publication wil enable you to access the information you need quickly. I Published by The Stationery Office and available from: The Stationery Office (mail, telephone, fax and e-mail orders only) PO Box 29, Norwich NR3 IGN Telephone orders/General enquiries 0870 600 5522 Fax orders 0870 600 5533 E-mailbook.orders@tso.co.uk Textphone 0870 240 3701 You can now order online at www.tso.co.uk The Stationery Office Bookshops 123 Kingsway, LondonWC2B 6PQ 020 7242 6393 Fax 020 7242 6394 68-69 Bull Street, Birmingham 84 6AD 0121 236 9696 Fax 0121 236 9699 9-2 I Princess Street, Manchester M60 8AS 0161 834 7201 Fax 0161 833 0634 I6Arthur Street, Belfast BTI 4GD 028 9023 8451 Fax 028 9023 5401 The Stationery Office Oriel Bookshop 18-19 High Street, Cardiff CFI 2BZ 029 2039 5548 Fax 029 2038 4347 71 Lothian Road, Edinburgh EH3 9AZ 0870 606 5566 Fax 0870 606 5588 The Stationery Office’s Accredited Agents (seeYellow Pages) ond through good booksellers I I ‘geb www.ts0.co.u kwww.ts0.co.u k ISBN 0-1 1-552583-1 I
  8. 8. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Registration of Amendments 0 0 Amend No Page No REGISTRATION OF AMENDMENTS Signature & Date of incorporation of amendments Amend No Page No Signature& Date of incorporation of amendments August 2001
  9. 9. Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01Registration of Amendments REGISTRATION OF AMENDMENTS Amend No Page No Signature & Date of incorporation of amendments Amend No amendments August2001
  10. 10. DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES VOLUME 1 HIGHWAY STRUCTURES: APPROVAL PROCEDURES AND GENERALDESIGN SECTION3 GENERALDESIGN PART 14 BD 37/01 LOADS FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES 0 Contents Chapter 1. Introduction 2. Scope 3. 4. AdditionalRequirements 5. References 6. Enquiries AppendixA Use of the CompositeVersion of BS 5400:Part 2 CompositeVersion of BS 5400: Part2 I 0 August 2001
  11. 11. Volume 1 Section 3 Chapter 1 Part 14 BD 37/01 Introduction 1. INTRODUCTION I I 1.1 BSI committee CSB 5911 reviewed BS 5400: Part 2: 1978(including BSI AmendmentNo 1(AMD 4209) dated 31 March 1983)and agreed a series of major amendments including the revision of the HA loading curve. It was agreed that as an interim measure, pending a long term review of BS 5400 as a whole and amendments to Part 2 would be issued by the Department of Transport rather than by BSI. Because of the largevolume of technical and editorial amendments involvedit has also been decided that a full compositeversion of BS 5400:Part 2 includingallthe 0 agreedrevision wouldbe produced, formingan Appendix to the 1988version of this Standard. I bearing in mind the work on Eurocodes,the series of I 1.2 Sincethe incorporationof the above amendments,the new load code for wind (BS 6399: Part 2) has been published in the United Kingdom and furtheradvances have been made in wind engineering. This has led to the need to amend the Appendix to this Standard in respect of: theUnited Kingdomwind map; 0 the effect of terrain roughness on the properties of the wind; 0 the effect of fetch of particular terrains on the propertiesof the wind; 0 the effects of topography on the propertiesof the 0 wind; 0 the treatment of pressure coefficients (drag and lift); and 0 the treatment of relieving areas. The following amendmentshave'been made to the clauses on thermal actions: * additionalprofiles for steel plate girders and trusses; 0 clarificationof return periods for differential temperatures; and 0 minor changes to effective bridge temperatures for box girders. Inaddition,the followingamendmentshave been made: 0 updatingcertain aspectsof highwaybridges: - horizontaldynamicloadingdueto crowdson footlcycletrack bidges; - vehiclecollisionloadson supportand superstructures; and updating of certain aspects of railway bridge loading related to: - deflection limits; - use of SW/Oloading; - liveloaddistributionby sleepers; - effects of bridges with 3 or 4tracks; - reference to UIC documents; - limitationsonapplicabilityofdynamicfactors forRU loading; - reference to aerodynamic effects from passing trains; and - reference to combined response of track and structureto longitudinalloads. 1.3 agreed to the amendmentsdescribed in 1.2. BSI committeeB525/10 has reviewed and I August 2001 111
  12. 12. 0 0 Volume 1 Section3 Chapter2 Part 14 BD 37/01 Scope 2. SCOPE 2.1 this standard BD 37/88. This Standard supersedes the previous version of 2.2 This Standarddoesnot coverall the loading requirements for the assessment of existinghighway bridges and structures;additional requirementsare given in BD 21 (DMRB 3.4). August2001 211
  13. 13. Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Chapter3 Use of the ComDositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 0 3. USE OF THE COMPOSITE VERSION OF BS 5400: PART 2 3.1 belongingto the OverseeingOrganisationshallbe as specifiedin the full compositeversionof BS 5400:Part 2 in Appendix A to this Standard. Loads for the design of all highway bridges 3.2 concrete box-type structures and for corrugated steel buried structuresare given in BD 31(DMRB 2.2) and BD 12 (DMRB 2.2), respectively. Design loadingrequirementsforrigidburied August 2001 311
  14. 14. Volume 1 Section3 Chapter4 Part 14 BD 37/01 Additional Requirements ~ Class of road carried ’ by structure 4. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS 4.1 loading. In addition, a minimum of 30 units of type HB loading shall be taken for all road bridges except for accommodationbridges which shall be designed to HA loading only. The actual number of units shall be .relatedto the class of road as specified below: All road bridges shallbe designed to carry HA ~~~~ ~~ Motorwaysand Trunk Roads (or principal road extensionsof trunk routes) Principal roads Other public roads Number of units of type HB loading 45 37.5 30 4.2 For highway bridges where the superstructure carries more than seven traffic lanes (ie lanes marked on the running surfaceand normally used by traffic), applicationof type HA and type HB loading shall be agreed with the Overseeing Organisation. 4.3 Where reference is made in the composite version of BS 5400:Part 2 to the ‘appropriateauthority’, this shallbe taken to be the Overseeing Organisation, except where a reduced load factor is used for superimposed dead load in accordance with 5.2.2.1 of the document, it shallbe ensuredthat the nominal superimposeddead load is not exceeded duringthe life of the bridge and that a note to this effect is given in the maintenance record for the structure. 0 4.4 which is not specificallydescribed in the composite version of BS 5400: Part 2 or in this Standard,the loading requirements must be agreed with the Overseeing Organisationand treated as an aspect not coveredby current standards.This will include structures such as those carrying grass roads, access ways etc which may have to carry specificloading such as that due to emergency or maintenance vehicles. Bridlewaysshallnormallybe designedto theloading specified for footlcycle track bridges unless they have to carry maintenance vehicles which impose a greater loading,in which casethe loadingrequirementsmust be Where a structureis designed for a purpose 0 agreed with the Overseeing Organisation. 4.5 composite version of BS 5400: Part 2) and temperature effects (see 5.4 of the composite version of BS 5400: Part 2) for foothycle track bridges, the return period may be reduced from 120years to 50 years subject to the agreement of the Overseeing Organisation. In determiningthe wind load (see 5.3 of the 4.6 The collision loads to be adopted and the safety fence provisions at bridge supports shall be agreed with the OverseeingOrganisation.Generallythe headroom clearanceand collision loads shallbe in accordancewith TD 27 (DMRB 6.1) and BD 60 (DMRB 1.3) respectively. 4.7 In additionto 5.7 of the compositeversion of BS 5400:Part 2, the followingconditionsshallapply when assessing structures for the effects of loading causedby abnormalindivisibleloads(AIL); 1. Wheel and axle loads shall be taken as nominalloads; 2. The longitudinalloadcausedbybrakingor traction shall be taken as whichever of the followingproduces the most severe effect; (a)theHB tractionhraking forceapplied in accordancewith the composite version; (b)a braking force of 15%of the gross weight of theAIL vehicletraindistributedproportionallyto the load carriedby the individualbrakingaxles; (c)a traction force of 10%of the gross weight of theAIL vehicletraindistributedproportionallyto the loadcamed by the individualdrivingaxles. 4.8 this Standard(includingthecompositeversionof BS 5400: Part 2) shallbe agreed with the Overseeing Organisation. Departure from any of the requirements given in August 2001 411
  15. 15. Volume 1 Section3 Chapter5 Part 14 BD 37/01 References I l 5.1 preceding sectionsof this Standard. The followingdocumentsare referred to in the BS 5400: Steel,concreteand compositebridges: Part 2: 1978:Specificationfor loads. Amendment No 1,31March 1983. BS 6399: Part 2: 1997:Code of practice for wind loads. BD 12(DMRB 2.2): Design of Corrugated Steel buried structureswith spans not exceeding8m includingcirculararches. BD 21 (DMRB 3.4): The assessmentof highway bridges and structures. BD 31 (DMRB 2.2): Buried concretebox type structures. BD 60 (DMRB 1.3):Design of highway bridges forvehiclecollisionloads. TD 27 (DMRB 6.1) Cross-Sectionsand Headrooms. 0 August 2001 511
  16. 16. Volume 1 Section3 Chapter6 Part 14 BD 37/01 Enquiries 0 6. ENQUIRIES Chief HighwayEngineer The National Assembly for Wales CynulliadCenedlaetholCymru CrownBuildings Cathays Park Cardiff CF10 3NQ All technical enquiriesor commentson this Standardshouldbe sentin writing as appropriateto: Chief HighwayEngineer The Highways Agency St ChristopherHouse Southwark Street London SE1 OTE G CLARM2 ChiefHighwayEngineer I' Chief Road Engineer ScottishExecutiveDevelopmentDepartment Victoria Quay Edinburgh EH6 6QQ J HOWISON Chief Road Engineer J R REES ChiefHighwayEngineer I Director of Engineering Department for RegionalDevelopment Roads Service Clarence Court 10-18 Adelaide Street Belfast BT2 8GB G W ALLISTER DirectorofEngineering 0 August 2001 611 I
  17. 17. Volume 1 Section 3 Appendix A Part 14 BD 37/01 Composite Version of BS 5400:Part 2 0 APPENDIX A: COMPOSITE VERSION OF BS 5400: PART 2I FOR THE SPECIFICATIONOF LOADS USED FOR THE DESIGN OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES. 0 0 0 August 2001 A/1
  18. 18. Volume 1 Section3Appendix A , Part 14 BD 37/01Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 0 BS 5400: Part 2: 1978 CONTENTS Page Foreword 9 SPECIFICATION 10 1. SCOPE 10 1.1 DocumentscomprisingthisBritish Standard 10 , 1.2 1.3 Wind and temperature Loads and factors specifiedin this Part of BS 5400 10 10 0 2. REFERENCES 10 3. PRINCIPLES, DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS 10 I 3.1 Principles 10 3.2 Definitions 10 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3;2.7 3.2.8 3.2.9 3.2.10 Loads Dead load Superimposeddead load Live loads Adverse and relieving areas and effects Total effects Dispersal Distribution Highway carriagewayand lanes Bridgecomponents 10 10 10 10 11 , 11 11 11 14 l1 0 3.3 Symbols 14 4. LOADS: GENERAL 16 I 4.1 Loads and factors specified 16 4.1.1 Nominalloads 4.1.2 Design loads 4.1.3 Additional factory, 4.1.4 Fatigue loads 4.1.5 Deflection,drainageand camber 16 16 16 16 16 4.2 Loads to be considered 16 4.3 Classificationof loads 16 4.3.1 Permanent loads 4.3.2 Transientloads 16 016 August2001AI2
