The HIV/AIDS Epidemic            A Guiding SnapshotRouzeh EghtessadiPublic Health Specialist- Gender & Human RightsSouther...
Summary• Epidemiological Overview• Key Determinant Factors : risk, vulnerability,  susceptibility• The Commitments : promi...
Epidemiological Overview                            (1)• Southern Africa remains the global epicentre of the    epidemic (...
Epidemiological Overview                                  (2)Source: UNAIDS 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic ,     ...
Source: UNAIDS 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic ,      May 2006                                                    ...
Feminization of HIV/AIDS in selected  Sub-Saharan Countries, 2005                                                        ...
SAfAIDS
Key Determinant Factors………..that fuel HIV/AIDS related Risks,Vulnerability & Susceptibility• Gender Relations• Poverty• Mi...
Affected               versus              Infected…….     Impact                cannot              be ignored•    Childr...
Key Impact Areas…•   Population structure•   Poverty and inequality (Bots,2005)•   Governance- PRSP, NSP (Mozambique, 2006...
HIV/AIDS Related               Commitments (1)•   U nited Nations General Assembly Special Summit    on HIV/AIDS (U NGASS ...
HIV/AIDS Related          Commitments (2)•   International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS & Human    Rights•   SADC Code on E mpl ...
HIV/AIDS Response Spheres  Response is developmental, not HEALTH  SECTOR responsibility only :• Prevention - ABC, gender b...
So where do we                penetrate ?• Global level• Regional level- developmental, multisectoral concerted    efforts...
How do we Penetrate ?• Policy and Law Making Level• Organisational Culture- Strategy and Plan development• Community based...
Knowledge Management :      A Strategy to Manage Mainstreaming      HIV/AIDS                               Identification ...
Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in Practice : A Developmental         ResponseRouzeh EghtessadiPublic Health Specialist- Gender & H...
IWRM & Mainstreaming   HIV/AIDS have one  important element incommon = both are fairlynew and rapidly evolving        conc...
Summary• HIV/AIDS & Knowledge Management Cycles• Defining Mainstreaming• Mainstreaming is not…….• Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS :...
Knowledge Management :      A Strategy to Manage Mainstreaming      HIV/AIDS                               Identification ...
Defining Mainstreaming (1)• How many of us are SINCERELY &  URGENTLY concerned?• Mainstreaming is a process that enables  ...
Reciprocal Relationship: HIV/AIDS & Development                          Specific     Mainstreaming                       ...
Defining Mainstreaming (2)• Internal Mainstreaming IM pre-requisite for EM effectiveness)                                 ...
MainstreamingAssumes               Internal sphere                      (workplace, your                        organisati...
Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS        is not …….• Changing core functions and responsibilities  in order to turn all org. activiti...
We need to be “Turning the Tide”   of our organisations – let   HIV/AIDS responses slip into our   business ‘main’ stream…...
Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS (1)• Basic Steps in Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS :  – Context & Organisational Profile (HIV/AIDS    Audit...
Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS (2)• Simply : let’s ask ourselves Four Key questions:  –   How does HIV/AIDS affect my organisation...
Step 1: Baseline Analysis     Internal sphere                   Extern                                                al s...
Step 2: Use Baseline Analysis Resultsto answer how HIV/AIDS affects yourorganisation and your workAssess the impact of HIV...
Step 3: Analysis of Potential negativeimplications of what you do onHIV/AIDS    How to do no harm? Do your cooperation    ...
Step 4a: Develop an HIV/AIDSworkplace policy and programme                     Source: ILO                                ...
Step 4b: Plan and implement yourcontribution to fighting HIV/AIDSAssess, where your comparative advantage is highest for m...
Step 4c: Monitoring - how to developindicators – Outcome: Has the behaviour of beneficiaries and/or  the way of working of...
Essential Principles in      HIV/AIDS Mainstreaming (1)• Adapt to your context- No standard approach (varied    combinatio...
Essential Principles in    HIV/AIDS Mainstreaming (2)To be successful :•   Consider HIV/AIDS as a development issue•   Com...
Essential Principles inHIV/AIDS Mainstreaming (3)To be successful (cont) :• Expertise and support available and made  use ...
