IAS 17


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IAS 17

  1. 1. IAS 17: Leases Roshankumar Pimpalkarroshankumar.2007@rediffmail.com
  2. 2. ObjectiveThe objective of IAS 17 is to prescribe for lessees and lessors, the appropriateaccounting policies and disclosures to apply in relation to finance and operatingleases.Lease is an agreement whereby the lessor gives the lessee the right to use an assetfor an agreed period of time in return for a payment or a series of payments.The guidance in IAS 17 must be used to determine the classification of lease and notthe agreement of the lease. When a contract includes both asset and services, IAS17 applies to the part relating to use of the asset.IAS 17 applies to all leases except for certain specialised types of leases wheremore specific industry guidance is generally applied. IFRIC 4 provides guidance onwhether an arrangement is, or contains, a lease that should be accounted for inaccordance with IAS 17.IFRIC 4 does not apply to arrangements that: Are, or contain leases excluded from the scope of IAS 17: or Are public-to-private service concession arrangements within the scope of IFRIC 12Factors to be considered to determine whether an arrangement contains a lease 1. Depends on the substance of the arrangement 2. The fulfilment of the arrangement depends on the use of a specific asset(s); AND 3. The arrangement conveys the right to use (control the use of) the asset i.e. a. Right to operate the asset/direct others to operate the asset in a manner it determines. b. Right to control physical access to underlying asset c. Purchaser will take a significant amount of output and price paid not contractually fixed per unit nor equal to the current market price.Timing of assessment of arrangement 1. At the inception of arrangement 2. Reassess when: a. Contractual terms have changed. b. A renewal option or extension is exercised which was not initially included in lease c. A change in the determination of whether fulfilment is dependent on a specific asset d. Substantial change to asset.Lease accounting shall be applied or cease to apply from when the change incircumstances giving rise to reassessment occurred or from the inception of therenewal or extension period.roshankumar.2007@rediffmail.com
  3. 3. For the purposes of applying the requirements of IAS 17, payments and otherconsideration required by the arrangement shall be separated at the inception of thearrangement, or upon reassessment of the arrangement, into those for the lease andthose for other elements on the basis of their relative fair values and purchaser’sestimation.IAS 17 is not applicable to: Lease agreements to explore for or use minerals, oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources Licensing agreements for such items as motion picture films, video recordings, plays, manuscripts, patents and copyrightsIAS 17 should not be applied to measurement by: Property held by lessee that is accounted for as investment property Investment property provided by lessors under operating leases Biological assets held by lessees under financial leases Biological assets provided by lessors under operating leasesA lease is a Finance lease if substantially all the risk and rewards incident toownership of the asset are transferred to the lessee. Finance lease are in substancethe purchase of an asset using a loan secured on that asset.An operating lease is any lease that is not a finance lease.The classification of the lease as a finance or operating depends on the substance,rather than the legal form of transaction.Examples of Risks and Reward:Risks: Idle capacity Technological obsolescence Unsatisfactory performanceRewards: Expectation of profits over assets economic life Gain from appreciation in value Gain from realisation of a residual valueIf anyone or more of the following five situations exists in a lease, it can normally beclassified as finance leaseroshankumar.2007@rediffmail.com
  4. 4. The ownership of the asset transfers to the lessee by the end of the lease term. The lessee has the option to purchase the asset at the price which is substantially lower than the fair value. The lease term is for the major part of the economic life of the asset. The present value of minimum lease payments amounts to substantially all of the fair value of the leased asset. The leased assets are of the specialised nature so that only lessee can use it without major modification being made.IAS 17 also describes the three additional situations, that, individually or incombination, could lead to a lease being classified as a finance lease even if none ofthe above five indicators apply If the lessee can cancel the lease it will bear the lessors losses associated with cancellation The gains or losses from the fluctuation in the fair value of the residual value fall to the lessee The lessee has the ability to continue the lease for a secondary period at a rent that is substantially lower than the market rent 1. The ownership is transferred when the legal title is transferred. The legal title may transfer either: a. As a result of lease agreement; or b. Within a separate agreement that forms part of the overall leasing transaction The condition will be met, in substance, where the lessor has the put option requiring the lessee to acquire the asset and the lessor is expected to exercise the option. 2. Lease term is the total of: The non-cancellable period for which the lessee has contracted to lease the asset Any further terms for which the lessee has the option to continue to lease the asset, with or without further payment, and at the inception of lease it is reasonably certain that the lessee will exercise the option In general when a lease term is for at least 75% of the economic life, it is highly classified that the lease will be classified as finance lease. The economic life may be represented by time, or in the manner that best reflects the use of asset. 3. Inception of leaseroshankumar.2007@rediffmail.com