  19. 19. 0 0 I 0 0 Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 AppendixA CompositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 4.4 Combinationof loads 4.4.1 Combination1 4.4.2 Combination2 4.4.3 Combination3 4.4.4 Combination4 4.4.5 Combination5 4.5 Applicationof loads 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 Liveload 4.5.4 Wind onrelieving areas Selection to cause most adverse effect Removal of superimposeddead load 4.6 Overturning 4.6.1 Restoringmoment 4.6.2 ' Removal of loads Foundationpressures, slidingon foundations,loadsonpiles,etc4.7 4.7.1 Design loads to be considered with BS 8004 5. LOADS APPLICABLE TO ALL BRIDGES 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Dead load 5.1.1 Nominaldead load 5.1.2 Designload Superimposeddead load 5.2.1 Nominal superimposeddead load 5.2.2 Design load Wind loads 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.3.8 5.3.9 General Wind gust speed Nominal transverse wind load Nomind'longitudindwind load Nominalverticalwind load Load combination Design loads Overturning effects Aerodynamic effects Temperature 5.4.1 General 5.4.2 5.4.3 Minimum and maximum shade air temperatures Minimum and maximum effectivebridge temperatures Page 16 16 17 17 17 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 31 38 42 43 43 43 46 46 46 46 47 August 2001 a13
  20. 20. Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 a Page 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.4.4 5.4.5 Temperature difference 5.4.6 Coefficientof thermal expansion 5.4.7 Nominalvalues 5.4.8 Designvalues Effects of shrinkage and creep, residual stresses, etc Differentialsettlement 5.6.1 Assessment of differential settlement 5.6.2 Load factors 5.6.3 Designload Exceptionalloads 5.7.1 Snowload 5.7.2 Designloads Earth pressure on retaining structures 5.8.1 Fillingmaterial 5.8.2 Live load surcharge Erectionloads 5.9.1 Temporaryloads 5.9.2 Permanent loads 5.9.3 5.9.4 Wind and temperature effects 5.9.5 Snow and ice loads Range of effective bridge temperature Disposition of permanentandtemporaryloads 6. HIGHWAY BRIDGE LIVE LOADS 6.1 General 6.1.1 Loads to be considered 6.1.2 6.1.3 Distributionanalysisof structure Notional lanes,hard shoulders,etc 6.2 TypeHA loading 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 Distribution 6.2.4 Dispersal 6.2.5 6.2.6 Dispersal 6.2.7 DesignHA loading Nominaluniformlydistributedload(UDL) Nominal knife edgeload (KEL) Singlenominal wheel load alternativeto UDL and KEL 50 .50 50 51 51 52 52 52 52 52 52 053 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 54 54 55 55 0 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 59 59 59
  21. 21. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A ComDositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 TypeHB loading 6.3.1 NominalHB loading 6.3.2 Contact area 6.3.3 Dispersal 6.3.4 DesignHB loading Application of types HA and HB loading 6.4.1 TypeHA loading 6.4.2 6.4.3 Types HA and HB loadingcombined Highway loading on transverse cantilever slabs, slabs supportedon all four sides, slabs spanning transversely and central reserves Standard footway and cycle track loading 6.5.1 Nominalpedestrianliveload 6.5.2 Liveloadcombination 6.5.3 Design load Accidentalwheel loading 6.6.1 Nominal accidentalwheel loading 6.6.2 Contact area 6.6.3 Dispersal 6.6.4 Liveloadcombination 6.6.5 Design load Loads due to vehicle collision with parapets 6.7.1 6.7.2 Loads due to vehicle collision with parapets for determining local effects Loads due to vehicle collisionwith high levelof containmentparapets for determiningglobaleffects Vehiclecollision loads onhighwaybridge supportsand superstructures 6.8.1 Nominal loadson supports 6.8.2 Nominal load on superstructures 6.8.3 6.8.4 Loadcombination 6.8.5 Design load 6.8.6 Associatednominal primary liveload Bridges crossing railway track, canals or navigable water Centrifugalloads 6.9.1 Nominalcentrifugalload 6.9.2 6.9.3 Loadcombination 6.9.4 Design load Associatednominalprimary live load Page 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 62 63 63 65 66 66 6 6 , 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 68 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 August 2001 A/5
  22. 22. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 I 0 7. 8. 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 Longitudinalload 6.10.1 6.10.2 6.10.3 6.10.4 Load combination 6.10.5 Designload Accidentalloaddueto skidding 6.11.1 Nominal load 6.11.2 6.11.3 Load combination 6.11.4 Design load Loading forfatigueinvestigations Dynamic loadingonhighwaybridges Nominal load for type HA Nominal load fortype HB Associatednominalprimary live load Associated nominal primary live load FOOTKYCLE TRACK BRIDGE LIVE LOADS 7.1 Standard footkycle track bridge loading 7.1.1 Nominalpedestrianlive load 7.1.2 7.1.3 Designload Vehicle collision loads on foot/cycletrack bridge supports and superstructures Effects due to horizontal loadingon pedestrianparapets 7.2 7.3 Vibrationserviceability RAILWAY BRIDGE LIVE LOAD 8.1 General 8.2 Nominal loads 8.2.1 Loadmodels 8.2.2 TypeRL loading 8.2.3 Dynamic effects 8.2.4 Dispersal of concentrated loads 8.2.5 8.2.6 Application of standardloadings 8.2.7 Lurching 8.2.8 Nosing 8.2.9 Centrifugalload 8.2.10 Longitudinalloads 8.2.11 Deck plates and similar local elements Aerodynamic effects Erom passing trains 8.3 Loadcombinations 8.4 Design loads Page 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 73 7373 0 73 74 74 75 76 76 4 76 77 77 77 78 78 79 0 ~~ August2006AJ6
  23. 23. Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A CompositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 8.5 Derailment loads 8.5.1 8.5.2 Design load for RU loading Design load forRL loading 8.6 8.7 Loadingfor fatigueinvestigations 8.8 DeflectionRequirements Collision load on supportsof bridges overrailways 8.9 APPENDICES Footway and cycle track loading on railway bridges B.l B.2 B.3 B.4 C D D.1 D.2 D.3 E E.1 E.2 F F.1 F.2 E3 0 EF.6 Basis of HA and HB highway loading Vibration servicabilityrequirements for foot and cycletrack bridges General Simplifiedmethod forderivingmaximum verticalacceleration General method forderivingmaximum verticalacceleration Damage from forced vibration Temperature differences T for various surfacing depths Derivation of RU and RL railway loadings RU loading RLLoading Use of tables 25 to 28 when designing for RU loading Probability Factor Spand Seasonal Factor Ss Probability Factor Sp Seasonal Factor Ss Topography Factor S,,’ General TopographySignificance Altitude Gust Speeds Hourly Mean Speeds Topography Features TABLES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. i::15. Loads to be take in each combination with appropriate’ya Values to direction factor S, Values of terrain and bridge factor S,,” hourly speed factor Se’ and fetch correction factor K, Gust speed reduction factor,T for bridges in towns Hourly mean reduction factor %c for bridges in towns Drag coefficient C, for a single truss Shieldingfactorq Drag coefficient C, for parapets and safety fences Drag coefficient C, for piers Minimum effective bridge temperature Maximum effective bridge temperature Adjustment to effective bridge temperature for deck surfacing TypeHAuniformlydistributedload HA lane factors Collision loads on supportsofbridges over highways Page 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 82 82 82 84 84 86 89 89 93 94 97 97 97 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 18 25 28 29 29 37 37 39 40 48 48 50 56 61 69 August2001 N 7
  24. 24. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 0 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Dynamic factor for type RU loading DimensionL used in calculatingthe dynamic factorforRU loading Nominallongitudinalloads ConfigurationfactorC ConfigurationfactorK Logarithmic decrementof decayof vibration Values of T for groups 1and 2 Values of T for group 3 Values of T for group 4 Equivalentuniformlydistributedloadsforbendingmoments for simplysupportedbeams (staticloading)underRU loading End shearforces for simply supportedbeams (staticloading)under RU loading Equivalentuniformlydistributedioadsforbendingmoments forsimplysupportedbeams, includingdynamiceffects,underRU loading End shearforces for simply supportedbeams, includingdynamiceffects,under RU loading. Values of seasonal factor Ss Values of Leand S, FIGURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Highway carriageway and traffic lanes Basic wind speed V, in m / s Definitionof significanttopography Typical superstructuresto which figure 5 applies,those that require wind tunnel tests and depth d to be used for deriving A, and C, Drag coefficientC, for superstructureswith solid elevation Lift coefficientC, Isothermsof minimum shade air temperature (in "C) Isothermsof maximum shadeair temperature (in "C) Temperaturedifference for different types of construction Loading curve for HA UDL Baselengthsforhighlycusped influencelines Dimensions ofHB vehicle TypeHA andHBhighway loadingin combination Accidentalwheel loading TypeRU loadingand Type SW/Oloading TypeRL loading Dynamic response factor y~ Wagons and locomotivescoveredby RU loading Works trains vehicles covered by RL loading Passenger vehicles covered by RL, loading Shearforce determination Defmitionoftopographicdimensions Topgraphiclocation factorsforhills andridges Topographiclocation factors for cliffs and escarpments ( Page 74 75 78 83 83 84 86 86 87 95 95 96 9698 0 101 12 24 27 35 36 42 44 45 49 57 58 :.66 73 74 85 90 91 92 94 101 102 104 August2001AI8 I
  25. 25. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A CompositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 FOREWO BS 5400 is a document combining codes of practice to cover the design and construction of steel, concrete and composite bridges and specifications for loads, materials and workmanship. It comprises the following Parts: Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part10 General statement Specificationof loads Code of practice for design of steel bridges Code of practice for design of concrete bridges Code of practice for design of composite bridges Specification for materials and workmanship, steel Specification for materials and workmanship, concrete, reinforcement and prestressing tendons Recommendations for materials and workmanship, concrete, reinforcement and prestresshg tendons Bridge bearings Section 9.1 Code of practice for design of bridge bearings Section 9.2 Specification for materials, manufacture and installation of bridge bearings Code of practice for fatigue , A/9I August20QP