Source: UNAIDS
References• UNAIDS (2006) Global AIDS Epidemic Report• IRC International Water & Sanitation Centre    website http://www.i...
Thank you…         Lets translate these concepts intoexcitingly effective IWRM practice………………                            ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Mainstreaming HIV into Intergrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) PP 3

660 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
660
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Notes for the presenter: To effectively curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic, countries need both mainstreaming and specific AIDS-focused responses. (the following slides explain, what this means) For this, they need the support of development partners. Not all partners need, however, act on both approaches. Depending on the comparative advantage and the institutional strength, development partners can support countries in either or both response approaches. For SDC it is a declared institutional priority, that all cooperation activities should contribute to mainstreaming HIV/AIDS. Whether SDC will also engage in specific AIDS-focused work in addition, is decided for each context. For further information see : SDC HIV/AIDS Policy 2002-2007 Introduction Chapter in toolkit Chapter II “the international response” in toolkit
  • Notes for the presenter: When describing the key steps to mainstreaming HIV/AIDS it is helpful to distinguish between the two interacting spheres of mainstreaming: the internal sphere (related to your institution or organisation) and the external sphere (related to your cooperation activities) For further information see : definition of internal and external sphere in Chapter IV of the toolkit
  • Notes for the presenter: Step one consists of a baseline situational analysis in the external and the internal sphere. It allows to collect evidence, based on which any interventions should be planned. For further information, checklists and examples see : Chapter V, Step 1 of the toolkit Further resources, checklists and practical examples see the CD Rom, Step 1
  • Notes for the presenter: For Step 2, you use the information from the baseline analysis to assess the impact of the epidemic on your organisation and your work.. In low prevalence countries, this impact may still be minimal- they can quickly procede to step 3, 4 and 5. For further information, checklists and examples see : Chapter V, Step 2 of the toolkit Further resources and practical examples see the CD Rom, Step 2
  • Notes for the presenter: Before planning the contribution to fighting HIV/AIDS, any programme needs to make sure that their activities do not aggravate the epidemic. For further information, checklists and examples see : Chapter V, Step 3 of the toolkit Further resources and practical examples see the CD Rom, Step 3
  • Notes for the presenter: The slide outlines essential elements of a workplace policy. The CD Rom (Step 4) contains the SDC Code of Practice, which could be used as a model for developing your locally adapted workplace policy. For further information, checklists and examples see : Chapter V, Step 4 in the toolkit CD Rom Step 4
  • Notes for the presenter: When mainstreaming HIV/AIDS into your programmes, it is important to use a comprehensive response that addresses the three dimensions of risk, vulnerability and impact. Developmental factors that can increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability include poverty, gender, mobility, lack of education and information, etc. For further information see : The expanded response in Chapter II of the toolkit Chapter V, step 5 in the toolkit
  • Notes for the presenter: Usually, it is not difficult to find indicators for monitoring progress (inputs, activities, outputs). This is why the focus lies on the three levels of outcome, impact and process. For further information and checklists see : Chapter VI in the toolkit The CD Rom “Monitoring and Knowledge sharing” with checklists
  • Notes for the presenter: Mainstreaming contributions can have many faces and may look different from context to context. Mainstreaming should be done both at the internal as well as at the external sphere. Usually it is recommended to start with the internal sphere.
