Rotary Scholarships Best Practices - RIBI


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These slides, from the webinar recorded on 08 January, 2014, address best practices for Rotary grants scholarships, both inbound and outbound. This content is tailored specifically to clubs and districts in RIBI. To view the webinar recording, please visit

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  • Today, we will go through each step of the scholarships process to help clubs and districts in their planning of inbound and outbound scholars. Each topic will incorporate best practices and examples, and heavily stresses the importance of consistent and clear communication to meet goals and best support scholars. By the end of this session you will know more about:Types of scholarshipsSetting and establishing timelinesCommunication between club and district leadershipCommunication with sponsors & scholars
  • By the end of this session, you will also know more about:Identifying outbound scholar candidatesEntering the application onlinePreparing for scholar departureSetting and communicating reporting requirements
  • As today’s moderator, please allow me to introduce myself. I am Ingrid Schwab, and I am a Regional Grants Officer. I provide support to clubs and districts in RIBI, as well as francophone North and West Africa.
  • We will have two panelists with us today to share their expertise. We have Mike Hodge, the District Rotary Foundation Chair for District 1130. Mike Hodge joined Rotary in 1994. He was a founder member of Rotary Club Aldenham and is currently a member of Rotary Club Barnet. He has acted as Club Foundation Chairman, Club President on three occasions, and has acted as host counselor to twenty Foundation scholars since 2000. He has been a GSE Chair on the District Foundation Committee, District Foundation Grants Chairman, and RIBI Foundation Committee. He is currently acting as District Foundation Chairman until 2016.
  • We also have Steve Munns, the District Rotary Foundation Committee Chair for District 1080. Steve has been in Rotary since 1988, and has been involved with The Rotary Foundation since 2002. He was a District Governor in 2006-07 for District 1240. He was a Major Gift Advisor for one year and then an ARRFC from 2009-2011. He was a Grants Chair for two years and then DRFCC for one year in District 1240, before transferring to District 1080 in 2010. He’s a member of the Rotary Club of Diss & District. He has run two GSE programs since joining 1080, one to southern Illinois and another recently to southern Victoria, Australia. He became DRFCC for 1080 in 2011, and after two years have signed on for a further three years. He and his wife are Major Donors and Bequest Society Members and he has the Citation for Meritorious Service. We thank both of our panelists for sharing their time and knowledge with us.
  • Finally, we also have two Regional Grants Officers on hand to answer questions about Rotary scholarships. Brent Drage started at Rotary in 1999 working in Ambassadorial Scholarships and was a Senior Coordinator in the Future Vision Pilot. He is now the Regional Grants Officer for parts of the US, Australia and New Zealand. He has worked a lot with global grant scholars conducting their studies in RIBI. Alison Randall started at Rotary in 2010 in Humanitarian Programs. Alison then moved to the Future Vision Pilot as a Senior Coordinator and provided support to clubs and districts in RIBI. Alison is now a Regional Grants Officer for a majority of Europe and parts of West Africa. We thank Brent and Alison for sharing their time and knowledge with us.
  • Let’s begin our discussion with the types of scholarships that are available in the new grants structure. We will be discussing global grant and district grant scholarships today. Here we have a photo of a mix of District Grant and Global Grant scholars in District 1080, Steve Munns’ district.
  • I would like to share at this time that there is a third type of scholarship available through packaged grants. The opportunities available for packaged grants scholarships are best explained by the Packaged Grants Staff. Should you wish to have more information, please visit the Rotary website. From there you can navigate to the Packaged Grants page.
  • Let’s first talk about global grant scholarships. Global grants support scholarships for graduate students studying abroad in one of the six areas of focus. Scholarships range from one to four years and therefore can include an entire degree program. Prospective scholars must show proof of admission to the chosen university before the grant will be approved. The Foundation does not require global grant scholars to carry out ambassadorial duties, but the scholarship sponsor may encourage participation in club events or service projects. Global grant scholarships are funded using cash and/or the District Designated Fund, matched by the World Fund. The global grant budget must total at least US$30,000, but a scholarship may be a component of a larger grant application — for example, a scholarship plus a humanitarian project.Also important to note is that clubs can act as the sponsor of a global grant scholarship. Good communication among club- and district- leadership is key so that all parties are aware of inbound and outbound scholars for the area.