  26. 26. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 IBD 37/01 British Standard STEEL, CONCRETE AND COMPOSITE IBmGES Part 2. Specification for loads 1. SCOPE 1.1 conjunction with the otherParts of BS 5400 which deal with the design,materials and workmanshipof steel, concreteand composite bridges. Documents comprising this British Standard. This specification for loads should be read in 1.2 loads and their application,together with the partial factors,yfL,to be used in derivingdesign loads. The loads and load combinations specifiedarehighway,railway and footkycle track bridges in theUnited Kingdom. Where different loadingregulationsapply,modificationsmay be necessary. 1.3 United Kingdom and Eire. If the requirements of this Part of BS 5400 are applied outsidethis area,relevant local data shouldbe adopted. Loads and factors specified in this Part of BS 5400. This Part of BS 5400 specifiesnominal Wind and temperature. Wind and temperatureeffects relate to conditions prevailing in the 0 2. REFERENCES The titles of the standardspublications referred to in this Part of BS 5400 are listed at the end of this document (see page 97). 3. PRIUYCIPLES, DEFHNPTPONS AND SYMBOLS 3.1 factors, etc. Principles. *Part 1of this standard setsout the principles relating to loads, limit states, load 3.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this Part of BS 5400 the followingdefinitionsapply. 3.2.1 caused by restraint of movement due to changes in temperature. Loads. External forces applied to the structureand imposed deformations such as those 3.2.1.1 Load effects. The stress resultants in the structure arising from its response to .. loads (as defined in 3.2.1). 3.2.2 elements, but excluding superimposedmaterials suchas road surfacing,rail track ballast, parapets, main,ducts,miscellaneousfurniture,etc. Dead load. The weight of the materials and parts of the structurethat are structural 3.2.3 that are not strutural elements. Superimposeddead load. The weight of all materials forming loads on the structure 3.2.4 Live loads. Loads due to vehicle or pedestrian traffic. 3.2.4.1 to the mass of traffic. Primary live loads. Vertical live loads, considered as static loads, due directly 3.2.4.2 vehicletrafficeglurching,nosing,centrifugal,longitudinal,skiddingandcollision loads. Secondary live loads. Live loads due to changes in speed or direction of the 0*Attentionis drawn to the differencein principle of this British Standardfromits predecessor, BS 153. AI10 August2001
  27. 27. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A CompositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 3.2.5 an influenceline consistingofbothpositiveandnegativeparts, intheconsiderationof loading effects which are positive, the positive areas of the influence line are referred to as adverse areas and their effects as adverse effects and the negative areas of the influence line are referred to as relieving areas and their effectsas relieving effects. Conversely,in the considerationof loading effects which are negative, the negative areas of the influence line are referred to as adverse areas and their effects as adverse effects and the positive areas of the influences line are referred to as relieving areas and their effects as relieving effects. Adverse and relieving areas and effects. Where an element or structure has 3.2.6 Total effects. The algebraic sum of the adverse and relieving effects. 3.2.7 Dispersal. The spread of load through surfacing, fill, etc. 3.2.8 not directlyloaded as a consequenceof the stiffness of intervening connectingmembers, as eg diaphragms between beams, or the effects of distribution of a wheel load across the width of a plate or slab. Distribution. The sharing of load between directly loaded members and other members 3.2.9 carriageway and traffic lanes). Highway carriageway and lanes (figure 1 gives a diagrammaticdescription of the 3.2.9.1 surfacewhich includesall traffic lanes, hard shoulders,hard stripsand marker strips. The carriageway width is the width between raised kerbs. In the absence of raised kerbs it is the width between safety fences, less the amount of set-back required for these fences, being not less than 0.6m or more than 1.Om from the traffic face of each fence. The carriageway width shallbe measured in a direction at right anglesto the line of the raised kerbs, lane marks or edge marking. NOTE: For ease of use, the definition of "carriageway"given in this Standarddiffers from that given in BS 6100: Part 2. 3.2.9.2 and are normally used by traffic. 3.2.9.3 purposes of applyingthe specifiedlive loads. Thenotional lanewidth shallbe measured in a direction at right anglesto the line of the raised kerbs, lane markers or edge marking. Carriageway. For the purposes of this Standard,that part of the running Traffic lanes. The lanes that are marked on the running surface of the bridge Notional lanes. The notional parts of the carriageway used solely for the 3.2.9.3.1 Carriagewaywidths of 5.00m or more. Notional lanes shall be taken to be not less than 2.50m wide. Where the number of notional lanes exceeds two, their individualwidths shouldbe not more than 3.65m. Thecarriagewayshallbe dividedinto an integral number of notional laneshave equalwidths as follows: Carriagewaywidth m Number of notional lanes 5.00up to andincluding7.50 above7.50 up to and including 10.95 above 10.95up to and including 14.60 above 14.60up to and including 18.25 above 18.25up to and including21.90 August 2Q01 AI11,
  28. 28. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400:'Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Figure1. Highwaycarriagewayandtrafficlanes 0
  29. 29. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 IBD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 I *Wherethe carriagewaycarriesunidirectionaltraffic only,this lanebecomes the outsidetraffic lane NOTE 1. The samedefinitionsof inside,middle and outsidehave been used €ornotionallanes. NOTE 2. Wherea safetyfencereplaces a raised kerb the limitsof the footwayor verge and the hard strip shallbe as shownin figure l(a). Figure 1. (continued) August2001 AA3
  30. 30. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 03.2.9.3.2 to have one notional lane with a width of 2.50m. The loading on the remainderof the carriagewaywidth shouldbe as specified in 6.4.1.1. 3.2.9.3.3 Dual carriageway structures. Where dual carriageways are carried on. one superstructure,the number of notional lanes on the bridge shallbe taken as the sum of the number of notional lanes in each of the single carriagewaysas specified in 3.2.9.3.1. Carriageway-widthsof less than 5.00m. The carriageway shall be taken 3.2.10 Bridge components 3.2.10.1 by the piers and abutments. 3.2.10.2 abutments that support the superstructure. 3.2.10.3 transmitting load to, the ground. Superstructure. In a bridge, that part of the structurewhich is supported Substructure. In a bridge, the wing walls and the piers, towers and Foundation. That part of the substructure in direct contact with, and 3.3 Symbols. The following symbolsare used in this Partof BS 5400. fo F Ho I j k K KF 1 1, L maximum verticalacceleration solidarea innormal projectedelevation see 5.3.4.6 area in plan used to derivevertical wind load widthused in derivingwind load notional lanewidth spacingof plate girdersused in derivingdrag factor configurationfactor drag coefficient lift coefficient depthused in derivingwind load depth of deck depth of deckplus solidparapet depth of deckplus live load depthof liveload modulusofelasticity a factorused in derivingcentrifugal load on railwaytracks fundamentalnatural fiequencyofvibration pulsatingpoint load centrifugalload depth (see figure 9) height ofbridge abovelocalgroundlevel roof top levelaboveground level second moment of area maximum valueofordinateof influenceline a constantused to dervieprimary live load on footlcycletrack bridges configurationfactor fetch correction factor main span length of the outer span of a three-span superstructure loadedlength actuallengthof downwindslope actuallengthofupwind slope effectivebase length of influenceline (see figure 11) effective lengthofupwind slope AI14 August2001
  31. 31. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 AppendixA CompositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 weight per unit length (see B.2.3) number of lanes number of axles (see Appendix D) number of beams or box girders equivalentuniformlydistributedload nominallongitudinalwind load nominaltransversewind load nominalverticalwind load dynamic pressure head radius of curvature topographiclocationfactor funnellingfactor altitudefactor bridge and terrain factor hourly speed factor directionfactor gust factor topographyfactor probability factor seasonal factor thickness of pier time in seconds (See B.3) temperature differential (see figure 9 and appendix C) hourly mean reduction factor for towns gust reduction factor for towns area under influenceline speed of highway or rail traffic basic hourly mean wind speed maximumwind gust speed hourly mean wind speed for relieving areas sitehourly mean wind speed load per metre of lane horizontal distance of site from the crest staticdeflection effective height of topographic feature lane factors (see 6.4.1.1) frst lane factor second lane factor third lane factor fourth and subsequent lane factor see Part 1 of this standard see 4.1.3 and Part 1 of this standard partial load factor (y, x y,) logarithmicdecrementof decayof vibration altitudeabove mean sea level base of topography shieldingfactor angle of wind (see 5.3.5) dynamic response factor (see B.2.6) average slope of ground (see Fig 3) downwindslope upwind slope wind direction (see 5.3.2.2.4) August 2001 AJ15
  32. 32. I Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 0 4. , LOADS: GENERAL 4.1 Loads and factors specified 4.1.1 Nominal loads. Where adequate statistical distributionare available, nominal loads are those appropriate to a return period of 120years. In the absence of such statistical data,nominal load values that are considered to approximateto a 120-yearreturn period are given. 4.1.2 Designloads. Nominal loads shouldbe multipliedby the approporiatevalue of yato derivethe design load to be used in the calculation of moments, shears, total loads and other effects for each of the limit states under consideration. Values of y, are given in each relevant clause and also in table 1. 4.1.3 are also to be multiplied by y, to obtain the design load effects. Values of y, are given in Parts 3, 4and 5 of this standard. 4.1.4 with the appropriate value of y,, are given in Part 10of this standard. 4.1.5 camber and drainage characteristics of the structure are given in Parts 3,4and 5 of this standard. Additional factoryn. Moments, shears, total loads and other effects of the design loads Fatigue loads. Fatigue loads to be considered for highway and railway bridges, together 0 Deflection, drainageand camber. The requirements for calculating the deflection, 4.2 the specifiedvalues ya, are set out in the appropriateclauses and summarisedin table 1. 4.3 transient. Loads to be considered. The loads to be considered in different load combinations, together with Classificationof loads. The loads applied to a structure are regarded as either permanent or 4.3.1 loads and loads due to filling material shall be regarded as permanent loads. Permanent loads. For the purposes of this standard, dead loads, superimposed dead 4.3,l.1 Loading effectsnot due to external action. Loads deriving from the nature of the structural material, its manufacture or the circumstances of its fabrication are dealt with in the appropriate Parts of this standard. Where they occur they shall be regarded as permanent loads. 4.3.1.2 as a permanent load where there is reason to believe that this will take place, and no special provision has been made to remedy the effect. Settlement. The effect differential settlement of supports shall be regarded 4.3.2 shall be considered transient. 'h-ansientloads. For the purposes of this standard all loads other than permanent ones The maximum effects of certaintransient loads do not coexist with the maximum effects of certain others. The reduced effects that can coexist are specified in the relevant clauses. 4.4 values of y, for each load for each combination in which it is considered are given in the relevant clauses and also summarisedin table 1. Combinationsof loads. Three principal and two secondary combinations of loads are specified; 4.4.1 the permanent loads, together with the appropriateprimary live loads, and, for railway bridges, the permanent loads, together with the appropriateprimary and secondarylive loads. Combination1. For highway and foothycle track bridges, the loads to be considered are 0 AI16 august2001
