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Technical Article - 3M Art of Styling Steel


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Stainless steel, a matchless metal in both properties and usage, has slowly and steadily made an influence in our daily life, be at our home, at our office, at shopping malls, travelling in a metro or even the new bus shelters sprouting up in major metros.

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Technical Article - 3M Art of Styling Steel

  1. 1. Technical Article Artof Styling Steel 18 PURCHASE April 2011
  2. 2. INDUSTRY FOCUS Machine Tools of STYLING STEEL”. The solutions include a S tainless steel, a matchless metal in both properties and usage, has slowly and steadily made an influence in our wide range of innovative products like TrizactTM, Scotch-BriteTM & CubitronTM. daily life, be at our home, at our office, at shopping malls, travelling in a metro or even the new bus shelters sprouting up in major metros. In any given day we come across many products that are now using stainless steel, starting from bathroom fittings to office chairs, building interiors to street furniture’s and artifacts. The unique properties of stainless steel have been known and major factors which have influenced its extensive usage are its non rusting properties, no painting & beautiful finishes that can be achieved on it. These unique properties help it get desired prescriptions from many engineers and Conventional TrizactTM architects in their designs. Some interesting abrasive Abrasive construction and trends indicate extensive usage of stainless construction wear out pattern steel in architectural, building, construction and equipments industry replacing conventional choices of wood, mild steel & even plastic in certain cases due to inherent A combination of 3M TrizactTM & 3M advantage of Stainless Steel. Scotch-BriteTM products can generate industry finishes meeting unique satin, hail “New and trendy Finishes and Style’s” line & matt finishes. The products come in is the in-factor as it reflects the trend shift the disc, belts & brush form that can be used from conventional to new choices of in a simple and comfortable way by finishes that increases the aesthetic appeal operators and requires lesser polishing skills. to the end customer. Fabricators of Stainless 3M TrizactTM abrasives, unlike a Steel are looking for solutions and systems conventional abrasive, is an engineered that can help them to achieve these abrasive product, designed to achieve customer requirements. These finishes look uniform finish giving the edge to stainless very attractive but achieving UNIFORM and steel fabricators. Due to the unique UNIQUE FINISHES is an extremely construction of the abrasives, produced by challenging job for the fabricators of Micro-replication Technology the TrizactTM stainless steel. abrasives cuts in a similar pattern, provides A typical stainless steel fabrication steps uniform finish, throughout the life of the includes cutting, bending, welding, weld product, as can be seen in the picture grinding & blending, including the corner alongside. By generating uniform scratch weld finishing, followed by series of pattern, it helps achieve the uniform finishes finishing sequence. At every stage of in subsequent stages. fabrication, stainless steel poses some challenges i.e, preserving & restoring the finish of stainless. Abrasive products are used to not only to generate and repair the, but also provide solutions for the grinding and blending of the weld as well, which not only helps improve the finish, but also help achieving consistent and better output as well. 3M through their abrasive ranges of products have been upgrading metal fabricators to the latest products & techniques through an Scotch-BriteTM interactive Construction Forms of Scotch-BriteTM approach which is know as “Art20 PURCHASE April 2011
  3. 3. INDUSTRY FOCUS Machine Tools points and edges that slice cleanly through the metal like a knife, instead of gouging or plowing. This prevents heat from building up in the work piece – reducing heat-related stress, cracks and discoloration. And, because the abrasive itself stays cooler and sharper, it gives a much better life as compared to conventional ceramic grain products. The 3M CubitronTM II products are shaping the future of abrasive solution for all metal fabrication solutions weather it is grinding or finishing. The products made from this mineral, when used with a proper backing and Post the generation of uniform scratch pattern by the TrizactTM, Scotch-BriteTM product range provide the final finishing to the surface so as to generate the desired finishes. Due to their open construction of Scotch- BriteTM, finish generation is consistent & prevents any heat build up on the substrate. Simple construction of the Scotch-BriteTM, allows this universal product to Conventional Ceramic Grain be available in many forms, as depicted in the pictures 3M provides a unique and a quick way to finish the corner welds using the 3M RolocTM abrasive products, available in Scotch-BriteTM and coated abrasives. The proper sequence of usage, not only helps blend the weld effectively, it also ensures that the corners and other portions of the base material have similar finish. This helps reduce the rework time and improves the overall productivity. Over the period of time, abrasive industry has developed many products that help achieve better finishes and improve Precise Shaped Grain - CubitronTM II productivity, apart from other benefits to the fabricators. Promising the brand value of 3M in developing innovative products that are effective and relevant for the customers, for the first time, 3M has developed revolutionary product that contain a SHAPED ABRASIVES. The new mineral used in the 3M CubitronTM II abrasive products is made up of precisely shaped triangles of mineral oriented to direct the cutting points toward the work surface. These self sharpening triangles are designed to fracture as they wear, continuously forming new, super-sharp22 PURCHASE April 2011