  • Mainstreaming HIV into Intergrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) PP 3

    1. 1. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic A Guiding SnapshotRouzeh EghtessadiPublic Health Specialist- Gender & Human RightsSouthern Africa HIV/AIDS Information DisseminationService (SAfAIDS)17 Beveridge Rd, Avondale, Harare, ZimbabweTel: +263 33 61 93/4Fax:Website: +263 33 61 95 http:// www.safaids.org.zw  SAfAIDS
    2. 2. Summary• Epidemiological Overview• Key Determinant Factors : risk, vulnerability, susceptibility• The Commitments : promises honored vs dishonored• HIV/AIDS Response Spheres : what we should be concerting efforts in unison  SAfAIDS
    3. 3. Epidemiological Overview (1)• Southern Africa remains the global epicentre of the epidemic (1 in 3 people infected/globally live in SA)• About 43% of all children (under 15 years) living with HIV are in southern Africa• Approximately 52% of all women (15 years and older) living with HIV, live in s.Africa• Abundant statistics around affected and infected groups call for joint developmental responses  SAfAIDS
    4. 4. Epidemiological Overview (2)Source: UNAIDS 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic , May 2006  SAfAIDS
    5. 5. Source: UNAIDS 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic , May 2006  SAfAID
    6. 6. Feminization of HIV/AIDS in selected Sub-Saharan Countries, 2005  SAfAIDS
    7. 7. SAfAIDS
    8. 8. Key Determinant Factors………..that fuel HIV/AIDS related Risks,Vulnerability & Susceptibility• Gender Relations• Poverty• Migration• Civil & Political Unrest• Natural Disasters• Human Rights Violations –vulnerable/ marginalised populations• Access to Resources & Services  SAfAIDS
    9. 9. Affected versus Infected……. Impact cannot be ignored• Children• Women• Elderly• Interrelationship of AIDS with other problems of human development has become clearer• MDGs- reversed “ In countries , AIDS is undermining progress towards the MDGs particularly those related with poverty reduction, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality, reducing child mortality and improving health of mothers” UNFPA, 2005
    10. 10. Key Impact Areas…• Population structure• Poverty and inequality (Bots,2005)• Governance- PRSP, NSP (Mozambique, 2006)• Social and Traditional Structures & Networks• Households – “coping”- (Zambia, 2005, FAO, 2004)• Stigma & Discrimination (Bots & SA, 2003)• World of Work• Agriculture, Transport, Mining, Education, Fisheries, Health Systems (ILO, 2004)
    11. 11. HIV/AIDS Related Commitments (1)• U nited Nations General Assembly Special Summit on HIV/AIDS (U NGASS ) Declaration (2001/2006)- Achieve Universal Access by 2010• UNAIDS GIPA Principles (2001)• UN Millennium De claration/MDGs (2000) – Goal 6 , linked closely with all other goals: child mortality, education, gender, poverty, environmental sustainability [IWRM], maternal health, partnerships)• International Labour Organisation –HIV/AIDS Employment Code ( 2001 )• C onvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (C EDAW ) & Beijing Declaration & Platform for Action (1995)  SAfAIDS
    12. 12. HIV/AIDS Related Commitments (2)• International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS & Human Rights• SADC Code on E mpl o yme nt and HIV/AIDS• Abuja Declaration : AU Special Summit on HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria (2001/2006)• COMESA Gender Policy (2002)• Maseru Declaration – SADC (2003)• A U Protocol on Rights of Women in Africa (2003)• C ountry Strategies/Policies and Programmes• Jo’burg Summit (2002) recognized HIV/AIDS• World Water Forum, Mexico (2006) did not !  SAfAIDS
    13. 13. HIV/AIDS Response Spheres Response is developmental, not HEALTH SECTOR responsibility only :• Prevention - ABC, gender based violence, PEP, VCT• Care – home based care, positive living, health system monitoring, nutrition & food security• Support – access to resources & services, peer support networks & groups, capacity building• Treatment – ART, opportunistic infections• Advocacy – awareness raising, combat stigma & discrimination, community and policy maker mobilisation• Research• Mitigation & Litigation – legal aid for human rights violations, willful transmission  SAfAIDS
    14. 14. So where do we penetrate ?• Global level• Regional level- developmental, multisectoral concerted efforts’ policy making• National level- policy making, resource mobilisation• Sector level – Water and Sanitation Sector• Sub-sector level – IWRM• Organisational level – lobbying, researching, implementing, mitigating IWRM Managers• Community level – IWRM field workers• Individual level – IWRM Practitioners, behaviour & attitudinal change, support systems  SAfAIDS