  33. 33. Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A CompositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 0 4.4.2 1,togetherwith those due to wind and, where erection is being considered,temporary erection loads. Combination 2. For all bridges, the loadsto be considered arethe loads in combination 4.4.3 1, together with those arising from restraint due to the effectsof temperature range and difference, and, where erectionis being considered,temporary erection loads. Combination3. For all bridges, the loads to be considered arethe loads in combination 4.4.4 Combination4. Combination4 does not apply to railway bridges except for vehicle collisionloadingon bridge supports. For highwaybridges,the loadsto be consideredarethe permanent loads and the secondarylive loads,together with the appropriateprimary live loads associated with them. Secondary live loads shall be considered separatelyand are not required to be combined. Each shallbe taken with its appropriateassociatedprimary live load. For foot/cycletrack bridges, the only secondarylive loadsto be consideredarethe vehicle collision loads on bridge supports and superstructures (see 7.2). August 2001
  34. 34. Appendix A ComDosite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Clause Load Limit number state Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 7, to be considered in combination 1 1 2 3 4 5 5.1 Dead: steel concrete 5.2 uLsSLS I ;:::I ;::: Superimposed dead: deck surfacing other loads 1.05 1.oo 5.3 1.15 1.oo Wind: during erection ULS 1.10 SLS 1.oo with dead plus superimposed dead load only, and ULS 1.40 for members urimarilv resisting wind loads SLS 1.oo 1175 1.20 with dead plus superimposeddead plus other appropriate combination 2 loads relieving effect of wind 1.20 1.oo ULS 1.10 SLS 1.oo ULS 1.oo SLS 1.oo 1.os 1.oo frictional bearing restraint effect of temperature difference 1.15 1.oo ULS 1.30 SIS 1.oo ULS 1.oo SLS 0.80 1.75 1.20 5.6 1.20 1.oo Differential settlement ULS 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 SLS 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.oo 1.os 1.oo 6.3 6.5 6.6 1.15 1.oo HA with HI3 or HB alone ULS 1.30 1.10 1.10 3 SLS 1.10 1.00 1.oo footway and cycle track ULS 1.50 1.25 1.25 loading SLS 1.00 1.00 1.oo accidental wheel loading** ULS 1.50 SLS 1.20 1.75 1.20 1.20 1.oo 5. I .2.2 & 5.2.2.2 Reduced load factor for dead and superimposeddead load where this has a more severe total effect I ULS I 1.00 1 1.00 I 1.00 I 1.00 I 1.00 I::l I kl I5.4 I Temperature: restraint to movement, except frictional *ya shall be increased to at least 1.10 and 1.20 for steel and concrete respectively to compensate for inaccuracies when dead loads are not accurately assessed. +y, may be reduced to 1.2and 1.Ofor the ULS and SLS respectively subject to approval of the appropriate authority (see 5.2.2.1). **Accidentalwheel loading shallnot be consideredas actingwith any otherprimary liveloads. N18 A M ~ M S ~2001
  35. 35. , I Volume 1 Section3 Appendix A I Part 14 BD 37/01 Composite Version of BS ~ i i :Part 2 Table 1 (continued) lause lumber Load Limit y,to be considered in combination state - 1 32 Loads due to vehicle collision with parapets & associated pimary live load: Local parapet load low & normal containment ULS SLS ULS SLS B -.E - ULS 3 SLS b - 3- 9 1.50 I .20 1.40 1.15 high containment associated primary live load: low, normal & high containment +parapet load ve s t r u c w bridge superstructures and non- elastomeric bearings bridge substructuresand wing & retaining walls bridge superstructures & non- elastomeric bearings bridge substructuresand wing & retaining walls associated primary live load: Massive 1;- bridge superstructures, non- elastomeric bearings, bridge substructures & wing & retaining walls elastomeric bearings Effects on all elements excepting elastomeric bearings Effects on elastomeric bearings ULS 3c 1.25 1.oo 1.oo 1.40 1.40 I .oo ULS 2 ‘Z ULS 8 SLS 5 E b ULS 9 s SLS 3 ULS ge, W x e, 9 - $- ULS E.8 Vehicle collision loads on bridge supports and superstructures: fSLS s 2 3- Centrihgal load & associated primary live load ULS 2.9 .I0 Longitudinal load: HA & associated primary live load HB associated primary live load ~ Accidental skidding load and associated primary live load bridges: parapet load vehicle collision loads on supports and superstructures*** . I 1 1.25 1.oo 1.25 1.oo 1.25 I .oo I .ULS Railway bridges: type RU and U, and SW/O primary and secondary live loading ULS 1.40 SLS 1.10 1.20 1.oo 1.20 1.oo ***Thisis the only secondary live load to be considered for footlcycletrack bridges. NOTE. For loads arising from creep and shrinkage, or from welding and lack of fit, see Parts 3,4 and 5 of this standard,as appropriate. august2001 AI19
  36. 36. Appendix A Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 - 4.4.5 together with the loads due to friction at bearings* Applicationof loads. Each element and structure shall be examined under the effects of loads that Combination5. For all bridges, the loads to be considered are the permanent loads, 4.5 can coexist in each combination. 4.5.1 such a way that the most adverse total effect is caused in the element or structureunder consideration. Selection to cause most adverse effect+.Design loads shall be selected and applied in 4.5.2 that the removal of superimposeddead load from part of the structuremay diminish its relieving effect. In so doing the adverse effect of live load on the elements of the structurebeing examined may be modified to the extentthat the removal of the superimposeddead loadjustifies this. Removalof superimposed dead load. Consideration shallbe given to the possibility 4.5.3 Live load. Live load shallnot be considered to act on relieving areas except in the case 0 of wind on live load when the presence of light traffic is necessary to generate the wind load (see 5.3A). 4.5.4 modified in accordancewith 5.3.2.2and 5.3.2.4. Wind on relievingareas. Design loads due to wind on relieving areas shall be 4.6 considered for the ultimate limit state. Overturning. The stabilityof the superstructureand its parts against overturning shallbe 4.6.1 shall be greater than the greatest overturningmoment due to the design loads (ieyL for the ultimatelimit statex the effectsof the nominal loads). Restoring moment. The least restoring moment due to the unfactored nominal loads 4.6.2 of superimposeddead load shall alsobe taken intoaccountin consideringoverturning. Removal of loads. The requirements specified in 4.5.2 relating to the possibe removal 4.7 foundations,the dead load (see 5.1) the superimposeddead load (see 5.2) and loadsdue to filling material (see 5.8.1) shallbe regarded as permanent loads and all live loads, temperature effects and wind loads shall be regarded as transient loads, except in certain circumstancessuch as a main line railway bridge outsidea busy terminal where it may be necessary to assess a proportion of live load as being permanent. Foundation pressures, sliding on foundations, loads on piles, etc. In the design of 0 The designof foundationsincludingconsiderationof overturningshallbe based ontheprinciples set out in BS 8004using load combinationsas given in thisPart. 4.7.1 Design loads to be consideredwith BS 8004. BS 8004 has not been drafted on the basisof limit statedesign;it will thereforebe appropriateto adoptthenominal loadsspecified in all relevant clauses of this standard as design loads (takingyL= 1.O and yB= 1.O) for the purpose of foundationdesign in accordancewith BS 8004. *Wherea member is required to resist the loads due to temperaturerestraint within the structureand to frictional restraint of temperature-inducedmovement at bearings, the sum of these effects shallbe considered. An exampleis the abutment anchorage of a continuous structure where temperature movement is accommodatedby flexureof piers in some spans and by rollerbearings in others. l +It is expectedthat experience in the use of this standardwill enableusers to identify those load cases and combinations(as in the case of BS 153)which governdesignprovisions, and it is onlythose load cases and combinations which need to be established for use in practice. 0
  37. 37. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 5. LOADS APPLICABLE TO ALL BRIDGES 5.1 Dead load 5.1.1 of the materials given in BS 648. The nominal dead load initiallyassumed shallbe accurately checked with the actual weights to be used in construction and, where necessary, adjustments shall be made to reconcile any discrepancies. Nominal dead load. Initial values for nominal dead load may be based on the densities 5.1.2 whether these parts have an adverse or relieving effect, shall be taken for all five load combinations as follows: Design load. The factor, yato be applied to all parts of the dead load, irrespective of For theultimate limit state limit state For the serviceability Steel 1.05 Concrete 1.15 1.o 1.o except as specified in 5.1.2.1 and 5.1.2.2. These values for y, assume that the nominal dead load has been accurately assessed, that the weld metal and bolts, etc, in steelwork and the reinforcement, etc, in concrete have been properly quantified and taken into acount and that the densities and materials have been confirmed. 5.1.2.1 assessment of nominal dead load forpreliminary design or for other purposes should be accompanied by an appropriate and adequate increment in the value of ya.Values of 1.1 for steel and 1.2for concrete for the ultimate limit state will usually suffice to allow for the minor approximationsnormally made. It is not possible to specifythe allowancesrequired to be set against various assumptionsand approximations,and it is the responsibility of the engineer to ensure that the absolute values specified in 5.1.2 are met in the completed structure. Approximations in assessment of load. Any deviation from accurate 5.1.2.2 Alternative load factor. Where the structure or element under consideration is such that the application of y, as specfied in 5.1.2 for the ultimate limit state causes a less severe total effect (see 3.2.6) than would be the case if y,, applied to all parts of the dead load, had been taken as 1.O, values of 1.O shall be adopted. However, the ya factors to be applied when considering overturning shall be in accordance with 4.6. 5.2 Superimposed dead load 5.2.1 Nominal superimposeddead load. Initial values for nominal superimposed dead load may be based on the densities of the materials given in BS 648. The nominal superimposeddead load initially assumed shall in all cases be accurately checked with the actual weights to be used in construction and, where necessary, adjustments shall be made to reconcile any discrepancies. Where the superimposed dead load comprisesfilling,eg on spandrelfilled arches, consideration shall be given to the fill becoming saturated. august2001