  5. 5. The earlier of the date of the lease agreement or of a commitment by parties to the main provisions of lease 4. Minimum lease payments (MLP) The payments over the lease term that the lessee is or, can be required, to make excluding contingent rent, cost for services and taxes to be paid by and reimbursed to the lessor, together with: In case of lessee any amounts guaranteed by the lessee or by a party related to the lessee; or In case of the lessor any residual value guaranteed to the lessor by either: o The lessee o Any party related to the lessee OR o A third party unrelated to the lessor that is financially capable of discharging the obligations under the guarantee. If the lessee has the option to purchase the asset at the end of the lease term and the lessee is expected to exercise the option then the MLP will include the payment to be made to exercise such option. Refundable security deposit. Termination penalties (if reasonable certain that the lessee will terminate the lease) Rentals on renewal of lease (if reasonable certain it will be renewed) Payments to exclude Contingent rent i.e. the portion of the lease payments that is not fixed in amount but is based on a factor other than just passage of time e.g. percentage of sales Cost of services e.g. maintenance Executory cost e.g. administration cost Payments made by the lessee to a third party unless the recipient is related to the lessor Discount factor to be used to determine present value The discount factor to be used is the interest rate implicit in the lease. If it cannot be determined then the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate, which reflects the risk inherent in the specific asset should be used. The interest rate implicit in the lease is the discount rate that, at the inception of the lease, causes the aggregate present value ofroshankumar.2007@rediffmail.com
  6. 6. The minimum lease payments and The unguaranteed residual value to be equal to the sum of; The fair value of the leased asset and Any initial direct cost to the lessor Fair Value of Leased Asset 1. Lessor is a manufacturer or dealer The fair value of asset should be its normal selling price reflecting any applicable volume or trade discounts. 2. Lessor is not a manufacturer or dealer In general fair value will be the cost of asset reflecting any applicable volume or trade discounts. If the lessor acquired the asset long time ago the market conditions at the inception of the lease must be considered when determining the fair value. These may indicate the fair value is below/above the cost or carrying amount. 3. Leased asset is a used asset If the leased asset is used asset and the fair market value is not determinable, the fair value should be based on a depreciated replacement cost of a comparable new asset.Finance lease- Accounting- LesseeLessee must recognise the an asset and a liability in the statement of financialposition at the lower of, at the inception of the lease, Fair value of the asset Present value of minimum lease paymentsThe initial direct costs, such as negotiating and securing leasing arrangements, areoften incurred in connection with specific leasing activities. Such direct costs areincluded in the carrying amount of leased asset.The lease payments should be allocated between: A finance charge, allocated to periods during the lease terms to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding balance of the liability for each period (payment of interest) and A reduction of the outstanding lease liability (repayment of capital)Operating lease- Accounting- Lesseeroshankumar.2007@rediffmail.com
  7. 7. The lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of comprehensive income on a straight line basis over the lease term unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern of the lessee’s benefit’s from the asset No asset or liability will be created in the statement of financial position except for receivable and payables if the actual payments do not match the charge in the statement of comprehensive income Lease payments do not include any costs for services such as insurance and maintenanceDuring the negotiation of the new lease or the renewal of an existing lease the lessormay offer certain incentives to encourage the lessee to sign the agreement. SIC 15is an interpretation relating to IAS 17. It deals with the recognition of incentives in anoperating lease. Incentives include rent free periods, reduced rentals over a period of time, upfront cash payments etc All incentives are