  • Now let’s move to district grant scholarships. There is a lot of flexibility with this type of scholarship. District grants can be used to sponsor secondary school, undergraduate, or graduate students studying any subject, either locally or abroad. In addition, the scholarship may cover any length of time — from a six-week language training program to a year or more of university study. Districts may ask scholars to make presentations to local Rotary clubs and participate in Rotary service projects, but such involvement is not required by the Foundation. For those of you looking to replicate the former Ambassadorial Scholarships program, district grants would be a great fit. The district is responsible for all administrative support for district grant scholars. No host counselor is provided for international district grant scholars. Districts may request assistance from Rotarians in the area where the scholar will be studying, but those clubs are under no obligation to act as hosts. It is recommended that districts appoint a scholarships subcommittee chair to manage the logistics of identifying and approving candidates, making payments, and coordinating with the district in which the scholar will be studying.
  • Now let’s move to how best to set and establish timelines for your clubs and districts so you can best support and inbound or outbound scholars in your area. First, there are TRF timeline requirements to note. Global grant applications are accepted on a rolling basis throughout the year, but for grants involving travel such as scholars or vocational training teams, the application must be submitted to TRF at least three months prior to the study start date. District grant scholars are included as part of the spending plan for the block district grant application. The district grant application can be submitted anytime before 15 May for the program year in question. Therefore, you want to make sure that the district grant application has been approved and ideally paid prior to the scholar starting their studies or travel. These are the timelines put in place by TRF, but we encourage club and district leadership to work together to set their own internal deadlines as best suits the goals and schedules of your area.
  • Should you wish to do so, your club and district leadership can agree to have an internal business cycle by which to accept and support scholar candidates, whether inbound or outbound. This is not a TRF requirement and the example we provide here is only a launching point for discussion. Here we have the conversation beginning in January 2014 for the 2014-15 Rotary year. This will be available with the recording of the webinar should you wish to come back to this sample timeline.Club and district timelines don’t have to necessarily align but it’s good to be aware of what everyone’s requiring, if anything. It is generally good practice to keep each other informed on any internal timelines you set. As with all areas, good communication amongst clubs and district is key.
  • To that point, please consider the question, what is your current communication strategy in your district? Currently, what happens when your club or district gets contacted about receiving a scholar or when your club or district wishes to support an outbound scholar? I would like to turn to one of our panelists, Steve Munns, to speak more on this topic. Steve, your district is a popular area for scholars, in particular inbound scholars. What would you suggest in terms of internal communication for scholarships? Steve: We have two main areas of study in our district – Cambridge and Norwich. Under the “old system” we were sent a list of Ambassadorial Scholars, which allowed our Scholars Chair to make contact with Clubs in these two areas, and request help with hosting. Under the new system, if the initial contact is made through the district leadership, then there would be no problems. However, we found that prospective candidates “Googled” Cambridge, and then contacted the first Club that appeared – and of course, it was the same Club each time, which is not a satisfactory situation. We had three prospective Global scholars make contact with us during February of 2013. We hadn’t realized just how the contacts would be made, so hadn’t prepared our Clubs for possible contacts, unfortunately.  After a couple of phone calls and an email circulation we found the best way to deal with the situation for this coming year.This year we are hopefully better prepared. A circularization will soon go to all the Presidents, Secretaries and Club Foundation chairs, informing them of the likelihood that they may be contacted by a prospective scholar. They must then forward any contact through to our Scholars Chair, who will then write to the candidate – or to the representative from the sponsoring district, if we are lucky to have had the contact direct from the leadership. We gain as much information about the candidate as we can, as this will be used when requesting Clubs to host.However, the first thing that the candidate must realize is that when the submission is initiated, it must be set up as a “Club-to-Club” application. As you know, each Club or district can only have a maximum of 10 Global Grant projects on the go at any one time. If every scholarship was carried out as a “Club-to-district” type, our district would soon hit the maximum number.Once we have a prospective Scholar, our Scholars Chair, Hilary King, circularizes the Clubs closest to the study centre, with the information background for the candidate. We make it clear to the Clubs that at this stage the application has not been approved, so there is the chance that the candidate may not be accepted. After a Club has volunteered to host the prospective, we then have a guidance list explaining to the primary hosts their responsibilities. We do request that the District Scholars Chair is copied into all emails between the primary contacts and the scholars. It can mean that we receive an abundance of communications, but at least we are aware of any problems or concerns. Continuing with communication, let’s turn to communication with sponsors and scholars.
