How to Conduct a Community Assessment for Health Projects

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“I want to do a health project but I don’t know where to start!” This is a common challenge. Doing a community needs assessment is a crucial piece to planning successful projects but can often seem like a daunting task. Join us for a great conversation and fun exercise in doing a community assessment in maternal and child health or disease prevention and treatment, and go back to your district with a better understanding of community assessment and planning tools.

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How to Conduct a Community Assessment for Health Projects

  1. 1. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 CONDUCTING A COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT FOR HEALTH PROJECTS
  2. 2. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 1. Opening Remarks – By Moderator - Marion Bunch, Rotarians For Family Health & AIDS Prevention, Founder & CEO 2. Remarks by Panel Speakers - Renee Saunders, Centers for Disease Control, Senior Public Health Advisor - Emmanuel A. Lufadeju, CEO Lufarmco LLC 3. Question & Answer (large group) 4. Closing Remarks – By Moderator AGENDA 2
  3. 3. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 Rotarians Should Have a Clear Understanding and Strategy For: 1. Explanation of community assessment process and importance of community buy-in when planning a project 1. Ensuring their project planning incorporates specific community assessment /community buy-in data or reports. 1. Be able to identify club, district, cooperating organization or Ministry of Health resources that will produce reliable community assessment baseline information. 1. Acquire as needed in report format this baseline information from identified cooperating organizations or Ministry of Health. Include this reported information in all project development materials, be they programs or grants. OUTCOME OF SESSION 3
  4. 4. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 KEY CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF A COMMUNITY HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMENT By: Renee Saunders, Senior Public Health Advisor CDC/Division of Global HIV/AIDS 4
  5. 5. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Community health needs assessment is a process that: – describes the state of health of local people – enables the identification of the major risk factors and causes of ill health; and – enables the identification of the actions needed to address these. It is not a one-off activity, but a developmental process that is added to and amended over time. It is not an end in itself but a way of using information to plan health care and public health programs in the future. What is a community health needs assessment?
  6. 6. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 Needs assessment enable you to: • Plan and deliver the most effective care to those in greatest need; • Find out about and address inequalities in health; • Identify gaps in local provision; • Ensure that scarce resources are allocated where they can give maximum health benefit; and • Work collaboratively with the community, other professionals and agencies to determine which health issues cause greatest concern and plan interventios to address these issues. Why do it?
  7. 7. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Profiling the population: data collection and analysis • Deciding on priorities for action • Planning public health and health care programs to address the priority issues • Implementing the planned activities • Evaluation of health outcomes Steps of a community health needs assessment:
  8. 8. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Key questions to ask: – What are the key characteristics of the population? – What is the health status of the people? – What local factors are affecting their health and what impact do they have (good or bad)? – What services are currently being provided? – What do local people see as their health needs? – What are the national and local priorities for health? Profiling the population
  9. 9. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 Quantitative: – Population, demographic and socioeconomic data – Previous assessments – Health indicators that address determinants of health that promote quality of life, healthy behaviors, and healthy development across all life stages Qualitative: – Observations through field work – Key informant interviews – Focus groups – Community asset mapping Data collection
  10. 10. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Compare your population with a larger group to ascertain whether a health issue or disease rate is higher or lower than expected; • Compare current information with that collected in previous years to identify trends over time; • Identify significant gaps in the information; • Compare and contrast different types of information; • Look for positive features as well as problems; even the most disadvantaged communities have strengths that can form the building blocks for change • Summarize and make a list of the health issues you identify Data analysis
  11. 11. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Setting priorities: – How many people are affected? – Are there disadvantaged groups with high needs for care? – Are some people less able to access services? – Are those whose needs are greatest receiving the services they need? – What is the impact on people’s lives? – Are there appropriate and effective interventions? – Does the health need identified coincide with known priorities and strategies? – Is the expertise and training available? What to do with the information?