  38. 38. Appendix A ComDosite Version of IBS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 5.3 5.2.2 irrespective of whether these parts have an adverse or relieving effect, shall be taken for all five loadcombinationsasfollows: Design load. The factor ya, to be applied to all parts of the superimposeddead load, For theultimate limitstate limitstate Forthe serviceability deck surfacing 1.75 other loads 1.20 1.20 1.oo exept as specified in 5.2.2.1 and 5.2.2.2 (Note also the requirements 4.5.2). NOTE The term "other loads" here includesnon-structuralconcrete infill, servicesand any surrounding fill,permanent formwork,parapets and street furniture. 5.2.2.1 superimposeddead load may be reduced to an amountnot less than 1.2 for the ultimate limit stateand 1.O forthe serviceabilitylimit state, subjectto the approval of the appropriateauthoritywhichshallbe responsibleforensuringthat thenominal superimposeddead load is not exceededduring the lifeof the bridge. Reductionof load factor. The value of ya to be used in conjunction with the 5.2.2.2 Alternative load factor. Where the structure or element under consideration is such that the application of ya as specfied in 5.2.2 for the ultimate limit state causesa less severe total effect (see 3.2.6) than would be the case if ya, applied to all parts of the superimposeddead load, had been taken as 1.O, values of 1.O shall be adopted. However, the yL factorsto be applied when consideringoverturning shallbe in accordancewith 4.6. Wind loads 5.3.1 of the surroundingarea, the fetch of terrains upwind of the site location,the local topography,the height of thebridgeaboveground, andthehorizontaldimensionsand cross-sectionof the bridgeor element under consideration.The maximum pressures are due to gusts that cause local and transient fluctuations about the mean wind pressure. General.The wind pressure on a bridge depends on the geographical location, the terrain The methods provided herein simulatethe effectsof wind actionsusing static analyticalprocedures. They shall be used for highway and railwaybridges of up to 200m span and for footbridgesup to 30m span.For bridges outsidethese limits considerationshouldbe givento the effectsof dynamic response due to turbulence taking due account of lateral, vertical and torsionaleffects; in such circumstances specialist advice shouldbe sought. Wind loadingwill generallynot be significantin itseffecton many highwaybridges, suchas concreteslab or slab and beam structuresof about 20m or less in span, 10mor more in width and at normalheights aboveground. In general, a suitablecheck for suchbridges in normal circumstanceswould be to consider a wind pressure of 6 kN/m2applied to the vertical projected area of the bridge or structural element under consideration, neglecting those areaswhere the load would be beneficial. Design gust pressures are derived from a product of the basic hourly mean wind speed, taken from a wind map (Figure 2), and the values of several factors which are dependent upon the parameters given above. 5.3.2 effect under consideration (adverse areas) the maximum design wind gust speed V, shall be used. Wind Gust Speed. Where wind on any part of the bridge or its elements increases the ~ N 2 2 Aug~sP2001
  39. 39. Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A ComDosite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 5.3.2.1 bridges without liveload shallbe takenas: Maximum Wind Gust Speed V,. The maximum wind gust speed V, on v, = sgvs where Vsis the site hourly mean wind speed (see 5.3.2.2) Sgis the gust factor (see 5.3.2.3) For the remainingparts of the bridge or its elementswhich give relief to the member under consideration (relievingareas), the designhourly mean wind speedVrshallbe used as derived in 5.3.2.4. 5.3.2.2 10maboveground at the altitude of the site forthe direction of wind under consideration and for an annualprobability of being exceededappropriateto thebridgebeing designed, and shall be taken as: Site Hourly Mean Wind Speed Vs.Vsis the site hourly mean wind speed vs= v, spsas, where V, is the basic hourly mean wind speed (see 5.3.2.2.1) Spis the probability factor (see 5.3.2.2.2) Sais the altitude factor (see 5.3.2.2.3) S, is the direction factor (see 5.3.2.2.4) 5.3.2.2.1 location of the bridge shallbe obtained from the map of isotachs shownin Figure2. Basic Hourly Mean Wind Speed V,. Values of V, in m/s for the The values of V, taken from Figure 2 are hourly mean wind speeds with an annualprobability of being exceededof 0.02 (equivalentto a returnperiod of 50 years) in flat open country at an altitude of 10m above sea level. 5.3.2.2.2 Probability Factor. Theprobability factor, Sp,shallbe taken as 1.05for highway, railway and footkycle track bridge appropriateto a return period of 120years. For footkycle track bridges', subject to the agreement of the appropriate authority, a return period of 50 years may be adopted and Spshallbe taken as 1.oo. During erection, the value of Spmay be taken as 0.90 correspondingto a return period of 10years. For otherprobability levels Spmay be obtained from Appendix E. Where a particular erection will be completed in a shortperiod, Sp shallbe combinedwith a seasonal factor also obtained from Appendix E. August2001 AI23
  40. 40. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Figure 2: Basic wind speed V, in d s e c 10 9 I 7 Kilometres 0 40 80 120 160 0 20 40 6D EO 100 1 Statutemiles CopyrightBRE C AI24 A M ~ M S ~2001
  41. 41. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Direction N E 5.3.2.2.3 the basic wind speed V, for the altitude of the site above sea level and shall be taken as: Altitude factor Sa.The altitude factor Sashall be used to adjust 'd 0" 0.78 30" 0.73 60" 0.73 90" 0.74 120" 0.73 Sa= 1 +0.001 A 300" 330" where 0.91 0.82 A is the altitude in metres above mean sea level of a) the ground levelof the site when topographyis not significant,or b) the base of the topographic feature when topography is significantin accordancewith 5.3.2.3.3 and Figure 3. 5.3.2.2.4 Direction factor Sd.The direction factor, S, may be used to adjust the basic wind speed to produce wind speeds with the same risk of exceedance in any wind direction. Valuesare given in Table 2 for the wind direction$ =0"to $ = 330"in 30"intervals(wherethe wind directionis definedin the conventional manner: an east wind is a wind direction of $ = 90"and blows from the east to the site).If the orientationof the bridge isunknown or ignored,the value of the direction factor shallbe taken as S, = 1.OO for all directions. When the direction factor is used with other factors that have a directional variation, values from Table 2 shallbe interpolatedforthe specificdirectionbeing considered. Table 2. Values of direction factor S, I 150" I 0.80 I I S I 180" I 0.85 I I I 210" I 0.93 I
  42. 42. Appendix A Composite Version of 93s 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 5.3.2.3 is defined in terms of three categories: Gust factor Sg. The gust factor, Sg, depends on the terrain of the site which a) Sea - the sea (and inland areas of water extending more than lkm in the wind directionprovidingthe nearest edge of water is closerthan 1km upwind of the site); b) Country - all terrain which is not defined as sea or town; c) Town - built up areas with a general level of roof tops at least Ho= 5m abovegroundlevel. NOTE: permanent forest and woodland may be treated as town category. The gust factor, Ss,shall be taken as: Sg= S, TgS,’ where s, = s,’I(F S,’ is the bridge and terrain factor (see 5.3.2.3.1) K, is the fetch correction factor (see 5.3.2.3.1) Tgis the town reduction factor for sites in towns (see 5.3.2.3.2) S,’ is the topography factor (see 5.3.2.3.3) 5.3.2.3.1 Table 3 for the appropriateheight above ground and adversely loaded length, and apply to sea shorelocations.To allow for the distance of the site from the sea in the upwind directionforthe load case considered,these valuesmay be multiplied by the fetch correction factor,6,also given in Table 3, for the relevant height The bridge and terrain factor S,,’.Values of S,’ are given in ’ 0 aboveground. 5.3.2.3.2 The town reduction factor Tn.Where the site is not situated in town terrain or is within 3km of the edge of; town in the upwind direction for the load case considered,Ts shallbe taken as 1.O. For sites in town terrain, advantagemay be taken of the reduction factor Tg. The values of Tgshouldbe obtained from Table 4 for the height above ground and distance of the site from the edge of town terrain in the upwind directionfor the load case considered. 5.3.2.3.3 The topography factor S,,’.The values of S,’ shall generally be taken as 1.O. In valleys where local funnelling of the wind occurs, or where a bridge is sitedto the lee of a range of hills causinglocal accelerationof wind, a value not less than 1.1shall be taken. For these cases specialist advice should be sought. Where local topographyis significant S,’ shall be calculated in accordancewith AppendixF. Topography can only be significantwhen the upwind slope is greaterthan 0.05; see Figure 3. AJ26 August 2001
  43. 43. Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 0 5.3.2.4 load. V, shall be taken as: Hourly mean wind speed for relieving areas Vrfor bridges without live v,= smvs where Vsis the site hourly mean wind speed (see 5.3.2.2) Smis the hourly mean speed factor which shallbe taken as: Sm= ScTcS,' where 0 sc= SC'& Sc'is the hourly speed factor (see 5.3.2.4.1) KFis the fetch correction factor (see 5.3.2.3.1) T, is the hourly mean town reduction factor (see 5.3.2.4.2) S,' is the topography factor (see 5.3.2.3.3 and Figure 3) a) Hill ond ridge (upwind slope > 0.05; downwind slope > 0.05) 0 x slope length if Yu> 0 3 'Lu= slope length' &-------.cl b) Escorprnent (0.3 > upwind slope > 0.05; downwind slope < 0.05) .ond cliff (upwind slope > 0 3; downwind slope < 0.05) Figure 3 Definition of significant topography August2001 AI27
  44. 44. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2~ Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01~~ ~~~~~ ~ 0I Table 3. Values of terrain and bridge factor Sb',hourly speed factor Se'and fetch correction factor, Hc, I Height above ground (m) Terrain and Bridge Factor S,' Hourly Speed Factor Se' LOADED LENGTH (m) 20 40 60 100 200 1.39 1.52 1.60 1.65 1.71 1.76 1.80 1.83 1.87 1.90 1.97 2.01 400 5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 1.56 1.68 1.76 1.81 1.88 1.92 1.96 1.98 2.02 2.05 2.11 2.15 1.51 1.64 1.71 1.76 1.83 1.87 1.91 1.94 1.98 2.01 2.06 2.11 1.48 1.61 1.68 1.73 1.80 1.85 1.88 1.91 1.95 1.98 2.04 2.08 1.34 1.47 1.55 1.60 1.66 1.71 1.75 1.78 1.82 1.86 1.92 1.97 1.02 1.17 1.25 1.31 1.39 1.43 1.47 1S O 1.55 1.59 1.67 1.73 1.44 1.57 1.64 1.69 1.76 1.81 1.84 1.87 1.92 1.95 2.01 2.05 0 Height above ground (m) Fetch Correction Factor, n<, S0.3 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 2100 0.85 0.88 0.89 0.90 0.92 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.97 1 0.96 0.99 0.99 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 3 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.99 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 10 0.91 0.94 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 1.oo 30 0.90 0.92 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.oo 1.oo 5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 0 August 2001