  • Generally, it is helpful to set expectations with sponsors and scholars prior to the application process. For example, does your club or district have any priorities on the types of scholars you would like to host or send as outbound scholars? Maybe your area is strong in one particular area of focus, and you would like to promote this. Or, alternatively, maybe you would like to send and receive scholars in a mix of different specialties. This is really up to your clubs and district to decide and then communicate as needed with potential sponsors and scholar candidates. It’s also important to clearly communicate the possibility of a scholarship not being sponsored by your area, or not being approved by TRF. Mike, can you speak a little bit about setting expectations with sponsors and scholars as to a possible approval or denial of an application? Mike: Making an application for a Foundation Global Scholarship is not a foregone conclusion that it will be approved. (Last year 2 out of 24 applications to study in London were declined).Careful preparation and paying attention to due process are beneficial and if the application is not left to the last minute there is more time to answer any questions that may arise in the process.The Areas of Focus are paramount and the nature of the proposed course and future career aspirations must be clearly explained. (It is not sufficient that the scholar is simply considered a bright student). Budgeting is important. Make sure that budget items are realistic and properly stated in the application.The means of funding need to be entered properly and matched against the budget total.Let’s now address how to find and identify outbound scholars from your area.
  • Now that you’ve set procedures for communication, timelines and scholar type, the next step is identifying outbound scholar candidates. Steve, what is the strategy within your clubs and districts to find and recruit outbound scholar candidates? This would be for both district grant and global grant scholars. Steve: As far as Global Grant Scholars are concerned, since the roll-out of the New Grant Model, we decided to leave this period as a fallow year. We felt that we needed to get to grips with one aspect of the system at a time, and it was obvious from the start that we would be receiving a fair share of visiting scholars. However, our district has always been involved with out-going Ambassadorial Scholars in the past, so we now believe that we are ready to deal with global grant candidates.We do have contacts in our Clubs who will be actively promoting scholarships through the universities in the two cities. This is commencing during January and will be via College senior tutors, who are noted on College websites, and also to the Graduate Society, assuming the scholarships are for graduate students.We have a monthly District Bulletin which is distributed via email and this will feature articles concerning the scholarships, and we also hope to promote the programme through our Alumni Facebook page.This will all be happening during February.As far as District Grant scholarships are concerned, I’ve promoted these through Club talks and at our Grants Fair that we ran last April. We would only be able to help finance these in a small way, and I should think only within the UK. We are relying on the Clubs to put forward an application for a short-term study course – but this doesn’t have to fit into the same rigid time-line as the Global Scholarship, of course.
