Bringing “equality” A                                                                                                     ...
Overview•   Definitions:     – Sexual and Reproductive Health: a recap & link to the MPoA     – Gender : including LGBTI d...
Recap on SRH&RRefer to the Maputo Plan of Action:Nine Pillars of SRHSRH closely linked to ‘rights’: rights toservices, inf...
Unpacking Gender  Gender ‘is’ ……. Gender ‘is not’…….           SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pr...
Gender versus Sex• Gender refers to what a society believes about the  appropriate roles, duties, rights, responsibilities...
Gender Terms….Gender strategic needsGender practical needsGender equalityGender sensitiveGender neutralGender transformati...
Where does gender inequality              occur?•   Health services and access•   Education•   Employment opportunities•  ...
Links between Gender and SRH                              (1)• Gender–based violence: reciprocal influence on sexual  and ...
Links between Gender and•                       SRH access and informed    Partner Dependence: controls                   ...
Gender Management System• What is a GMS?    – A network of structures, mechanisms and processes within      existing organ...
What is Gender Mainstreaming                         (GM)In development work, it means strengthening both womenand men’s a...
The Process ….not an event!For an organisation, it means collective impact of efforts:• Conducting a Gender Audit• Develop...
Mainstreaming Model                  Situation Analysis               Partner Identification and                          ...
Step 1. When Conducting a          Gender Audit Consider…..• Baseline evidence and Mapping• Identifying gaps in knowledge,...
Step 2. Entry strategies will be           informed by Audit Findings                                                     ...
Step 3. Gender Mainstreaming          into Policies• Types of Policies from a Gender Perspective:   – Gender Neutral/Blind...
Step 3 (cont). Integration versus      Vertical Progamming  What are benefits of integrating gender into   SRH programmes ...
Keep the Process Alive & Share!•   Document•   Share and exchange•   Advocate•   Learn and Scale-up     Use ICTs - be crea...
Special Considerations• Roles  –   Men  –   Traditional/cultural structures  –   Parliamentarians  –   Media• Barriers – f...
Sample generic tools  – Mainstreaming checklist for policies  – Mainstreaming checklist for programmes  – Mainstreaming ge...
SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa.        Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27...
Questions….bringing it closer to           home!What is one potential     Am I willing to promote    challenge to         ...
In-country Strategies for           Sustainability of Gender                Mainstreaming …. Government    Strategy – enga...
RememberInformation …..                                 …and has the   Power                                              ...
Integrating Gender into Sexual and Reproductive Health
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Integrating Gender into Sexual and Reproductive Health

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Integrating Gender into Sexual and Reproductive Health