  45. 45. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Table 4. Gust speed reduction factor Tgfor bridges in towns Height above ground (m) Distance from edge of town in upwind direction (km) I 3. ( I 10 0.84 0.91 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.81 0.87 0.90 0.92 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99 100 150 200 1.O throughout 30 0.79 0.85 0.88 0.90 0.92 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.98 Table 5. Hourly mean reduction factor Tcfor bridges in Towns Height above ground (m) 5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 Distance from edge of town (km) 3 10 0.74 0.81 0.84 0.87 0.89 0.91 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.oo 0.71 0.78 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.95 0.96 30 0.69 0.76 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.90 0.91 0.93 0.94I
  46. 46. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 NOTES FOR TABLES 3 to 5: NOTE 1. The horizontal wind loaded length shall be that givingthe most severeeffect. Where there is only one adversearea (see 3.2.5) for the element or structureunder consideration,the wind loaded length is the base length. of the adverse area. Where there is more than one adverse area, as for continuous construction, the maximum effect shall be determined by consideration of any one adverse area or a combination of adverse areas, using the maximum wind gust speed V, appropriate to the base length or the total combinedbase lengths. Theremaining adverse areas, if any, and the relieving areas, are subjectedto wind having the relieving wind speed VI.The wind speeds V, and Vrare given separately in 5.3.2 forbridges with and without live load. NOTE 2. Where the bridge is located near the top of a hill, ridge, cliff or escarpment,the height above the local ground level shall allow forthe significanceof the topographicfeaturein accordancewith 5.3.2.3.3.For bridges over tidal waters, the height above ground shall be measured from the mean water level. NOTE 3. Vertical elements such as piers and towers shall be divided into units in accordancewith the heights given in column 1 of tables 3 to 5, and the appropriate factor and wind speed shall be derived for each unit. 5.3.2.4.1 Table 3 for the appropriateheight above ground and apply to sea shorelocations. To allow for the distance of the site from the sea in the upwind direction for the load case considered,these values may be multipliedby the fetch correction factor,I(F, also given in Table3, forthe relevantheight above ground. The hourly speed factor S,'. Values of Se' shall be taken from 5.3.2.4.2 not situated in town terrain or is within 3km of the edge of a town in the upwind direction for the load case considered,T, shall be taken as 1.O. For sites in town terrain, advantagemay be taken of the reduction factor T,. The values of T, shallbe obtained from Table 5 for the height above ground and distance of the site from the edge of town terrain in the upwind direction for the load case considered. The hourly mean town reduction factor Te.Where the site is 5.3.25 wind gust speed, V,, on those parts of the bridge or its elements on which the application of wind loading increasesthe effect being considered shallbe taken as: Maximum wind gust speed V, on bridges with live load. The maximum a) for highwaysand foot/cycletrack bridges, as specified in 5.3.2.1, but not exceeding35 m/s; b) for railway bridges, as specifiedin 5.3.2.1. 5.3.2.6 Where wind on any part of a bridge or element gives relief to the member under consideration the effective coexistentvalue of wind gust speed VIon the parts affording relief shall be taken as: Hourly mean wind speed for relieving areas VI for bridges with live load. a) 'for highway and footkycle track bridges the lesserof: 35 - m/s and Vrd s as specified in 5.3.2.4 s c SLl b) for railway bridges, Vrm/s as specified in 5.3.2.4. AI30 August2001
  47. 47. 0 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 5.3.3 Nominal transversewind load. The nominal transverse wind load P, (in N) shallbe taken as actingat the centroidsof the appropriateareas and horizontallyunless local conditions changethe direction of the wind, and shallbe derived from: where q is the dynamic pressure head taken as: 0.613V l N/mzfor those parts of the bridge on which the application of wind loading increases the effect being considered;or 0.613 V,' N/m2for those parts where wind loading gives relief to the effect being considered A, is the solid area (in m') (see 5.3.3.1) C, is the drag coefficient (see 5.3.3.2 to 5.3.3.6) 5.3.3.1 solidarea innormalprojectedelevation,derivedas follows. Area A,. The area of the structure or element under consideration shall be the 5.3.3.1.1 Erection stages for all bridges. The area A,, at all stages of construction, shallbe the appropriateunshielded solid area of the structure or element. 5.3.3.1.2 elevation.For superstructureswith or without live load, the area A, shall be derivedusing the appropriatevalue of d as given in figure4. Highway and railway bridge superstructureswith solid (a) separately for the areas of the followingelements. Superstructureswithout live load.P,shallbe derived (1) For superstructureswith open parapets: (i) the superstructure,using depth d, from figure4; (ii) the windward parapet or safety fence; (iii) the leeward parapet or safety fence. Where there are more than two parapets or safety fences, irrespectiveof the width of the superstructure,only those two elements having the greatest unshielded effect shall be considered. (2) For superstructureswith solid parapets: the superstructure,using depth d2from figure4which includes the effects of the windward and leeward parapets. Where there ire safety fences or additional parapets, P,shall be derived separately for the solid areas of the elements above the top of the solid windward parapet. N 3 1 I August 2001
  48. 48. I Volume 1 Section 3Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Part 14 BD 37/01 (b) area A, as given in figure 4 which includes the effects of the superstructure,the live load and the windward and leeward parapets. Where there are safety fences or leeward parapets higher than the live load depth d,, P, shall be derived separately for the solid areas of the elements above the live load. Superstructureswith live load. P, shallbe derived for the (c) Superstructuresseparated by an air gap. Where two generally similar superstructures are separated transversely by a gap not exceeding 1m, the nominal load on the windward structure shallbe calculated as if it were a single structure, and that on the leeward superstructure shall be taken as the differencebetween the loads calculated for the combined and the windward structures (see note 7 to figure 5). Where the superstructuresare dissimilar or the air gap exceeds lm, each superstructureshallbe considered separately without any allowanceforshielding. 5.3.3.1.3 Foot/cycle track bridge superstructures with solid elevation. (a) derived from figure 4 is greaterthan, or equal to, 1.1,the area A, shall comprisethe solid area in normalprojected elevation of the windward exposed face of the superstructure and parapet only. P, shallbe derived for this area, the leeward parapet being disregarded. Superstructureswithout live load. Where the ratio b/d as Where b/d is less than 1.1,the area A, shallbe derived as specified in5.3.3.1.2. (b) from figure 4 is greater than, or equal to, 1.1,the area A, shall comprisethe solid area in normalprojected elevation of the deck, the live load depth (taken as 1.25mabovethe footway) and the parts of the windward parapet more than 1.25mabove the footway. P,shall be derived for this area, the leeward parapet being disregarded. Where b/d is less than 1.1, P,shall be derived for the area A, as specifiedin5.3.3.1.2. Superstructureswith live load. Where the ratio b/d as derived 5.3.3.1.4 All truss girder bridge superstructures. (a) Superstructureswithout live load. The area A, for each truss, parapet, etc, shall be the solid area in normal projected elevation. The area A, for the deck shallbe based on the full depth of the deck. P, shallbe derived separately for the areas of the following elements: (1) the windward and leeward truss girders; (2) the deck; M32 august20m
  49. 49. Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 (3) the windward and leeward parapets; except that P, need not be considered on projected areas of: (4) vice versa; the windward parapet screened by the windward truss, or (5) the deck screened by the windward truss, or vice versa; (6) the leeward truss screened by the deck; (7) versa. the leeward parapet screened by the leeward truss, or vice (b) . parapets, trusses, etc, shall be as for the superstructurewithout live load. The area A, for the live load shall be derivedusing the appropriate live load depth d, as given in figure4. Superstructureswith live load. The area A, for the deck, PIshall be derived separately for the areas of the following elements: (1) the windward and leeward truss girders; (2) the deck; (3) the windward and leeward parapets; (4) the live loaddepth; except that PIneed not be considered on projected areas of: (5) vice versa; the windward parapet screened by the windward truss, or (6) the deck screened by the windward truss, or vice versa; (7) the live load screened by the windward truss or the parapet; (8) the leeward truss screened by the live load and the deck; (9) liveload; the leeward parapet screened by the leeward truss and the (10) the leeward truss screened by the leeward parapet and the liveload. 5.3.3.1.5 fences, P, shallbe derived for the solid area in normal projected elevation of the elementunder consideration. Parapets and safety fences. For open and solid parapets and 5.3.3.1.6 elevation for each pier. No allowanceshall be made for shielding. Piers. PIshall be derived for the solid area in normal projected 5.3.3.2 to 5.3.3.2.5 requirements are specified for discretebeams or girders before deck constructionorotherinfilling(egshuttering). Drag coefficient C, for erection stages for beams and girders. In 5.3.3.2.1 I August 2001 AI33