  • In our resources for this webinar, we have a document that will guide you through the steps of logging into the online grants system and beginning a global grant application. This image here gives you an idea of what you will see when you are entering in application content. There is also a section for the scholar to enter his or her profile information and CV to be submitted along with the application. Once the application is submitted, it will go to the Regional Grants Officer at The Rotary Foundation for review and approval. Both of our panelists today have been an incredible resource to Rotarians in their districts working on global grant applications, whether for humanitarian projects, vocational training teams, or scholars. With the launch of the new system, we have found some tips along the way to help Rotarians through the application process. Mike, can you speak about who has access to applications in the system, and the importance of internal communication in this regard? Mike: Only a limited number of individuals can read and have access to an application.Whilst it is necessary for each proposal to have a committee of 3 Rotarians in the Host and International locations it is only the primary contact in each location that can input information.At District level the District Governor and District Foundation Chairman can read and access the application.The District Grants Chairman can read all applications but cannot input information. A District appointed scholar coordinator cannot read or have any access any applications (hopefully this may change) Generally the bulk of the application is completed by the International Primary contact with the Host Primary contact completing short sections relating to local expectations and obligations. The DRFC and DG are required to authorize the application before it is submitted and any DDF that is being committed. When an application is approved by TRF the DG and DRFC also have to reaffirm the agreement to the principles of stewardship as they relate to the application.Most outgoing scholarship applications are likely to be instigated by District Officers due to the requirement for DDF to be committed. As such all relevant parties within the District will have access (even if on a read only basis). Incoming scholarship applications can be more problematic. With most of the inputting being completed by the International District/Club the application needs to be reviewed regularly to ensure that it is progressing and as indicated earlier a District Scholarship coordinator cannot read or access the application. If the Primary Host contact does not keep the District (particularly the scholarship coordinator) updated with progress, difficulties can arise with the final authorization process. Thank you, Mike. Additionally, from a staff standpoint, due to the volume of applications that are submitted to TRF, and in order to be fair to all of the applicants, staff must prioritize the review of grants that are actually submitted to TRF in the order in which they were submitted. We are not able to review applications that are in draft status. Rotarians are able to contact and communicate with TRF staff at any time throughout the process and prior to the submission of applications, such as those in draft status.  When this happens, staff does their best to remind applicants that applications should be submitted at least three months before studies begin in order to allow adequate time for Foundation review and processing.   We have seen applications submitted under the three month time period and staff always do their best to ensure these applications are reviewed as quickly as possible.  However, in order to be fair to all applicants, especially those who do meet the established guidelines, TRF cannot guarantee applications that are not submitted to TRF at least three months prior to the start date will always be approved, assuming they meet all other program requirements.  But again, we will continue to do our best to accommodate all global grant scholarship application requests. In summary, we agree with you that a best practice with the application is to stress regular communication amongst all parties involved.
  • We have discussed the application process for scholarships. Once the application has been approved, there are two key areas to consider in preparation for scholar departure. First, it is important to have a scholar orientation for not only global grant but also district grant scholars. This can be done in-person or as an online webinar, depending on preferences. This can be an incredible resource for scholars prior to their departure. Secondly, we recommend setting payment expectations with sponsors and scholars at the very start of the application process, so that when it is approved, things can move as quickly as possible. Once an application is approved, the sponsors will need to provide bank signatory and account information in the online system. Depending on whether it is club or district sponsored, the Club President or DRFCC will need to authorize the legal agreement after application approval and prior to payment. This is also done within the online system. Payment to the scholar should be completed prior to departure so as not to put a financial burden on the scholar or Rotarian sponsors. Mike, can you speak to your experience in regard to scholar payments? Mike: The Global Grant process is not prescriptive as to how TRF funds will be transmitted to the scholar, although TRF will not pay monies direct to a scholar.There is a view that if TRF pay the Grant monies to the Host Club/District this will reduce the number of financial transactions and keep commission charges to a minimum. If you are anticipating more than a single scholar I would suggest this may place an excessive burden on the District. (In D1130 we had 20+ scholars for 2013/4 and managing that number of financial transfers, possibly amounting to $750,000 doesn’t bear thinking about.There are other factors that in our view indicate that paying the monies to the International District who can then pay over to the Scholar is the most practical solution (provided the application is processed in a timely fashion).The International District/Club has known the Scholar throughout the application process so there is no risk of mistaken identity.If the scholar opens an account with a major International Bank the money can be paid in locally and transferred as necessary to be accessible in the Host locality.This avoids issues with potential money laundering concerns whereby the process of opening a new account requires confirmation of a permanent address and committing to an agreement for accommodation requires details of a current bank account. The first significant cost can be the airline ticket and if paid locally the scholar is in funds for this expenditure.The payment of the University fees need to made at enrolment and this can be problematic if the scholar does not already have access to the funds on arrival.Living accommodation is a similar scenario.