recognised at the inception of the lease as an integral part of the net consideration. They are treated as the reduction of the rental expenses over the lease termLand and Buildings Leases Land and building should be classified separately in accordance with the substance of the transaction. Minimum lease payments are allocated between the two elements, in proportion to their relative fair value. Land and buildings are not separated when o The title on both elements passes to the lessee. In this case entire lease is classified as finance lease. o The land element is immaterial at the inception of the lease o The lease payments cannot be allocated reliably. In this case, the entire lease is a finance lease, unless it is clear that both elements are operating leases.Finance lease- Accounting- Lessor Lessor recognises a receivable in the statement of financial position at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. Net investment in lease = MLP(from standpoint of lessor)+unguaranteed residual value(usually know by the lessor)-unearned interest Unguaranteed residual value is that portion of residual value of leased asset, the realisation of which by the lessor is not assured or is guaranteed solely by a party related to the lessor. The lease payments should be allocated by a lessor between:roshankumar.2007@rediffmail.com
  8. 8. o A finance income, recognised in a pattern reflecting constant periodic rate of return on the net investment (receipt of interest) and o Repayment of principal (reduction in lease debtor) Initial direct costs such as, commissions and legal fees, are often incurred by lessors when negotiating and arranging a lease. For finance lease these costs: o Are included in the initial measurement of finance lease receivable; and o Reduce the amount of income recognised over the lease term, as such costs are considered while determining interest rate implicit in the lease. However if the lessor is the manufacturer or dealer, costs incurred in connection with negotiating and arranging a lease are expensed at the inception of the lease term as they are mainly related to earning a selling profit. Manufacturers or Dealers o Unlike others, manufacturers or dealers acquire the asset at the cost of manufacture or at a wholesale price, so cost will usually be below an arm’s length price. o in this case finance lease will give rise to two types of income: o profit or loss equivalent to that resulting from an outright sale of the asset being leased, at normal selling prices; and o The finance income over the lease term. o IAS 17 requires that the selling profit be restricted to that resulting from the use of a commercial rate of interest to calculate the net investment in the lease. Any additional profit is deferred over the lease period in the proportion to finance income.Operating lease- Accounting- Lessor Lessors present assets that are subject to operating leases as normal in their statements of financial position. These assets are subject to depreciation Manufacturer or dealer does not recognise any profit or loss Lease income is usually recognised in the statement of comprehensive income on straight line basis over lease term or any other systematic basis which is more relevant Initial direct costs such as, commissions and legal fees, incurred by lessors in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are: o Added to carrying amount of leased asset; and o Recognised as an expense over the lease term on the same basis as lease income. SIC 15: Operating Lease incentives require the lessor to recognise the total cost of incentives as reduction of rental income over lease term. Recognitionroshankumar.2007@rediffmail.com
  9. 9. is on straight line basis unless another systematic basis is more representative. Incentives do not include costs such as maintenance or cost to restore the property to leasable condition after the previous lease.Sale and Leaseback transaction 1. Finance lease Back a. Substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the an asset remain with the seller b. In substance the transaction is a way for the lessor to provide finance to lessee, using the asset as security c. For the above reason any excess of sale proceeds over the carrying amount is not immediately recognised as income by the seller. d. The excess is deferred within the obligations so it is automatically spread over the lease term. e. The asset remains at its current value (unless impaired) and is amortised as it has been in past. 2. Operating lease back a. Substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are transferred to the purchaser. b. Sale price at fair value. Lease payments at market value. Profit/loss is recognised immediately c. Sale price is below fair value i. if lease payments are at market value profit/loss is recognised immediately ii. if lease payments are below market value, any loss is deferred and amortised over the lease term as it is compensated by future payments below market rate. d. Sale price is above fair value the excess over fair value is deferred and amortised over the lease term. e. Carrying amount is above fair value. A loss equal to the difference between the carrying amount and fair value is recognised immediately.roshankumar.2007@rediffmail.com