  50. 50. Appendix A ComDosite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 5.3.3.2.1 accordance with the ratio b/d. Singlebeam or box girder. C, shall be derived from figure 5 in 5.3.3.2.2 'wvo or more beams or box girder. C, for each beam or box- shallbe derived from figure 5 without any allowancefor shielding.Where the combined beams or boxes are required to be considered, C, shall be derived as follows. Where the ratio of the clear distance between the beams or boxes to the depth does not exceed 7, C, for the combined structureshall be taken as 1.5times C, derived as specified in 5.3.3.2.1 for the singlebeam or box. Where this ratio is greaterthan 7, C, for the combined structureshall be taken as n times the value derived as specified in 5.3.3.2.1 for the singlebeam or box, where n is the number of beams or box girders. 5.3.3.2.3 5.3.3.2.4 2.2 without any allowancefor shielding.Wherethe combined girders are required to be considered,C, for the combined structureshall be taken as 2(1+ c/20d), but not more than 4, where c is the distance centre to centre of adjacent girders, and d is the depth of the windward girder. Single plate girder. C, shall be taken as 2.2. Two or more plate girders. C, for each girder shall be taken as 5.3.3.2.5 in accordance with 5.3.3.4. Truss girders. The discrete stages of erection shall be considered 5.3.3.3 superstructureswith or without live load, C, shallbe derived from figure5 in accordance with the ratio b/d as derived from figure4. Drag coefficients shallbe ascertained from wind tunnel tests, for any superstructuresnot encompassedwithin (a) and also for any special structures, such as shown in (b), of figure 4. See also notes 5 and 6 of figure 5. Drag coefficient C, for all superstructureswith solid elevation. For A M ~ M S ~2001A/34
  51. 51. Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 d{i:-l , dLl--$qd, ___t Single box or slob - sloping or vertical sides Twin or multiple boxes - sloping or vertical sides Parapet Unloaded bridge Live loaded bridge Open d = d, d = d, Solid d = d, d = d, 0'. d, whichever IS greoter ________.__ Mulilple beams or girders Throuh bridges - box or plate girders - deck ot any position verticolly Figure 4(a) Typical superstructures to which figure 5 applies Re-entront vRe-entront ongle < 175' <angle in soffit of slob Figure 4(b) Typical superstructures that require wind tunnel tests Figure 4(c) Depth to be used in deriving AI dL= 2.5m above the highway corriogeway, or 3.7m above the roil level, or 1.25m above footway or cycle track i(1) Superstructures where the depth of the superstructure ( d l or d2) exceeds d L 0 b (2) Superstructures where the depth of the superstructure ( d , or d2) is less than dL Open Solid .parapet I-d, poropet dc d L p __c Open .poropet b r T ! U dlrT I I Parapet Open Solid Open Solid Superstructures without live load d = d, d = d, d =' d, d = d2 iuperstructures vith live load d = d, d = $ d = d L d = d, -1 Figure 4(d) Depth d to be used in deriving C, Figure 4 vpical superstructuresto which Figure 5 applies; those that require wind tunnel tests and depth d to be used for deriving A , and C, 0 August 2001 At35
  52. 52. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 2 8 2 6 2 4 2 2 2 0 0 1 8 0 c 1 6 % U Y= 1 4 a 0 U - cn ' 2 e 0 1 0 O H OB 0 4 0 2 n 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1.8 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Ratio b/d Figure 5. Drag coefficient C, for superstructures with solid elevation NOTES to figure 5 I , NOTE 1. These values are given for vertical elevations and for horizontal wind. - NOTE 2. Where the windward faceis inclined to the vertical, the drag coefficient C, may be reduced by 0.5% per degree of inclination from the vertical, subject to a maximum reduction of 30%. NOTE 3. Where the windward face consists of a vertical and a sloping part or two sloping parts inclined at different angles, C, shall be derived as follows. For each part of the face, the depth shall be taken as the total vertical depth of the face (ie over all parts), and values of C, derived in accordance with notes 1 and 2. These separate values of C, shall be applied to the appropriate area of the face. NOTE 4. Where a superstructure is superelevated, C, shall be increased by 3% per degree of inclination to the horizontal, but not by more than 25%. NOTE 5. Where a superstructure is subject to inclined wind not exceeding 5" inclination, C, shall be increased by 15%.Where the angle of inclination exceeds So,the drag coefficient shall be derived from tests. NOTE 6. Where the superstructure is superelevated and also subject to inclined wind, the drag coefficient C, shall be specially investigated. NOTE 7. Where two generally similar superstructures are separated transversely by a gap not exceeding Im, the drag coefficient for the combined superstructure shall be obtained by taking b as the combined width of the superstructure. In assessing the distribution of the transverse wind load between the two separate superstructures (see 5.3.3.1.2(c)) the drag coefficient C, for the windward superstructure shall be taken as that of the windward superstructure alone, and the drag coefficient C, of the leeward superstructure shall be the difference between that of the combined superstructure and that of the windward superstructure. for the purposes of determining this distribution, if b/d is greater than 12 the broken line in figure 5 shall be used to derive C,. The load on the leeward structure is generally opposite in sign to that on the windward superstructure. Where the gap exceeds 1m, C, for each superstructure shall be derived separately,without any allowancebeing made for shielding. AI36 August 2001
  53. 53. Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 0 . Appendix A Cornnosite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Solidityratio For flatsided For round members where members d is diameter of member dV, <6m2/s dV,16m2/s 0.1 1.9 or 1.2 or 0.7 0.2 1.8 dVc 1.2 dVc 0.8 0.3 1.7 1.2 0.8 0.4 1.7 1.1 0.8 0.5 - 1.6 1.1 0.8 5.3.3.4 Drag coefficient C, for all truss girder superstructures (a) truss and for the deck shall be derived as follows. Superstructureswithout live load. The drag coefficient C, for each Spacingratio Less than 1 2 3 4 5 6 (1) For a windward truss, C, shall be taken from table 6. ~~ ~~~~ ~~ Valueofq for solidityratio of: 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.0 0.90 0.80 0.60 0.45 1.o 0.90 0.80 0.65 0.50 1.o 0.95 0.80 0.70 0.55 1.o 0.95 0.85 0.70 0.60 1.o 0.95 0.85 0.75 0.65 1.o 0.95 0.90 0.80 0.70 Table 6. Drag coefficient C, for a single truss The solidity ratio of the truss is the ratio of the net area to the overall area of the truss. (2) coefficient shall be taken as qCD.Values of q are given in table 7. For the leeward truss of a superstructurewith two trusses the drag Table 7. Shielding factor 1 0 0 The spacing ratio is the distance between centresof trustess divided by the depth of the windward truss. (3) Where a superstructurehas more than two trusses, the drag coefficient for the truss adjacent to the windward truss shall be derived as specified in (2). The coefficient for all other trusses shall be taken as equalto this value. (4) 1.1. For the deck construction the drag coefficient C, shall be taken as 6)and for the deck shall be as for the superstructurewithout live load. C, for unshielded parts of the live load shallbe taken as 1.45. Superstructureswith live load. The drag coefficient C, for each truss August2001 AI37
  54. 54. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 5.3.3.5 parapet or fence, C, shall be taken from table 8. Where there are two parapets or fences on a bridge, the value of C, for the leeward element shall be taken as equal to that of the windward element. Where there are more than two parapets or fences the values of C, shall be taken from table 8 for the two elements having the greatest unshielded effect. Drag coefficient C, for parapets and safety fences. For the windward Whereparapets have mesh panels, considerationshallbe given to the possibility of the mesh becoming filled with ice. In these circumstances,the parapet shallbe considered as solid. 5.3.3.6 table 9. For piers with crosssectionsdissimilarto those given in table 9, wind tunnel tests shallbe carried out. Drag coefficientC, for piers. The drag coefficient shall be taken from C, shallbe derived for eachpier, without reductionfor shielding. Nominal longitudinalwind load.The nominal longitudinalwind load P, (in N), taken as5.3.4 acting at the centroidsof the appropriate areas, shallbe the more severeof either: ( 4 thenominal longitudinalwind load on the superstructure,PLs,alone;or (b) nominal longitudinalwind load onthe live load,PLL,derived separately,as specifiedas appropriate in 5.3.4.1 to 5.3.4.3. the sum of the nominal longitudinalwind load on the superstructure,PLs,and the 0 '
  55. 55. Volume 1 Section3 Appendix A Part 14 BD 37/01 Composite Version O ~ B S 540b: Part 2 0 Table 8. Drag coefficient C, for parapets and safety fences Circular sections dVde 6 1.2 (whereV, in m/s and din m) dVd>6 0.7 NOTE:On relievingareas useV, insteadof V, Flat members with rectangular corners, crash barrier rails and solid parapets 2.2 Square members diagonal to wind 1.5 0 ~ Circular stranded cables 1.2 2 Rectangular members with circular corners r > d /12 1.1" Rectangular members with circular corners r > d /12 1.5* 1 Rectangular members with circular corners r > d /24 2.1 *Forsectionswith intermediateproportions,C, maybe obtainedby interpolation August 2001 8/39
  56. 56. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Table 9. Drag coefficient C, for piers Plan shape I+ l 1 U- l 2 SQUARE OCTAGONAL-0 12 SIDED POLYGON CIRCLE WITH SMOOTH SURFACE WHERE tv, 1. 0 , , .6 m2/s CIRCLE WITH SMOOTH SURFACE WHERE tVd < 6 rn2/s. ALSO CIRCLE WITH ROUGH SURFACE OR WITH PROJECTIONS 0 height COfor pier ratios of breadth 1 2 4 6 10 20 40 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.1 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 ’ 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 ~ ~~ 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 NOTE I. After erection of the superstructure, C,’shall be derived for a heighthreadth ratio of 40. NOTE 2. For a rectangular pier with radiused corners, the value of C , derived from table 9 shall be multiplied by (1-1 S r h ) or 0.5, whichever isgreater. NOTE 3. For a pier with triangular nosings, C, shall be derived as for the rectangle encompassing the outer edges of the pier. NOTE 4. For a pier tapering with height, C, shall be derived for each of the unit heights into which the support has been subdivided (see Note 3 to tables 3 to 5). Mean values oft and b for each unit height shall be used to evaluate th.The overall pier height and the mean breadth of each unit height shall be used to evaluateheighthreadth. NOTE 5: On relieving areas use Vrinstead of V,. AI40 August 2001
  57. 57. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A CompositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 5.3.4.1 All superstructures with solid elevation P,, = 0.25qA,CD where q is as defined in 5.3.3, the appropriate value of VdorVrfor superstructures with or without live load being adopted A, is as defined in 5.3.3.1.2 and 5.3.3.1.3 for the superstructurealone C, is the drag coefficient for the superstructure(excluding reduction for inclined webs) as defined in 5.3.3.3,but not less than 1.3. 5.3.4.2 All truss girder superstructures P,, = 0.5qAlC, where q is as defined in 5.3.3, the appropriate value of VdorVrfor structureswith or without live load being adopted A, is as defined in 5.3.3.1.4 (a) C, is as defined in 5.3.3.4 (a), C, being adopted where appropriate. Live load on all superstructures PLL= 0.5qAlC, 5.3.4.3 where q is as defined in 5.3.3 A, is the area of live load derived from the depth 4, as given in figure 4 and the appropriate horizontal wind loaded length as defined in note 1 to table 3. C, = 1.45 5.3.4.4 Parapets and safety fences (a) (b) (c) With vertical infill members, P, = OAP1 With two or three horizontal rails only, P, = 0.4P1 With mesh panels, P, = 0.6P1 where PIis the appropriatenominal transverse wind load on the element. 5.3.4.5 derived from a horizontal wind acting at 45O to the longitudinal axis on the areas of each bracket not shieldedby a fascia girder or adjacent bracket. The drag coefficient C, shall be taken from table 8. Cantileverbrackets extending outside main girders or trusses. P, is the load August 2001 AJ41