  4. 4. INDUSTRY FOCUS Machine Tools an appropriate tool just excites the user by helping complete his job much faster and increases the comfort level of usage leading to a much lesser fatigue. 3M, with its engineered, practical and ergonomically designed solutions, and pioneering way the Stainless Steel is finished, not only helps provide solutions to achieve new and trendy finishes, but also is making conscious efforts to ensure that latest technology reaches the market and educate the fabricators to make their lives simpler. To know more about the Art of styling steel and the exciting products for metal Mr. Vijay Krishnan fabrication, please log into our website to find out more details PURCHASE April 2011
  5. 5. Technical Article Introduction of Gearless Drives and Energy Efficient Motors for the Machines By Mr Anil Aggarwal, MD T he machines installed in a plant must have a overall thought about reliability and energy efficient design. The reduction of year).Consequently, the decision to act on the transmission to allow a high rotating speed of the motor is acceptable only when mechanical linkages like belts, gear boxes it is important to minimize the size of the will result into power saving of anything motor (i.e. with electric traction) or to from 20% to 54%. Further the use of motors Maximize the yield; on the contrary. with efficiency higher by 5 to 10% and Thus using Torque motors and the power factor improvement will lead to a Brushless servo motors introduced by multiplied effect. Consider the following Compage Automation systems Pvt. Ltd. You diagram: can get rid of many mechanical linkages and Through the research and many calculate your per hour saving as follows: experiments in Europe the discovery of Saving in Rs pr hour = KW saved per hour x permanent magnet brushless motors in high 4.5 torque and low RPM has given way to both KW saved = hp x L x 0.746 x 100 - 100 the above arguments. The brushless motor, Where: like any other motor, is built up on the hp = Motor nameplate rating delivered torque and not on the yielded L = Load factor or percentage of full power. operating As a consequence, in any application a Load low speed of the motor will correspond to a Estd = Standard motor efficiency under low specific power and a low yield. actual Load conditions multiplied with the Nevertheless we must point out that the efficiency of belt drive/gear box brushless motor contemplates no minimum EHE = New-efficiency of motor and without speed (it purely depends on the sensor; gearing arrangement under some applications are available with axle Actual load conditions speed of 1 revolution per 78 PURCHASE April 2011
  6. 6. Technical Article Remote Production Monitoring D oes the failed production volume come as a surprise to you? Many times you about the factory problem in time, the break down could have been corrected by the feel that had your main stream CEO known right people in time. Production Status Monitoring Alarm How much was produced in last shift? Can get SMS for type of alarm- Which product is under production? (a) Electrical power not present (b) Motor running at low speed. i.e. roll change time higher than normal. © Electrical or Mechanical breakdown. Report Generation Connectivity Break down history, shut down time in Online monitoring helps in: Supply each shift. Production data of the chain Management & Timely customer day/week. deliveries. April 2011 PURCHASE 79
  7. 7. Industry Watch Industrial Automation Akshay Aggarwal, Director, Compage is taken to a centralized server where it is Automation Systems Pvt. Ltd. Faridabad compiled and translates into useful information for the beneficiary of the introduces the company’s value added production. This type of topology is the best solution at very low cost. method to receive factual data in safe hands. With the advent of information We can monitor any parameter such as – technology - the world has changed the way day’s production, machine average running, we bank, record data and register our machine speed, wastage (empty pouches, complaints on customer care 24X7. SCADA boxes), component failure, breakdown time has been long in our process industry to run etc. and monitor the production output, speed Moreover, with the help of GPRS achieved etc in whichever format we want. technology the machine can be connected to Food packing industry which is the almost with remotely. Any failure in the machine can largest and the most essential industry is still be solved by remote assistance. This makes in the nascent stage of adoption of the troubleshooting process faster and thus automation and online monitoring systems in cheaper. In today’s world of all the complex our country. For now at many places the technologies it is not possible for the expert machine speed and average running hours to maintain the machine in the plant. are the only parameters to calculate the Whereas a team of people can support multi machine production of the day. But the trend locations sitting from one help desk. For now is changing fast to upgrade and attain the we see this technology penetrated in the IT perfection and accuracy. industry for troubleshooting the IBMs and To break free from individual’s the DELLs. Fortunately now the need for this dependence on production monitoring, value added service is being felt in the Compage introduces an SMS service for the manufacturing industry also. Compage has machine owners who would like to receive introduced the PLC/CNC controllers of the the information of the day’s production in machinery with the capability of uplink. exact number of packages/bags. GSM/GPRS Hence the customers have option to fulfill service is independent to any their planned production. communication or internet services being utilized in the factory infrastructure. The data priya.compage@gmail.com80 PURCHASE April 2011