    15. 15. How do we Penetrate ?• Policy and Law Making Level• Organisational Culture- Strategy and Plan development• Community based intervention
    16. 16. Knowledge Management : A Strategy to Manage Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS Identification Key Issues •Research Monitoring, •Focus Groups/ Workshops Evaluation, Building Capacity Documentation •Partner/donor Identification • Sit-in Sensitisation •Monitoring, Trainings Utilisation of Information evaluation •ICT (www) , Workplace •Advocacy Campaigns Policies and Programs •Documentation •Peer education, buddy systems, •Dissemination Production of support groups, discussion forums towards Materials empowerment • Organisational events and and informed culture shift (Programing, • Awareness Publications decision making  policy/legal reform) • Curriculum adjustment •GIPA/MIPA/MIWA •Document ammendmentsR.Eghtessadi – MPH(2006)
    17. 17. Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in Practice : A Developmental ResponseRouzeh EghtessadiPublic Health Specialist- Gender & Human RightsSouthern Africa HIV/AIDS Information Dissemination Service (SAfAIDS)17 Beveridge Rd, Avondale, Harare, ZimbabweTel: +263 33 61 93/4Fax: +263 33 61 95Website: http:// www.safaids.org.zw  SAfAIDS
    18. 18. IWRM & Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS have one important element incommon = both are fairlynew and rapidly evolving concepts  SAfAIDS
    19. 19. Summary• HIV/AIDS & Knowledge Management Cycles• Defining Mainstreaming• Mainstreaming is not…….• Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS : The Basic Steps• Essential Principles HIV/AIDS Mainstreaming  SAfAIDS
    20. 20. Knowledge Management : A Strategy to Manage Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS Identification Key Issues •Research Monitoring, •Focus Groups/ Workshops Evaluation, Building Capacity Documentation •Partner/donor Identification • Sit-in Sensitisation •Monitoring, Trainings Utilisation of Information evaluation •ICT (www) , Workplace •Advocacy Campaigns Policies and Programs •Documentation •Peer education, buddy systems, •Dissemination Production of support groups, discussion forums towards Materials empowerment • Organisational events and and informed culture shift (Programing, • Awareness Publications decision making  policy/legal reform) • Curriculum adjustment •GIPA/MIPA/MIWA •Document ammendmentsR.Eghtessadi – MPH(2006)
    21. 21. Defining Mainstreaming (1)• How many of us are SINCERELY & URGENTLY concerned?• Mainstreaming is a process that enables development actors to address the causes and effects of HIV/AIDS in an effective and sustained manner, both through their usual work and within their workplace (UNAIDS) across all sectors It means ‘wearing HIV/AIDS glasses” while working in all levels SAfAIDS
    22. 22. Reciprocal Relationship: HIV/AIDS & Development Specific Mainstreaming AIDS-focused HIV/AIDS & interventions
    23. 23. Defining Mainstreaming (2)• Internal Mainstreaming IM pre-requisite for EM effectiveness) ( involves changing organisational policy and practice., to reduce the susceptibility to HIV infection and its vulnerability to the impact of AIDS. The focus is on HIV/AIDS and the organisation• External Mainstreaming (EM) refers to adapting programme work to take into account susceptibility to HIV transmission and vulnerability to the impact of AIDS. The focus is on core programme work in the changing context.  SAfAIDS
    24. 24. MainstreamingAssumes Internal sphere (workplace, your organisation)•multi-disciplinary Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS•multi-level and &•multi-sector approaches External sphere (your cooperation activities)
    25. 25. Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS is not …….• Changing core functions and responsibilities in order to turn all org. activities into HIV/AIDS programmes• Simply introducing HIV/AIDS awareness raising in all activities - should be more to it• All staff having to become HIV/AIDS specialists• Business as usual …………  SAfAIDS
    26. 26. We need to be “Turning the Tide” of our organisations – let HIV/AIDS responses slip into our business ‘main’ stream… HIV/AIDS Reponses… automatic flow into all core business offshoots… ‘process’ not ‘event’  SAfAIDS