  1. 1. Bringing “equality” A Visible Step Closer! Integrating Gender into Sexual and Reproductive Health Interventions Rouzeh Eghtessadi (MPH) SAfAIDS Regional Office 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood Pretoria, South Africa Tel: +27 76 381 2425 Website: http://www.safaids.net Email: rouzeh@gmail.comSAfAIDS - P O Box A509,Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe, Tel: 263 4 336193/4, Fax: 263 4 336195, E-mail: info@safaids.org.zw, Website: www.safaids.org.zw Southern Africa HIV/AIDS Information Dissemination Service
  2. 2. Overview• Definitions: – Sexual and Reproductive Health: a recap & link to the MPoA – Gender : including LGBTI dimensions• Linking SRH and Gender and Human Rights• How to Mainstream/Integrate gender into SRH, HIV and other developmental programmes – Step one: gender audit (needs, gaps, knowledge, policy and programme frames, resources - budget, human capacity , tools etc) – Step two: entry points (build capacity, break S&D) – Step three: integration vs vertical programming• Special Considerations: role of men, role of traditional/cultural structures, role of parliamentarians, role of media• Documenting, Sharing, Advocacy, Learning and Scale-up• Sample generic tools• Reflection and Relevance Questions SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  3. 3. Recap on SRH&RRefer to the Maputo Plan of Action:Nine Pillars of SRHSRH closely linked to ‘rights’: rights toservices, information, supporting structures(policy, infrastructure, resource allocations) SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  4. 4. Unpacking Gender Gender ‘is’ ……. Gender ‘is not’……. SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  5. 5. Gender versus Sex• Gender refers to what a society believes about the appropriate roles, duties, rights, responsibilities, accepted behaviours, opportunities and status of women and men in relation to one another• Sex refers to the different biological and physiological characteristics of males and females (e.g. reproductive organs, hormones, chromosomes). SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  6. 6. Gender Terms….Gender strategic needsGender practical needsGender equalityGender sensitiveGender neutralGender transformativeStereotypingOther? SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  7. 7. Where does gender inequality occur?• Health services and access• Education• Employment opportunities• Legal domain• Other? SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  8. 8. Links between Gender and SRH (1)• Gender–based violence: reciprocal influence on sexual and reproductive health (unwanted pregnancies, poor FP adherence, HIV/STI infection, etc)• Limited Access to, and Control over information and services: increases risk and vulnerability to HIV/STIs• Burden of Care: less time and opportunity to access SRH services and adhere to SRH• “Silence”: poor communication, influence family planning, safe sex practices, reporting and preventing GBV SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  9. 9. Links between Gender and• SRH access and informed Partner Dependence: controls (2) decision-making• Socio-economic factors creating gender inequality• Cultural Practices and Norms: adverse practices eg dry sex, unsterile MC, partner counseling, seeking health care services for the ‘weak’• Service barriers: male-unfriendly, adolescent unfriendly, stigma & discrimination for PLHIV women SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  10. 10. Gender Management System• What is a GMS? – A network of structures, mechanisms and processes within existing organisational framework established at all levels – Guides, plans, monitors and evaluates mainstreaming process while working to achieve gender equality/equity in sustainable development – Advances gender equality and equity through promoting political will, capacity building, sharing of good practices and forging stakeholders partnerships* ldeal for larger bodies e.g. governments SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  11. 11. What is Gender Mainstreaming (GM)In development work, it means strengthening both womenand men’s active involvement in capacity and contributionIts goal is to empower women and men as equal partners bycreating a ‘win-win’ scenario in developmentIt involves active and equipped gender equity promotion intopolicies/programs/projects and institutionsIt is holistic integration of gender issues into all aspects of agiven structure SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  12. 12. The Process ….not an event!For an organisation, it means collective impact of efforts:• Conducting a Gender Audit• Development of Gender Policy• Capacity building of staff at all levels• Development (or adoption)of tools/guidelines for gender analysis and mainstreaming• Development of gender disaggregated data collection, analysis and monitoring systems• Gender sensitive budgeting/budget allocation• Political commitment by senior management SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  13. 13. Mainstreaming Model Situation Analysis Partner Identification and INTERNAL Needs Assessment Management Employees Policies Documentation Material Programmes Dissemination & Production Feedback Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting EXTERNALExperience Sharing Capacity Beneficiaries on Mainstreaming Strengthening (Skills/Awareness) & Partners efforts and Advocacy Mentoring SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  14. 14. Step 1. When Conducting a Gender Audit Consider…..• Baseline evidence and Mapping• Identifying gaps in knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP survey of staff) and structural & environmental challenges• Internal (organisational culture, policies, staffing, capacity) and external (partners, programmes, budgets, M&E systems) factors• Determine resources (externally) to support GM SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  15. 15. Step 2. Entry strategies will be informed by Audit Findings Identify key entry pointsDevelop GenderPolicy E.g. -Build Capacity of staff, Gender partners and affiliates Mainstreaming -Break stigma and Process discrimination -Place ‘gender’ on all job descriptions vs focal pointLink with GMexpert ormentoring body Develop gender sensitive budgets Develop gender sensitive M&E and reporting system SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  16. 16. Step 3. Gender Mainstreaming into Policies• Types of Policies from a Gender Perspective: – Gender Neutral/Blind – Gender Specific – Gender Transformative/ Redistributive/ Responsive• Basic Components of a Policy – Contextual Background – Policy Goals and Objectives – Policy Environment – Policy Thematic Areas – Policy Implementing Strategy SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  17. 17. Step 3 (cont). Integration versus Vertical Progamming What are benefits of integrating gender into SRH programmes rather than having two separate programme running parallel ?What are your experiences in these processes? SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  18. 18. Keep the Process Alive & Share!• Document• Share and exchange• Advocate• Learn and Scale-up Use ICTs - be creative – get technical support SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  19. 19. Special Considerations• Roles – Men – Traditional/cultural structures – Parliamentarians – Media• Barriers – fear of unknown, misunderstood, S&D• Varied sexual orientation & identity (LGBTI) SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  20. 20. Sample generic tools – Mainstreaming checklist for policies – Mainstreaming checklist for programmes – Mainstreaming gender into SRH training programmes – Mainstreaming gender into SRH M&E systems (gender indicators) Find out more about Gender mainstreaming: UNESCO site, UN-OSAGI site, SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  21. 21. SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  22. 22. Questions….bringing it closer to home!What is one potential Am I willing to promote challenge to safe motherhood formainstreaming gender female adolescentin my organisation ? PLHIV? ? ? Making it a Reality Who should drive the gender Is this going to agenda in my ? organisation? dis-empower me? SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net
  23. 23. In-country Strategies for Sustainability of Gender Mainstreaming …. Government Strategy – engaging and complementing and national partners• Enables Sustainability and ownership – Facilitates national buy-in and support by other country stakeholders. – Piggy backing on existing efforts made by Govts is critical – not ‘over-riding/impose’ rather be ‘complementary’, and support meeting national targets e.g. MDGs, UNGASS, MPoA, CEDAW Strategy – creating dialogue and consultative platforms for sharing• Enables cross-learning and scale-up - critical to sustainability of concerted efforts
  24. 24. RememberInformation ….. …and has the Power to Make a SAfAIDS Regional Office : 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria 0081, South Africa. Tel: +27-12-361-0889 Fax: +27-12-361-0899 E-mail: reg@safaids.net Country Office - Zimbabwe : 17 Beveridge Road, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Difference ! Tel: +263-4-336193/4 Fax: +263-4-336195 E-mail: info@safaids.net Country Office - Zambia : Plot No. 4, Rhodes Park, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260-125-7609 Fax: +260-125-7652 E-mail: safaids@safaids.co.zm Website: www.safaids.net

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