  8. 8. Technical Article Pro-Active Maintenance P ro-Active Maintenance is a system or a life style of keeping the system healthy and is actually a Life Extension System away any moment. This approach allows the failure of parts and system as a routine and normal, permitting the crisis of failure which supplants the philosophy of ‘Failure and maintenance. While under Predictive reactive’ with the ‘Failure Pro-Active’ by Maintenance diagnosing, assessment, avoiding the conditions that lead to machine investigations and testing are carried out to faults and degradation. The Pro-Active find the condition and life span of the parts Maintenance technique consists of actions and components. Lot of money and time that abolish the root cause of the failures, not is spent for prediction of the condition and just symptoms. Pro-Active maintenance is life of the components. Alternatively the now receiving the recognition as the only Pro-Active Maintenance protects the system means of reducing and saving on the against the Degradation and Failures; burgeoning maintenance cost, for extending and hence Preventive and Predictive the performance life of systems, Maintenances are practically not required. conservation of oil and conservation of It is easy to understand the Pro-Active energy without much expenditure on the Maintenance by putting parallel with our system or equipments. body and health, for the reason that human It’s a known fact that over 75% of the body is very similar to a breakdowns and the maintenance expenses Hydraulic/Lubrication oil system. We all in any industry is because of hydraulic and know that by simply Morning walk and lubrication oil system failures which is taking healthy fibrous foods, fruits & attributed to excessive contamination level In vegetables in place Fried, Junk foods and the system fluid which has a clear cut Animal Fats which lead to generation of bad indication towards the necessity of Pro- Cholesterol (being Contaminations in the Active Maintenance. In fact without properly blood); to keep us healthy, extend our life understanding and adopting the Pro-Active and improve our efficiency & performance. Maintenance Techniques, we can not be Similarly keeping the system fluid clean and competitive and grow faster. free from contaminations (Dirt, In absence of Pro-Active Maintenance Moisture/water and heat etc. being the main Technology the normal approach is Failure Contaminations in the System Fluid) by Reactive rather than Pro-Active, and the adopting the Systematic contamination is not controlled and Approach to Pro-Active Maintenance; to removed from the system oil, it becomes keep our Plant, Machinery and Systems contaminated and the looses its properties; healthy, extend the life of Hydraulic and resulting the replacement of oil. The disposal Lubrication Systems & Components of discarded oil damages the manifold times and improves the efficiency, environment. Also the contaminations enter performance & Productivity of our Plant, into the gap/clearance between the Machinery and Systems and also to moving parts and the parts start scoring, conserve the Energy and costly oils. damaging and restricting the movement, In view of the above facts, one must resulting malfunctioning, Loss of production, choose the Pro-Active approach in place of Loss of Energy and frequent the Failure Reactive approach. Er. Ashok breakdowns. Kumar Gupta the founder and Chairman of Many industries carry planned activities the Crane-Bel Group has taken a challenge of of Preventive Maintenance associated with promoting the Pro-Active Technology in Predictive maintenance. Under Preventive Indian Industries through Seminars, Maintenance the repair/replacement of Workshops, Presentations and Practical parts and components is done when often Training to achieve the following important nothing is broken. This is a scheduled and significant results: activity, expecting that the life of part, l Conservation of Oil: Resulting up to component or system is over and can give 90% saving on oil Procurement and 122 PURCHASE April 2011
  9. 9. Oil, Lubricants & Gas Special Industry ReviewEnvironmental Protection. nearly a 90 percent reduction in bearing l Conservation of Energy: Resulting failures in just six months after thesaving on the Power Bills and also saving the implementation of Pro-active MaintenanceEnvironment. System and improved filtration and l Minimising the Breakdowns: No contamination control in their paper mill.Breakdown Maintenance and No loss of l ? Likewise, Kawasaki Steel, not to beproduction. outdone, implemented a similar Pro-active l Improvement in the Efficiency of Maintenance program and achieved anPlant, Machinery and Systems. almost unbelievable 97% reduction in l Protection and Retention of Additives hydraulic component that no deterioration of hydraulic and l ? The British Hydromechanics ResearchLubrication oils is there, resulting No Association (BHRA) conduct their owndegradation of oil. controlled studies for three years and l Increase in the Operational Life and carefully monitored 117 Hydraulic MachinesPerformance of systems and components. including Injection Moulding, Machine Tools, l No undue wear and tear of parts and Material Handling, Mobile, Construction,components and saving on Maintenance Marine, Metal Working and Test Stands, tocost. establish the benefits of Pro-Active l Manifold times increase in the life of Contamination Control Maintenance. Thesystems including hydraulic pumps etc. results of the study showed a dramaticResulting the huge saving in the money relationship between fluid contaminationspent for procurement of costly hydraulic levels and service life. Improved systempumps and systems. cleanliness achieved extended the time l Increased efficiency of machinery and between failures from 10 to 50 timessystems result in Higher Productivity, Higher depending on cleanliness.Profits, Competitiveness and Growth of l by the Naval Air Development A studybusiness. Centre in Warminster. Pennsylvania l Maintaining Clean & Healthy performed on aircraft hydraulic pumpsEnvironment, Ecological Balance, showed nearly a 4-fold wear-life extensionProtection of Lakes, Rivers & Underground with a 66 percent implementation of Pro-water and subsequently the active Maintenance and improved filtrationPlanet Earth. and a 13-fold wear-life extension with a 93 percent implementation of Pro-activeImplementation of Pro-Active Maintenance System Maintenance and improvement in filtration. When it comes to implementation of Pro- l ? The benefits associated with the Pro-Active Maintenance, the Japanese may be Active Maintenance Technology in thethe global leaders. They have clearly taken a Diesel Engine lubrication oils are great.