  12. 12. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • The measure of a good assessment process will be the success or failure of the actions taken to improve health: – Think broadly and creatively about potential solutions to the issues you are tackling. – A community health needs assessment belongs to the local community and those who work in it. – Work needs to be planned with others, agreeing who the key people are and deciding together what needs to be done and by when. – Include health promotion activities in plan Planning and implementation
  13. 13. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Monitor and record changes that are taking place • Evaluate successes and failures • Aim for small, achievable, measurable goals • Share and celebrate you successes with others • Where plans are not having the desired effect, consider them again and consult with others to develop changes Measuring success
  14. 14. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 A MATERNAL & CHILD HEALTH PROGRAM IN NIGERIA: A Model Project By: PDG Prof. Emmanuel Adedolapo Lufadeju Rotarian Action Group for Population & Development 4
  15. 15. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 Steps to Organize a Community Service Project Based on the pilot project “child spacing and family health program” in Nigeria 5
  16. 16. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 PROJECT INITIATION • Find out unmet real needs by conducting a community Needs Assessment • Conduct baseline survey of the area or a Rapid Rural Appraisal • Conduct situation analysis of health facilities/staff production of map of local government area with health post, local gynecological health clinics, NGOs and traditional healers 6
  17. 17. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 PROJECT INITIATION • Integrate women in development clubs, associations and health committees • Embark on mobilization and reorientation of existing health, and health related staff of all categories Information, education and communication 7
  18. 18. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Local religious leaders, traditional rulers, and chiefs, District heads, Village and Wards heads. • Local and State government administrators, health departments of local governments • Town criers, health committees and influential opinion leaders /NGOs • Teaching and specialist hospitals, State hospitals and Local government health clinics. ESTABLISH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION THROUGH 8
  19. 19. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Public Awareness Campaign and Advocacy • Training and capacity building of Health Workers • Counseling and Contraceptive Distribution • Equipment procurement and Maintenance • Quality Assurance PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION: APPLY THE FIVE PILLARS 9
  20. 20. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Institute good record keeping and train recorders • Keep accurate client records books and provide clients with personal record • Provide monthly return forms PROJECT SUPERVISION 10
  21. 21. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Ensure adequate supply of all available materials recommended for program • Arrange regular visits to project hospitals and local government clinics by Rotarians and Rotary leaders • Service providers with other officers in charge of health clinics PROJECT SUPERVISION 11
  22. 22. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Radio, TV, use of traditional rulers and celebrities in advertising • Drama groups • Audio and Video cassettes • Poster, Stickers, handbills, Bill Boards and pamphlets • Mouth-to-mouth information by trained staff, especially TBAs • Drama Groups • Meetings of Village and district heads • Town criers INFORMATION, EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION THROUGH: 12
  23. 23. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • The principle of quality assurance in a hospital is based on three major parameters: 1. QUALITY OF INFRASTRUCTURE comprises the condition of the hospital building, water supply, power supply, hygienic conditions, number and qualification of staff, and available equipment. 2. QUALITY OF PROCESS is majorly dependent on adequate structure and also the qualification and professional capacity of the staff, their experience and performance. 3. QUALITY OF OUTCOME is the effect and impact of necessary intervention which will lead to a quantum reduction in maternal and infant morbidity and mortality and consequent improvement. • All three parameters are interdependent and connected PROJECT ACHIEVMENTS, IMPACT AND LESSONS LEARNED 13
  24. 24. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 Key Quality Indicators for Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) - Reduced from 1715/100,000 (2008) - 670/100,000 (2012) Fetal Mortality Rate (FMR) - 6 to 16 % (2008 to 2012 in Kaduna - 5 to 18 % (2008 to 2013 in Kano) Compare these results with FCT Abuja and Ondo States - 2 to 5% for same period ACHIEVEMENTS CONTINUED 14
  25. 25. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • Number of mothers receiving prenatal care: - 307,184 women 2008-2013 • Number of maternal and child health professionals trained: - 200 in average 2008-2013 ACHIEVEMENTS CONTINUED 15
  26. 26. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • All four regions record various levels of decrease as follows; 1. Kano (0.95 in 2008 -to- 0.36 in 2013), 2. Kaduna (0.76 in 2008 -to- 0.21 in 2013) 3. Abuja (0.06 in 2008 -to- 0.06 in 2013) 4. Ondo (0.18 in 1st qtr 2013 -to- 0.07 in 4th qtr 2013) REPORT OF DECREASED MATERNAL MORTALITY RATES: 16
  27. 27. 2014 ROTARY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION JUNE 2, 2014 • 20 Facilities are Benefiting. (5 in each Region) 1. Kano 2. Kaduna 3. Abuja 4. Ondo NUMBER OF BENEFITING HEALTH FACILITIES: 17

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