They both areParliamentaryDemocraticConstitutionalRepublics
Democratic RepublicA democratic republic is a form of state in whichthe power rests with the people, who choosethose who govern them through freeelectionsThrough elections, people elect theParliament
ParliamentaryIn a parliamentary republic, the Parliament isthe most important body of the state:• It creates laws• It appoints the President and the Council ofMinisters• It controls the work of the Council ofMinisters
ConstitutionalA constitutional state is a state in which thegovernment is bounded by aconstitutionThe fundamental law ofthe state
1.It lays down and protectsfundamental rights• Equality before the law• Right to vote• Freedom of thought, speech, religion...
2.It establishes the structures of thestate:The Government, which exerts the executivepowerThe power to control the execution of the laws
The Parliament, which exerts the legislative powerThe power to make law
The judiciary, which exerts the judiciary powerThe power to punish those who do not respectthe law
What is the main difference betweenItaly and India?India is afederal stateItaly is aunitary state
Unitary stateA state with only one central government(one Parliament, one Council of Ministries, oneJudiciary)deciding on all national matters
Federal stateA union of states which are united by a centralgovernment.The states can decide autonomously on certainmatters, but other ones (warfare, foreignpolicy, money) are a competence of the centralgovernment.Can you tell the name of any state of India?And the name of any other federal state in theworld?
Now it’s up to you!• Why do we celebrate Republic Day?• What is India and Italy’s form of state?• What does the word “democracy” mean?• What powers does the parliament exercise?• What is a constitution and what does itcontain?• What are the differences between an unitaryand a federal state?