‘Do-it, Don’t-just-talk-about-it’ Historically, there have been manyapproach. Evidence of this comes from misconceptions regarding the influence ofreports by two of the worlds largest steel contamination of engine service life.mills, Nippon Steel and Kawasaki Steel, both Hence, filters with very poor efficienciesin Japan: have been, and are still specified l Nippon Steel implemented the After frequently for engine oils. However, from aPro-Active Maintenance program plantwide, number of important new field andinvolving contamination control both lab studies, we have concluded thatimproved filtration and rigorous fluid lubrication oil contamination is the primarycleanliness monitoring, pump replacement cause of engine wears that begins what isfrequencies were reduced to one fifth and referred to as the chain-reaction tothe cumulative frequency of all failures failure.related to wear and contamination wasreduced to one tenth. For any further l Like wise the implementation of Pro- questions pleaseActive Maintenance Technology in the contact:lubricating systems involving both journal Er. Ashok Kumar Guptaand roller bearings and maintaining the Chairmansystem fluid clean through proper Crane-Bel Groupcontamination control program, Nippon E-7, Kavi NagarSteel reported after the three-year period Industrial Area,study, that they have successfully achieved a Sector-17, Ghaziabad-50 percent reduction in the bearing purchase 201002, (NCR), INDIAplant-wide. E-mail: ashok@crane- l International Paper Company reported , April 2011 PURCHASE 123
  10. 10. Technical Article Bevel Gear Cutting Tool Inspection and Closed Loop Corrections Dr. Hermann J. Stadtfeld, Vice President – Gleason Corporation P ast and Present Technology Traditional bevel gear cutting blade inspection machines have three linear axes for setup. One of the three axes is used for advancing the blade towards a mechanically or opto- electronically functioning measurement probe. In many cases the blade is inclined versus the major measurement plane by the angle of the cutter head slots of the particular blade type and perpendicular to the sides of the blade shank. This results in three linear freedoms of blade movements in connection with one to five probes and one inclination (commonly realized with a tapered block). No. 562 Blade inspection device inspection device as described above. The blades are inclined at the same angle of the slot inclination in the respective cutter head. The blade geometry is described in the offset plane of the cutter head. The offset plane in face milling cutters is approximately the normal plane to the cutting velocity (offset plane ˜ cutting plane). In face hobbing Figure 1: Dr. Hermann J. Stadtfeld is Vice cutters, the offset plane is designed to be President of Bevel Gear Technology of the close to the cutting plane for the majority of Gleason Works. His team of Research & the gear designs considered to be cut with Development scientists in Rochester, New the particular cutter. York developed together with Gleason The No. 562 device measures up to 5 Metrology Systems in Dayton, Ohio the most points, three on the cutting edge and two on modern CMM measurement for gear cutting the clearance side of the blade. With such a blades, including closed loop corrections. measurement it is possible to determine all Gleason is represented in India with Gleason of the following blade features, which are Works (India) Pvt Ltd. in Bangalore. important to the final part geometry, as well as the clearance side definition: The Gleason No. 562, shown in Figure 2 l Clearance Angle is an example of a manually operated blade l Top Width Blade 54 PURCHASE April 2011
  11. 11. Gears & Motors Industry Spotlight Pressure Angle l fixture has an obvious dependency on the l Distance Blade way the operator feeds the blades into the TOPREM Position (rise) on Cutting l stop position and holds it there, it still is theEdge most used device for comparing the blades It seems that the measurement results of in a set with the reference blade. Bladethe No. 562 are highly operator dependent. comparison utilizing the device in Figure 3 isAn interesting phenomenon that applies to straight forward and fast and delivers athe No. 562 unit is that the absolute accuracy sufficient accuracy level in order to prepareof the results is well suited for a correction of blades to be accurately build in a cutterblades in order to establish cutting blades head.within the accepted tolerance. However, therepeatability from blade to blade seemsrather fair, which has its cause to the largest Goals for a Fast and Reliable Bladepart in the aforementioned operator Measurementdependency. It is a desirable goal to present a blade to A complimentary fixture, shown in Figure a measurement sensor on a stiff and3 is used for the comparison from blade to temperature stable structure. Theblade within one set. The so called arrangement should have a minimum ofcomparison checker in Figure 3 uses slides and rotary axes. The lowest possiblemechanical dial indicators with an anvil, that motion travel of the machine axes promisesallows a sideways blade location on its two the most accurate and repeatable measuringdatum surfaces. A reference blade is gently results. Also the elimination of operatorpressed towards the anvil and then shifted influence would result in a high repeatabilityaxially onto the blade top location stop. In and improve the absolute accuracy in termsthis position, the probe tips (linked to the dial of GR&R evaluations. Finally, the speed of aindicators) are adjusted e.g. to top and flankpoints on the cutting edge as well as theclearance side. The probe tips are pointedand therefore have to be located slightlybehind the cutting edge. Now, the indicatorsare set to “zero” with a probe deflectionequivalent to about 2 pointer revolutions oneach indicator. This assures the eliminationof stick-slip and provides an adequatepressure between indicator stem and linkageas well as probe tip and blade contactingpoint. Even though, the blade comparison Blade measurement coordinate system complete blade measurement is a substantial factor for the success of a cutting blade measurement apparatus. An acceptable measurement time for an average blade lays in the vicinity of 30 seconds to one minute. Desired Measurement Features A fast minimum measurement has to beBlade comparison checker able to capture three points on the cutting edge and two points on the clearance edge, based on a coordinate system which has its April 2011 PURCHASE 55