  • As our final point, let’s discuss setting and communicating reporting requirements. For TRF requirements, the financial documentation is the same for global grant and district grant scholars. The club or district must keep copies of all receipts and bank statements related to the grant in accordance with the terms of qualification. For global grant scholars, we will require a copy of the bank statement showing that the funds were received and paid out, as with any other global grant application. The global grant scholar must also provide a summary of research and show how their studies or research aligned with their area of focus. For district grant scholars, the report is part of the overall report for the district grant. Your district may wish to include additional reporting requirements for district grant scholars. Mike, can you talk about how your district sets and communicates reporting requirements? Mike: Reporting is very important. Any delay or failure of a scholar to meet the TRF reporting requirements could prejudice Scholarship applications for the next year and in fact could result in all Global Grant applications being delayed.Our experience is solely with incoming scholarships. We do not set any reporting requirements over and above hose specified by TRF.We make a point in the initial communication with the sponsoring Club/District that we expect that they will be proactive in instigating the reporting process towards the end of the study period. More particularly we hold an orientation and welcome meeting for all incoming scholars before the first term starts and one of the aspects we emphasize is the importance of them submitting their annual/final report to TRF without delay so as not to prejudice the opportunity for future students to come to London. We know it might seem strange to be talking about steps to be taken at the end of the scholarship when they have only just arrived but we feel it is important that they keep “reporting” to the front of their minds throughout the year.We encourage the scholars to be familiar with the requirements and to make notes and assemble relevant information as they go along rather than scrabbling around for the information at the point of reporting.Financial details are paramount. So we advise them to keep all receipts that align with the significant items of the budget submitted with the Global Scholarship application. (In many cases this is straight forward as it relates to initial transport to London, college fees and accommodation rent. Other items may be expenditure on supplementary course requirements, travel expenses associated with studying and “housekeeping” if these have been included in the budget).Record Rotary Club and District engagements to meet the requirements relating to involvement with Rotary during the period of the scholarship. Reminders are given at a pre-Christmas meeting and again at the end of the second term. (Note that it is best not to leave the reminders until just before the reports are due because it is not unusual for the scholars to head home (or even go travelling) once the official attendance on the course is concluded notwithstanding that they may still have to submit a dissertation as it is acceptable at many Universities for these to be submitted electronically.Thanks, Mike. I would also like to add that the first report for a grant is due 12 months from the date of payment. This is something to keep in mind when you receive the payment notification letter from TRF. On a final point, let’s consider ways in which we can get alumni to stay involved. Steve, do you have any advice on this point? Steve: I suppose that it can only start by ensuring that alumni build friendships between themselves, and with us Rotarians. In the past we have always tried to ensure that anyone involved with either GSE or Rotary Scholarships, is invited to take part in Club activities. This is during their time of full-involvement, of course, and has involved street collections and involvement in local projects. Our visiting Scholars are invited to a Welcome Evening early in October, where they speak for a short time about themselves and the forth-coming study course.They are encouraged to give talks to Clubs throughout the district, and to attend the District Council Meeting in January. At this meeting, they are once more expected to each give a short presentation about themselves – there are delegates from the majority of the Clubs in attendance, so this is a good opportunity to make friends.About three years ago, we gathered all the information about previous Alumni and have kept this up-to-date on a spreadsheet. Since that time, we have had two Alumni Evenings, both featuring our out-going GSE Teams. All our Alumni are invited to be present at these evenings, and we have had quite a good attendance from them.We have started an Alumni Facebook page, and have about 30 people on this. However, I think that this needs a lot more development, and preferably more from the “younger element”, than we get at present. We are just chartering an e-Club, so they will be invited to join, of course.
  • On that note, I would like to thank our panelists today for sharing their best practices for Rotary scholarships. It has been wonderful to have you on the panel.I would like to take this time to share resources that we have for scholarships. There is documentation on the website. We encourage you to reach out to your local leadership and experts for their input and guidance. The rants staff at TRF is also happy to help at any point throughout the process.
  • If there are any questions for our panelists or for our Regional Grants staff, we are happy to address them at this time. Any questions we don’t have an opportunity to answer during the live webinar will be addressed via email after the webinar. We are recording the webinar and will send you a link to view the recording within a day or two of the webinar.
  • Thanks again to our panelists for sharing their experiences and knowledge with us. Thank you all for joining us today to discuss best practices for all aspects of Rotary scholarships in RIBI. For any questions we didn’t get a chance to address today, we will address them via email after the webinar. We have recorded the webinar and will send you a link to view the recording within the next few days.Many thanks again for participating, and have a wonderful day.
