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MoodlePosium 2016 what is web accessibility


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Making your course content accessible for people with disabilities should already be an existing part of your moodle strategy. Applying techniques from the web content accessibility guidelines version 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) will result in accessible web content which every student regardless of a disability can access, understand and use?

Not quite, WCAG 2.0 makes great progress towards ensuring web content is accessible, however by applying techniques with no clear understanding of what they actually achieve can often result in poor accessibility, difficult to understand content when navigating with assistive technology and in some instances wholly unusable even though it may be technically compliant.

The presentation will explain what WCAG 2.0 is, the types of disabilities a user may have and how those users navigate with assistive technology. By understanding the fundamentals of inclusive design practices with web accessibility will enabled content designers to begin to design more accessible content. We discuss the most common web accessibility pitfalls and how to fix them and how to check your own work is accessible using free online tools.

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MoodlePosium 2016 what is web accessibility

  1. 1. What is Web Accessibility? Ross Mullen Moodleposium 2016
  2. 2. I'll be discussing • What and why accessibility • Types of disabilities a user may experience • A few tips to make your content better • Links • Images • PDF files • Videos
  3. 3. What is web accessibility? • making web content accessible to everyone regardless of impairments • if content isn’t easy for assistive technology to interact with it and understand, it will make it very difficult for the end user to use the content
  4. 4. Why web accessibility • Disability Discrimination Act • If web content is not accessible it is potentially in breach of the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) and can result in legal action being taken. • University policies • It’s the right thing to do
  5. 5. What is WCAG 2.0 • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines version 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) • It’s the most consistent way to assess web content • Endorsed by many Governments around the world • Numbered criteria with accompanying techniques
  6. 6. Types of disabilities • Not all users interact with web sites the same way • Assistive technology is a broad term that describes any number of pieces of hardware and software that ‘assists’ the user
  7. 7. Types of disabilities • Four main types we need to consider when designing content • Sight • Movement • Hearing • Cognitive
  8. 8. How screen readers work • Reads the HTML code and onscreen text • Announces content through a synthesised voice • Has features which make it easier for users to understand content • Viewing all page links in a separate window
  9. 9. Challenges • Moodle has accessibility challenges • Authoring your content in better ways helps
  10. 10. 1. Link text • It is the visible text on a link • I am a link
  11. 11. Avoid unclear link text Enrol in this semesters course content click here
  12. 12. Screen reader links list window
  13. 13. Better link text Enrol in this semesters course content Read the news about the university read an important announcement
  14. 14. Confusing link text Course 1 schedule Course 2 schedule Course 3 schedule Course 4 schedule Course 5 schedule Course 6 schedule
  15. 15. Unique information in the link • Place unique information in the link at the start • Course 1 schedule (don’t do this) • 1st Course schedule (do this)
  16. 16. Unique information in the link 1st course schedule 2nd course schedule 3rd course schedule 4th course schedule 5th course schedule 6th course schedule
  17. 17. Add hint text to links • Make the user aware the link triggers a file to be downloaded • Give them extra information to assist Course information [PDF opens an external program] Course content outline [link open in a new window]
  18. 18. Links summary • Avoid using the words “click here” or other vague text • Make link text understandable on its own • Place unique information at the start of link text • Make the user aware if the link opens a file
  19. 19. 2. Images • All images must have an ALT attribute • Not all images require ALT text <img src="image1.gif" alt=""> <img src="image2.gif" alt="Canberra skyline showing Mt Ainslie">
  20. 20. Images • If the image is decorative only and it doesn’t convey information • No ALT text is required
  21. 21. Images • If the image conveys information that is required for understanding • ALT text is required • Explain what is in the image, does the description make sense if you were unable to see it?
  22. 22. Images summary • All images must have ALT attributes • Not all images require ALT text (alt="this text") • Use your judgement to decide if an image is decorative
  23. 23. 3. PDF files • Can be made accessible • Structured word document will output a structured PDF • Accessibility begins dropping off when images are added • Especially complex images
  24. 24. Please don’t do this • Do not have a PDF file which has screenshots from PowerPoint • Completely inaccessible
  25. 25. PDF caveat • Assistive technology on mobile devices hasn’t matured enough to understand tagged PDF documents • If students are accessing content on mobile devices • Cannot rely on PDF alone • Always provide an alternative document format • Ideally that format should be HTML • And that should be the primary document format
  26. 26. 4. Videos • Captions are required for audio content • An audio description may be required if there is background audio that needs describing • Provide a transcript of the video • Benefits everyone not just those users that require the support • Users may not want to sit through a 45minute video
  27. 27. Autocaptioning • Feature of YouTube • In very limited ways it can provide accurate captions
  28. 28. Autocaptioning fail "Things like the big butts well we want to carefully look"
  29. 29. Video summary • Caption all spoken words • Consider a separate audio description • Don’t use autocaption • Always add your own captions
  30. 30. Accessibility testing • Automatic testing tools are good for identifying easy fixes • Cannot be relied upon as the sole source of testing
  31. 31. SQUIZ HTML code sniffer • Browser bookmarklet • Performs strict syntax testing and may display many errors • Not everything is an accessibility problem which needs fixing •
  32. 32. Issues display • When activated displays a list of issue
  33. 33. Individual issue • Each issue displays an in-depth description • WCAG criteria • WCAG technique • Clicking the pin shows the location
  34. 34. Testing with screen readers • Test with JAWS or NVDA • Can you tab to links • Can the links be understood • Are there keyboard traps with the content • What happens when a link triggers a PDF • View the links in the links list • Insert + F7 (JAWS) • F7 (NVDA)
  35. 35. Testing with users • Test with all ages • With and without impairments • Testing isn't a once only tasks it needs constant checking
  36. 36. External testing • Automatic testing is good for simple HTML • When course content becomes complex use outside testing services • An accessibility audit report gives you confidence you're meeting accessibility obligations
  37. 37. Make your course content inclusive • Provide the best possible experience to the end user regardless of impairment • Make your course content inclusive
  38. 38. In summary • Web accessibility needs constant effort • Automatic checking tools are good for basic HTML • External companies provide greater checking auditing capability • It will benefit many people • Its ok to not get things 100%
  39. 39. Continue the conversation • Reach out • • • @MrRossMullen •