  12. 12. Industry Spotlight Gears & Motors apparatus and use the least possible amount of measuring time. A complete measurement of all blade features would require a cutting edge scanning and a technique to capture the location and shape of the blade front face as well as the relief surfaces of cutting and clearance side. In both cases, minimum or complete measurement, it is most important to relate all measured points to the correct blade coordinate system X10-Y10-Z10 as shown in Figure 5. This coordinate system is used to define the “tooth forming contour” of the blade which defines together with the basic settings the particular bevel gear geometry. The Y10-Z10-axes are aligned to reflect the cutting plane, while the Y10-axis is collinear with the cutter head axis. The plane X10-Z10 is tangent to the top of the blade. The coordinate origin on the X10-axis lays on the front wall of the blade shank, which is towards the cutter head center. The X10-axis is collinear with the cutting velocity direction, which is not the direction of the front face distance. The normal distance from the extended front blade shank wall to the theoretical blade point defined by the blade front face distance determines the location of the front face (in blade thickness direction); Blade coordinate system and front face distance this is the definition of the front face distance as shown in Figure 5 [1]. Blade Features to be Verified orientation from the cutting plane and the The following list includes all global blade two seating surfaces of the blade shank features (also shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7): (Figure 4). Such a minimum measurement l Rake Angle (Figure 6) Side would correspond closely to the No. 562 l Top Rake Angle (Figure 6) Global blade features [2]56 PURCHASE April 2011
  13. 13. Gears & Motors Industry Spotlight Cutting Edge Hook Angle (Figure 6, lright) l and Slot Inclination Angle Blade(Figure 6) l Relief Angle (Figure 6) Side l Top Relief Angle (Figure 6) l Top Slope Angle (Figure 7) l Top Width (Blade Point) (Figure 6)Specific features of the “tooth formingcontour” are shown in Figure 7 and Figure 6: l Pressure Angle l Clearance Angle l Distance Blade l Face Distance (Figure 6) Front l Radius Pressure Angle Side Edge l Radius Clearance Side Edge l Toprem Depth l Toprem Angle l Blended Toprem Radius (not shown) l Flankrem Depth l Flankrem Angle Gleason GBX measurement was developed on the basis of a three- dimensional coordinate measurement machine using a three-dimensional scanning probe. Figure 8 shows the Gleason GBX, a coordinate measurement machine, dedicated to cutting blade measurement The measurement of the GBX machine takes place at or behind the cutting edge, inside of the side relief surface with the spherical tip of a measurement probe. The blade front face is measured along a triangular path, which establishes the front face surface as a plane using an approximation method (Figure 9). The knowledge of the approximate shape and orientation of the relief surface angles allows the calculation of the theoretically correct path behind the cutting edge (adjusted nominals). The accuracy of this Specific features of tooth forming contour Flankrem Radius (not shown) l l Curvature Radius BladeBlade Coordinate Measurement with Gleason Measurement principle of front faceGBX and below the blade edge A more advanced and automated April 2011 PURCHASE 57
  14. 14. Industry Spotlight Gears & Motors Universal GBX blade holding fixture, RSR® blade left, Pentac® blade right procedure is significantly above the holding fixture, RSR® blade left, Pentac® measurement results of the No. 562 device. blade right Beyond that, it is possible to evaluate The strength of the Gleason GBX is the additional blade features versus the No. 562, fact, that it represents a CNC controlled, such as blade curvature radii, Toprem rise, highly accurate metrology device which is an edge radii and front face distance. integral unit together with the blade Metrology devices, as shown in Figure 1 mathematical software (GEMS) and the and 8 are not really suited for a production control software. The components of the measurement (comparison) of complete sets integral unit work together in a semi real of blades after the blade grinding and in time mode which allows the different order to qualify sets of blades for being measurement steps, like the cutting edge assembled in cutter heads. The duration of a measurement being influenced by the blade measurement is in the vicinity of the previously conducted front face scanning. time it takes to grind a blade which is not A prismatic V-block fixture with a spring easily acceptable for a production loaded arm for holding rectangular blades measurement. (Figure 10, left) as well as Pentac® blades Figure 10: Universal GBX blade (Figure 10, right) has been developed. The probe will scan the seating surfaces of the fixture during a setup/calibration mode. No blade datum surface scanning is required during the regular blade measurement cycle. Studies with the newly developed GBX blade holding fixture have shown that the achieved accuracy is high and the repeatability is excellent. Those attributes are combined with a rather short measuring time because of the elimination of individual datum surface measurements. GBX Measurement Cycle and Correction In a measurement cycle, the front face is scanned first along a triangular path (Figure 9). The knowledge of the front face location and orientation is used by the blade mathematical software to calculate the nominal cutting edge function, considering the actual front face. The knowledge of the Nominal-actual blade side relief surfaces is used in order to contour and No 562 points calculate a scanning path between 0 to 15 ?m behind the cutting edge (adjusted58 PURCHASE April 2011