  • Rotary Scholarships Best Practices - RIBI

    2. 2. TODAY’S OBJECTIVES By the end of this session you will know more about:  Types of scholarships  Setting and establishing timelines  Communication between club and district leadership  Communication with sponsors & scholars SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 2
    3. 3. TODAY’S OBJECTIVES By the end of this session you will know more about:  Identifying outbound scholar candidates  Entering the application online  Preparing for scholar departure  Setting and communicating reporting requirements SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 3
    4. 4. MODERATOR • Ingrid Schwab, Regional Grants Officer SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 4
    5. 5. PANELIST • Mike Hodge, District Rotary Foundation Committee Chair, District 1130 SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 5
    6. 6. PANELIST • Steve Munns, District Rotary Foundation Committee Chair, District 1080 SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 6
    7. 7. TRF STAFF • Brent Drage, Regional Grants Officer • Alison Randall, Regional Grants Officer SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 7
    8. 8. TYPES OF SCHOLARSHIPS Global grant & District grant scholarships SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 8
    10. 10. GLOBAL GRANT SCHOLARSHIPS • • • • • Graduate-level Study period 1-4 years Alignment with the areas of focus $30,000 minimum budget Host and international sponsors SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 1 0
    11. 11. DISTRICT GRANT SCHOLARSHIPS • Flexibility with – Level of study (secondary, university, graduate studies or certificate programs) – Location (local or international) – Length of study – Area of study – Cost • Managed by district SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 1 1
    12. 12. SETTING AND ESTABLISHING TIMELINES TRF timeline requirements: • Global grants – Accepted on rolling basis – Application submitted at least 3 months before study start date • District grants – Part of the spending plan SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 1 2
    13. 13. SETTING AND ESTABLISHING TIMELINES Month Activity January Club and district leaders agree on internal procedures (application cycle, communication) Publicize opportunities (internally and externally) February Clubs and districts recruit outbound scholars Connect with partners about inbound scholar March Clubs and districts interview candidates Make preliminary decisions about which candidates to support and waitlist April Clubs inform district of candidates and ask for district support (including DDF, if desired) May Clubs and districts make final decisions about which candidates to support and waitlist Submit global grant applications online June Ongoing application submission, review, approval July Earliest that a 2014-15 scholar could receive payment SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 1 3
    14. 14. COMMUNICATION BETWEEN CLUB AND DISTRICT LEADERSHIP • What is your communication strategy? • Club/district contacted about inbound scholar • Club/district wishes to support outbound scholar SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 1 4
    15. 15. COMMUNICATION WITH SPONSORS & SCHOLARS • Setting expectations with sponsors & scholars – Club & district priorities for scholar types – Possible approval/denial by TRF – Scholar waitlist – Do not wish or are not able to support scholar • Notification of selected district grant scholars SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 1 5
    16. 16. IDENTIFYING OUTBOUND SCHOLAR CANDIDATES • How do you find and recruit outbound scholar candidates? SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 1 6
    18. 18. PREPARING FOR SCHOLAR DEPARTURE Scholar orientation for both GG & DG scholars Scholar payment: • • • • • Setting payment expectations with sponsors Completing online payment requirements Authorizing the legal agreement Paying scholar prior to departure DG scholars: need approval of DG application prior to scholar payment SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 1 8
    19. 19. SETTING AND COMMUNICATING REPORTING REQUIREMENTS • Same financial documentation for both types • GG scholars: – Summary of research – Show alignment with area of focus • DG scholars: – Part of the overall district grant report – District can include additional requirements • Overdue reporting can impact application approvals • Staying involved as alumni SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 1 9
    20. 20. RESOURCES • – Facts About Rotary Foundation Scholarships – Global Grant Scholarship Supplement – District Grant Scholarships Best Practices • Local experts • TRF staff SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 2 0
    21. 21. Q&A • Any questions? SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 2 1
    22. 22. Thank you for joining us today! SCHOLARSHIPS BEST PRACTICES - RIBI | 2 2