  58. 58. Appendix A CompositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 5.3.4.6 axis of the bridge shallbe taken as Piers.The load derivedfrom a horizontalwind actingalongthe longitudinal 5.3.5 p, = qA,C, where q is as defined in 5.3.3 4is the solidarea inprojectedelevationnormalto the longitudinalwind direction (in m2) C , is the drag coefficient,taken from table 9, with values of b and t interchanged. lominal vertical wind load. An upward or downwardnominal vertical wind loac (in N), acting at the centroidsof the appropriate areas, for all superstructuresshallbe derived from 0P" = 9 A3C, where q is as defined in 5.3.3 A3is the area in plan (in m') C, is the lift coefficient defined as: 1b CL=0.75 1--( 1-0.2a) [ 20d but 0.15 <C, <0.90 where ais the sum of the angle of superelevationand the wind inclinationto be considered 0(taken as a positive number in the aboveequation, irrespectiveof the inclination and superelevation) a exceeds loo,the value of C, shall be determinedby testing Figure 6. Lift coefficientC, N 4 2 August 2001
  59. 59. Volume 1 Section3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 5.3.6 the other loads in combination 2, as appropriate, taking four separate cases: Load combination.The wind loads P,, P, and P, shall be considered in combination with (a) P, alone; (b) P, in combination with & Pv; (c) P, alone; (d) OSP, in combination with P, & 0.5Pv. 5.3.7 Design loads. For design loads the factory, shall be taken as follows: Wind considered with For the ultimate limit state limit state For the serviceability (a) erection 1.1 1.o (b) dead load plus superimposed dead load only, and for members primarily resisting wind loads 1.4 I .o (c) appropriate combination 2 loads 1.1 1.o (d) relieving effects of wind 1.o 1.o 5.3.8 Overturningeffects.Where overturning effects are being investigated the wind load shall also be considered in combination with vertical traffic live load. Where the vertical traffic live load has a relieving effect, this load shall be limited to one notional lane or one track only, and shall have the following value: on highway bridges, not more than 6kN/m of bridge; on railway bridges, not more than 12kN/m of bridge. 5.3.8.1 relieving effect, y, for both ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states shall be taken as 1.O. Load factor for relieving vertical live load. For live load producing a 5.3.9 required by the appropriate DMRB standard or as agreed with the appropriate authority. Aerodynamic effects. Aerodynamic effects shall be taken into account as and when February 2002 N43
  60. 60. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 NATIONAL GRID 1 1AbOUl -11 UTM GRID 3 ZONE 30U 4 - -~ NOTE. The isotherms are derived from Meteorological Office data Figure 7. Isotherms of minimum shade air temperature (in "C) AI44 February2002
  61. 61. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 NOTE. The isotherms are derived from Meteorological Office data 0 ,Figure8. Isotherms of maximum shade air temperature (in "C) May 2002 - Correction AI45
  62. 62. Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 5.4 Temperature 5.4.1 radiation etc, cause the following: General. Daily and seasonal fluctuations in shade air temperature, solar radiation, re- (a) govern its movement. Changes in the effective temperature of a bridge superstructure which, in turn The effective temperature is a theoretical temperature derived by weighting and adding temperatures at various levels within the superstructure. The weighting is in the ratio of the area of cross-section at the various levels to the total area of cross-section of the superstructure. (See also Appendix C). Over a period of time there will be a minimum, a maximum, and a range of effective bridge temperature, resulting in loads and/or load effects within the superstructure due to: (1) (eg portal frame, arch, flexible pier, elastomeric bearings) referred to as temperature restraint; and (2) associated expansion and contraction, referred to as frictional bearing restraint. restraint of associated expansion or contraction by the form of construction 0 friction at roller or sliding bearings where the form of the structure permits (b) Differences in temperature between the top surface and other levels in the superstructure. These are referred to as temperature differences and they result in loads and/or load effects within the superstructure. Effective bridge temperatures for design purposes are derived from the isotherms of shade air temperature shown in figures 7 and 8. These shade air temperatures are appropriate to mean sea level in open country and a 120-yearreturn period. NOTE 1. temperature during a period of extreme environmental conditions. It is only possible to relate the effective bridge temperature to the shade air NOTE 2. Daily and seasonal fluctuations in shade air temperature, solar radiation, etc., also cause changes in the temperature of other structural elements such as piers, towers and cables. In the absence of codified values for effective temperatures of, and temperature differences within, these elements, appropriate values should be derived from first principles. 5.4.2 minimum and maximum shade air temperatures for the location of the bridge shall be obtained from the maps of isotherms shown in figures 7 and 8. 0 Minimum and maximum shade air temperatures.For all bridges, 1 in 120 year For footkycle track bridges, subject to the agreement of the appropriate authority, a return period of 50 years may be adopted, and the shade air temperatures may be reduced as specified in 5.4.2.1. Carriageway joints and similar equipment that will be replaced during the life of the structure may be designed for temperatures related to a 50-year return period and the shade air temperature may be reduced as specified in 5.4.2.1. During erection, a 50 year return period may be adopted for all bridges and the shade air temperatures may be reduced as specified in 5.4.2.1. Alternatively, where a particular erection will be completed within a period of one or two days for which reliable shade air temperature and temperature range predictions can be made, these may be adopted. AI46 Correction - May 2002
  63. 63. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A Composite Version of BS 5400: Part 2 5.4.2.1 temperature, as derived from figure 7, shall be adjusted by the addition of 2°C. Adjustment for a 50-year return period. The minimum shade air The maximum shade air temperature, as derived from figure 8, shall be adjusted by the subtraction of 2°C. 5.4.2.2 temperature shall be adjusted for height above sea level by subtracting 0.5"C per lOOm height for minimum shade air temperatures and 1.O"C per lOOm height for maximum shade air temperatures. Adjustment for height above mean sea level. The values of shade air 5.4.2.3 where the minimum values diverge from the values given in figure 7 as, for example, frost pockets and sheltered low lying areas where the minimum may be substantially lower, or in urban areas (except London) and coastal sites, where the minimum may be higher, than that indicated by figure 7. These divergences shall be taken into consideration. (In coastal areas, values are likely to be 1"C higher than the values given in figure 7.) Divergence from minimum shade air temperature. There are locations 5.4.3 Minimum and maximum effective bridge temperatures.The minimum and maximum effective bridge temperatures for different types of construction shall be derived from the minimum and maximum shade air temperatures by reference to tables 10and I 1 respectively. The different types of construction are as shown in figure 9. The minimum and maximum effective bridge temperatures will be either 1 in 120year or I in 50 year values depending on the return period adopted for the shade air temperature. 5.4.3.1 Adjustment for thickness of surfacing. The effective bridge temperatures are dependent on the depth of surfacing on the bridge deck and the values given in tables 10 and 11 assume depths of 40mm for groups 1 and 2 and lOOmm for groups 3 and 4. Where the depth of surfacing differs from these values, the minimum and maximum effective bridge temperatures may be adjusted by the amounts given in table 12. February2002 AI47
  64. 64. Appendix A ComDositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Table 10. Minimum effective bridge temperature Minimum shade air temperature "C -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 - 14 -13 -12 -1 1 -10 - 9 - 8 - 7 - 6 - 5 Minimum effective bridge temperature Type of superstructure Group 1 "C -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 - 18 - 17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -1 1 -10 - 9 - 8 - 7 -i9 Group 2 "C -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 - 9 - 8 - 7 - 6 Table 11. Maximum effective bridge temperature Maximum shade air temperature "C 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Group 3 "C -19 -18 -18 -17 -17 - 16 -15 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 - 10 - 9 - 8 - 7 - 6 - 5 - 4 Group 4 "C -14 -13 -13 -12 -12 -1 1 -11 -10 -10 - 9 - 9 - 8 - 7 - 6 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3 - 3 - 2 Maximum effective bridge temperature Type of su Group 1 "C 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 mtructure Group 2 "C 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Group 3 "C 31 32 33 34 34 35 36 36 37 37 38 39 39 40 40 Group 4 "C 27 28 29 29 30 31 32 32 33 33 34 35 36 36 37 I j AI48 February2002 I 0
  65. 65. Volume 1 Section 3 Part 14 BD 37/01 Appendix A ComDositeVersion of BS 5400: Part 2 Group Type of construction Temperature difference ('C) 1. Steel deck on steel box girders 40mm surfacing 2. Steel deck on steel truss or plate girders r 40mm surfacing 11" 3. Concrete deck on steel box, truss or plate girders ,-1OOrnm surfacing I I.-I 2, .. '-fh 4. Concrete slab or concrete deck on concrete beams or box girders ,-lOOmm surfacing .'... ..'.......:;'.Ih. 7lOOmm surfacing -h Positive temperature difference h,= O.1m T,= 14'C h,= 0.2m T,= 8% h,= 0.3m T,= 4'C h,= 0.5m T, = 21% Reverse temperature difference T7!ihT = 6 C h,= 0.5m T, = 5% h,= O.lm --f h.= 0.6h 0.2 3.5 2E h h,= 0.3h but S 0.15m h, = 0.3hbut 2 0.10m but 5 0.25rn h,= 0 3 buts (O.1m + surfacing depth in metres) (for thin slabs, h,is limited h,= h, = 0.20h but 5 0.25m hr= hj= 0.25h but S 0.20m by h - h,- h,) ," 1 1TI 1T, s'm0.4 4.5 1.4 1.0 3.5 ?; 0.2 8.5 3.5 0.5 0.6 6.5 1.8 1.5 5.0 0.4 12.0 3.0 1.5 0.8 7.6 1.7 1.5 6.0 0.6 13.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 8.0 1.5 1.5 6.3 2 0.8 13.5 3.0 2.5 t 1.5 8.4 0.5 1.0 6.5 Figure 9. Temperaturedifference for different types of construction0 August2001 AJ49

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Design Manual for Roads and Bridges

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