  15. 15. Gears & Motors Industry Spotlight Blade correction output screennominals). Next, the cutting edge blade tip leads in cases of small blade deviations toand clearance side of the blade is scanned. different, but more correct results. In cases of complicated blade contours, In case of three-face ground blades, thelarge blade distortions or the requirement of misslocation of the actual front face resultshighest accuracy, a software option allows in a front face distance, side rake and topthe use of the actually measured blade edge rake angle (blade hook angle) correctioncoordinates as “distorted nominals” and output. In case of two-face ground blades,repeat the blade edge scanning. The results the cutting edge and clearance sidewill be more accurate since the probe corrections are calculated such that thedeflection is minimized in this mode. The correct tooth slot is cut, considering theblade evaluation module receives a wrong front face location and orientation.measurement result in the absolute blade Figure 12 shows the correction outputcoordinate system and compares this with screen of the GBX-GEMS software.the adjusted nominal blade contour behindthe cutting edge. The difference between the Literatureactual and the adjusted nominal contour isused to compute blade corrections. [1] Stadtfeld, H. J. Figure 11 shows the nominal bade Handbook of Bevel and Hypoid Gears -contour (black line) and the actually Calculation, Manufacturing, Optimizationmeasured blade contour (red line) in one Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, priya.compage@gmail.comgraphic, together with the No. 562 New York, 1993measurement pin locations. The No. 562 pinsare only for reference or comparison with [2] Stadtfeld, H. J.older developments. The experience gained The New Freedoms - Three- & Four-Faceduring many measurement studies indicates, Ground Bevel Gear Cutting Blades, Gleasonthat a real comparison between the No. 562 Company Publication, June 2007and the GBX is not very useful because thesignificantly higher accuracy of the GBX April 2011 PURCHASE 59
  17. 17. Gears & Motors Industry SpotlightIntroduction: Shaping Machine is equipped with radial motion of Work Table (X-Axis), cutterI n Gear shaping, the gear shaping cutter & workpiece axes are rotating parallel inmesh (conjugate generating motion) generating motion (C-Axis), Work Table generating motion (E-Axis), stroke positioning motion of gear shaping cutter (L-according to the number of teeth in both Axis).cutter & the workpiece, while gear shaping In case of manufacture of Spur Gears oncutter reciprocates on the spindle for the Gear Shaping Machines, Spur Hydrostatic ormetal removal action (cutting motion). Spur Mechanical Guides are used and for When cutting helical gear, on gear manufacture of Helical Gears, Mechanical orshaping machine, an additional spiral motion Hydrostatic Helical Guides with requiredis introduced to the gear shaping cutter by Leads are used.the helical guide. During return stroke (relief Changing the mechanical/Hydrostaticstroke), the gear shaping cutter is removed Helical guide in gear shaper cutter spindleaway from the workpiece to prevent flank unit takes an enormous amount of time &contact (back-off direction motion) has to be carried out without restriction, These motions are basic functions of the particularly when changing betweengear shaping process. The CNC Gear workpieces with straight, left-hand & right- April 2011 PURCHASE 61
  18. 18. Industry Spotlight Gears & Motors hand teeth. Upright: To counteract the drawbacks of a Upright is mounted on the sub base restricted helix angle & of inflexible tooth which is mounted on machine bed. Upright trace modifications, the is made of high grade casting & well Mechanical/Hydrostatic helical guide has proportionately ribbed to enhance the been replaced in the design by a Electronic machine rigidity. guide. This is possible due to the latest development in high-performance torque Cutter Head: motors and by exploiting the maximum The cutter head rotation is provided by a dynamics of modern NC controls. This separate AC servo motor. The gear shaping electronic helical guide allows back lash free cutter spindle reciprocates during rotation generating drive of the gear shaping cutter through the electronic guide mounted in the which can perform all the additional cutter head. A separate motor is provided to rotational movements of the cutter. This get infinitely variable cutter stroke per feature enormously increases the efficiency minute. of the Gear Shaping machines. A separately designed back off cam In newly designed gear shaping machine, relives the cutter during every return stroke. the desired helix angle can be entered in the The stroke length required for a particular software dialogue programme on a flexible face width can be adjusted by the eccentric basis. This means even a small correction to mechanism in the crank head. the helix angle, resulting from changing The Gear Shaping cutter head has corrections due to heat treatment distortions been completely redesigned with backlash are easy to change without the gear shaper free direct drive for the cutter spindle in cutter or the helical guide. Any helical gear order to deliver higher flexibility & operating with different helix angle & helix direction in ranges than earlier Gear Shaping Machines. one setting is possible with this innovative concept which reduces set up time. Benefits to User: This new technology provides the user with huge potential for savings: Machine Construction: l No investment in Helical guides required. The CNC Gear Shaping Machine with l ? Elimination of lead times needed to electronic guide, which is adopted for purchase mechanical guides. finishing gears up to 250 mm dia & having 5 l set up time ? Zero module & helix angle upto 45o consists of l ? Flexible setting of