    27. 27. Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS (1)• Basic Steps in Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS : – Context & Organisational Profile (HIV/AIDS Audit/Situational Analysis) - How is HIV/AIDS affecting your organisation? Your work? – Impact of HIV/AIDS on IWRM – activity map tracking HIV/AIDS influence – Impact of IWRM on HIV/AIDS – risk, vulnerability, responses & entry point identification – HIV/AIDS Transformative Strategy/Policy/Program: awareness raising-reflection-action, advocacy, S&D combated, universal access, policy and support mechanism establishment, budget review, M&E plan, research & documentation, knowledge sharing  SAfAIDS SAfAIDS
    28. 28. Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS (2)• Simply : let’s ask ourselves Four Key questions: – How does HIV/AIDS affect my organisation ? – How does HIV/AIDS affect my work? – How can harm due to HIV/AIDS be avoided? – How can I contribute to fighting HIV/AIDS by limiting the spread and mitigating the impact of the epidemic?  SAfAIDS
    29. 29. Step 1: Baseline Analysis Internal sphere Extern al sph Conte ereOrganisational analysis : xt ana  Gen lysis: – How are staff and their eral HI V/AIDS families affected? situatio n? – Impact of HIV/AIDS on  Imp acts of human resources in the HIV/AI on the DS sector? sector?  Poli cies an – What institutional d majo respon r instruments are available ses?  Stak to respond? eholde r analys – What resources are is? Reso available to respond? urce an alysis?  SAfAIDS
    30. 30. Step 2: Use Baseline Analysis Resultsto answer how HIV/AIDS affects yourorganisation and your workAssess the impact of HIV/AIDS on:• The workplace and your organisation• The beneficiaries of your programme• What you want to do (including whether your objectives are relevant and feasible in this context)Then discuss how vulnerable your cooperation activity is to HIV/AIDS and what changes need to be made.  SAfAIDS
    31. 31. Step 3: Analysis of Potential negativeimplications of what you do onHIV/AIDS How to do no harm? Do your cooperation activities increase:• Population mobility• Gender inequalities• Exclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS or other vulnerable groups• Risk situations for gender based violence/ sex work• Etc? Then anticipate by planning corrective actions.  SAfAIDS
    32. 32. Step 4a: Develop an HIV/AIDSworkplace policy and programme Source: ILO  SAfAIDS
    33. 33. Step 4b: Plan and implement yourcontribution to fighting HIV/AIDSAssess, where your comparative advantage is highest for making a difference, in terms of:• Risk : helping people to behave safer and avoid risk situations• Vulnerability : acting on developmental factors that increase the vulnerability of population groups to HIV/AIDS• Impact mitigation : help affected people and communities to cope with the effects of HIV/AIDS  SAfAIDS
    34. 34. Step 4c: Monitoring - how to developindicators – Outcome: Has the behaviour of beneficiaries and/or the way of working of staff/partners changed in the intended way – Impact: What impact did this make in terms of changing the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its context? (BUT: avoid the pitfall HIV prevalence or mortality!) – Process: Which process did you use with what effect? What works and what doesnt?  SAfAIDS
    35. 35. Essential Principles in HIV/AIDS Mainstreaming (1)• Adapt to your context- No standard approach (varied combinations of organisational, sociology, logframe elements)• Relevant at all stages of the epidemic, also in low prevalence contexts• Continuous and integrated• Gender sensitive approach• MIPA - Involve people living with HIV/AIDS• Networking & coordination• Advocacy• Share good practices and lessons learnt• Generate evidence through continuous monitoring  SAfAIDS
    36. 36. Essential Principles in HIV/AIDS Mainstreaming (2)To be successful :• Consider HIV/AIDS as a development issue• Commitment and support of decision makers• Clearly defined objectives for mainstreaming• Knowledgeable, compassionate and skilled staff• Document and share experiences through knowledge sharing systems  SAfAIDS
    37. 37. Essential Principles inHIV/AIDS Mainstreaming (3)To be successful (cont) :• Expertise and support available and made use of• Sufficient allocation of resources (human, financial, technical)• Willingness to learn, reflect and share Linking Theory to Practice  SAfAIDS
    38. 38. Source: UNAIDS
    39. 39. References• UNAIDS (2006) Global AIDS Epidemic Report• IRC International Water & Sanitation Centre website http://www.irc.nl• UNAIDS(2004), Support to Mainstreaming AIDS in Development• Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) (2004), Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in Practice• Oxfam International (2003), Tools to Support the Mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS  SAfAIDS
    40. 40. Thank you… Lets translate these concepts intoexcitingly effective IWRM practice……………… SAfAIDS

    ×