any helix angle upto 45 the following main components. degree. Machine Bed: l helix angle corrections (e.g. lead ? Simple The Machine Bed supports the Sub Base angle errors due to hardening) & Table Slide. The machine bed also l Reduced machining times through incorporates the coolant reservoir. The accelerated return stroke. machine bed is made of high grade ferrous l direct drive servo spindle motor Use of casting & is double wall construction rigid in for cutter spindle allowing for a nearly design to absorb all the cutting forces constant cutting speed, this improving tool without any distortion, during gear shaping life Vs the non constant velocity of eccentric operation. drives. Table Slide: This newly designed concept of adopting The Table drive indexing is an integrated Electronic Guide on CNC Gear Shaping part of the table. A separate AC servomotor Machine was developed by Premier and is provided for table rotation. The table after thorough testing of machine, the said rotation & gear shaper cutter rotations are machine was displayed in 15th Indian synchronized for gear generation through Machine Tool Exhibition (IMTEX) 2011. FIE electronic gear box. The table slide is moved Foundation authorities visited our stall and in & out by AC servo motor & preloaded ball understood the unique feature of screw for accurate depth & radial feed development of Electronic Guide on Gear control. Shaping Machine and Premier won FIE Foundation Award for this new development.62 PURCHASE April 2011
  19. 19. Technical Article Hoover Dam Operators Monitor Processes Using Dynamic Mapboard with Red Lion PAX Meters A pproximately a million paid visitors—and many a passerby—visit the Hoover Dam each Region. “As this water is released from the Hoover Dam, hydroelectric power is generated; this power is year to take photos or tour the area to learn distributed to southern Nevada, more about the dam’s operation and southern California and Arizona.” appreciate its incredible engineering. Its The Bureau of Reclamation primary purpose, however, is to provide completed the Hoover Dam in 1935—with flood control on the lower Colorado River as power generation beginning the following well as deliver water and power to residents year—and now operates and maintains it. and businesses in the region. This includes coordinating water and power “The reservoir impounded by the operations, as well as managing water dam, Lake Mead, stores Colorado releases to protect two endangered fish River water for delivery to users in species in Lake Mohave, immediately southern Nevada, California, downstream of Hoover Dam. Arizona and northern Mexico,” said With the dam operating around-the-clock, Bob Walsh, Regional External it is important to continuously monitor many Affairs Officer, Bureau of pieces of equipment. This had proven Reclamation, Lower Colorado challenging to perform cost-effectively with the previously installed video projection system. That video system utilized 12 projectors, each with a 42-day defined bulb life. These bulbs needed to be replaced frequently, at a cost of several hundred dollars each—and if a bulb failed while in a projector, the projector was damaged. Plus, the video system did not focus clearly when translated onto the screens in the dam’s control room, making 82 PURCHASE April 2011
  20. 20. Industry Watch Industrial Automation as well as for the two power plant station service units and the station service distributional breakers and switchgear. Gene Hosler, Production Operations Manager for Monitor Mapboard Systems, said the mapboard has delivered dependable results with little maintenance needed. “Managing the Hoover Dam is an amazing job, with operations running 24 hours a day—and since video has a shorter operational life, it was costing Reclamation thousands of dollars a year to maintain and replace equipment,” Hosler said. “A mapboard gives you more than what you can observe on a video screen. It provides crisp images, LED indicators, and real-time status readouts of all collected information using Red Lion’s easy-to-read PAX meters with a half-inch digital display.” The integrated PAX meters connect simply to SCADA systems and use Rs232 communications to deliver real-time readouts of all collected system data. The combination of the dynamic mapboard and PAX meters has offered operators at the Hoover Dam “system at a glance” information with less upkeep and replacements, facilitating simple monitoring and allowing them to easily perform preventative maintenance on the mapboard when required. “The mapboard’s enhanced readability them somewhat difficult to read. assists the operators in monitoring all To address this issue, Reclamation equipment,” said Vince Blaeser, Vice decided to replace the video monitoring President of Sales and Marketing for Monitor system. Following a request for bids, a Mapboard Systems. “The reliability and low contract for a dynamic mapboard was maintenance cost, combined with the graphics, dynamic indicators and readouts awarded to Monitor Mapboard Systems based in Dayton, supplied by Red Lion’s PAX meters, makes this dynamic mapboard an awesome Ohio. This mapboard provides a dynamic representation of the system in use—from operational tool.” To learn more about the Hoover Dam and power generation to water levels—in real time, allowing operators in the control room the Bureau of Reclamation, visit For more to view system status information at a glance. Combined with more than 75 PAX information on Monitor Mapboard Systems, meters by Red Lion, it delivers a reliable LLC, visit monitoring solution in a cost-effective, Red Lion Controls, Inc. is a leading simple-to-use design. manufacturer of industrial control solutions The mapboard displays all standard worldwide. Products include digital/analog operating indications—megawatts of power control, monitoring and panel meters, PID control, human-machine interface panels, being produced by each unit, as well as VARS and and signal conditioning. For more voltage. It shows whether a unit’s breaker information, is open or closed, how much power is being or to find the Red Lion distributor nearest requested from the system and how much you, go to or contact: Red power is produced. This information is Lion Controls, Inc., 20 Willow Springs Circle, displayed for the 17 commercial generators, York, PA 17406; (717) 767-6511.84 PURCHASE April 2011 April 2011 PURCHASE 73
  21. 21. Technical Article Process visibility: Scaling real-time OEE from devices to the process level David Harris, Vice-President Red Lion W hile most modern equipment on the factory floor offers some degree of performance and productivity monitoring, effectively a machine or process is running at a given moment. An established benchmark provides a baseline tying equipment and devices together for for operators based upon what’s actually meaningful and immediate expressions of being produced, tying actual plant floor realities together with the losses that create productivity often remains a hurdle. equipment- and process-related wastes. However, overcoming this challenge pays While it’s unlikely that any plant can operate big dividends. In a landmark presentation of at 100% OEE, many manufacturers set a Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), benchmark of somewhere around 85% OEE Rohm and Haas Corporation found that as a goal. OEE is ten times more cost-effective than adding capital capacity.1 With findings this Two essential requirements for successful OEE dramatic, deploying broad performance The true goal of measuring OEE is to monitoring measures are easy to justify. improve the productivity of your equipment, OEE is a vital metric that combines three and since operators are the ones most key performance indicators (KPI) into a directly responsible in this effort, they single calculation, measured as a percentage should have front-row access to OEE data. against an ideal combination of machine OEE should be looked at as a plant floor uptime, plus the quantity and of the products being produced. The percentages of each of these three KPI are multiplied together to provide the OEE rate quality (OEE = % Availability X % Performance X % Quality). If the goal is performance improvement, OEE is a concise indicator that focuses on how 86 PURCHASE April 2011
  22. 22. Industrial Automation Industry Watchimprovement tool, and by definition should different communicationbe clearly and quickly conveyed to protocols in order to support legacyoperators. This relationship with the data not products, accommodate new technologiesonly helps operators develop the best “feel” or restrict customers to their ownfor their machines, but also focuses their proprietary networks. For example, aattention on maintaining productivity levels. packaging machine may only beIn turn, shift or line supervisors receive programmed to understand howbetter, more timely operator feedback many parts are produced in comparison toregarding the equipment status—empirical its engineered throughput rate, while a piecedata on which to base actions and decisions. of inspection equipment would only know For OEE to be a truly effective tool for how many good and rejected parts wereanalyzing and improving operations, two produced. Data from both must beconditions must exist: communicated and consolidated in order to The first is visual accessibility. OEE calculate OEE.statistics must be viewable to the plant floor Today, data management devices canso that operators in control of the process or provide seamless communications andmachine may respond immediately to the protocol conversion to collectdisplayed calculations. Large overhead plant data from an array of disparate equipmentfloor marquees are often used to display and PLCs. When used as a host device toOEE metrics on the whole, while smaller drive plant floor marquees, a datadisplay boards might service an individual management device can be a very effectivework cell or machine. and versatile solution for delivering real-time The second and most critical aspect for OEE output to a desired visual interface.successful OEE is that data must be In addition to data managementdisplayed in real time. If performance suffers solutions, a number of human-machineduring a shift but operators are not informed interface (HMI) panels also facilitateof this shortfall until an end-of-week communication of data for OEE whilespreadsheet is generated, reconstructing the providing a control interface for operators tocause of the reduction is almost impossible monitor and controlif problematic conditions have already processes. Pairing protocol conversion withpassed or the data is incomplete. By data collection and math capabilities, as wellmonitoring live performance, an operator as providing a direct path from the HMI orcan immediately assess declining OEE rates operator interface (OI) directly to the plantand remedy problems, whether they are floor display, ensures operators can monitormechanical or materials related. OEE values in real time. Because they are integrated into theThe challenge of consolidating data and process, advanced data management andintegrating devices HMI devices bypass the need for One of the best ways to acquire data for a PC, long wire runs or offline processing.OEE is to let the production equipment They can also provide advantages includingmeasure itself, as most the integrated mathmachines today have the intelligence to function capability required to pre-analyzemeasure one or more of the three OEE hard point data, as well as the capabilities toparameters. For instance, once manage multi-vendora machine is programmed for an optimized equipment (including PLCs, drives, PCs andproduction rate, most equipment can PID controllers) and perform data logging.monitor throughput against its Some solutions offer the ability to network- and Web-enable plant floor machinery,designed specifications. Many systems can including legacy serial devices. Thesealso track first pass yield against the total capabilities vastly simplify the acquisitionunits started, and as and movement of data to facilitate scalablePLCs are time-based, they can easily track OEE.the amount of operational time. Most plants use devices made by variousmanufacturers, and manufacturers use many April 2011 PURCHASE 87