RAD USES HYBRID TEAMS
Team should consist of about 8-10 people, including both
developers and full-time users of the system plus anyone else
who has a stake in the requirements.
Developers chosen for RAD teams should be multi-talented
"renaissance" people who are analysts, designers and
programmers all rolled into one.
RAD USES SPECIALIZED TOOLS THAT SUPPORT ...
creation of fake prototypes (pure simulations)
creation of working prototypes
multiple languages and etc…
RAD USES "TIMEBOXING“
RAD USES ITERATIVE,
1.JAD (Joint Application
Developers talk and listen
Customers talk and listen
2.ITERATE UNTIL DONE
Developers build / evolve
prototype based on current
Designers review the
Customers try out the
prototype, evolve their
FOCUS GROUP meeting
Customers and developers
meet to review product
refine requirements, generate
Requirements and change
requests are "time boxed".
Changes that cannot be
time boxes are eliminated.
If necessary to stay "in the
• Iterative and Incremental development
is at the heart of a cyclic software
development process developed in response
to the weaknesses of the waterfall model.
This type of lifecycle is a risk mitigation driven
process. Technical risks are assessed and prioritized
early in the lifecycle and are revised during the
development of each iteration. Risks are attached to
each iteration so that successful completion of the
iteration mitigates the risks attached to it. The releases
are scheduled to ensure that the highest risks are
1. Quickly getting a useful system into the hands of users.
2. Early risk discovery and mitigation.
3. Accommodates change and provokes earlier identification of
4. Manageable complexity.
5. Confidence from early, repeated success.
6. Early partial product.
7. Better progress tracking and predictability.
8. Software better matches user needs.
9. Early and regular process improvement.
10. Communication and engagement demanded.
11. Prototyping and feedback encouraged.
12. Higher quality, fewer defects.
Advantages of Iterative & Incremental
Disadvantages of Iteration &
Progress can be hard to judge and problems hard to find because there is no documentation to
demonstrate what has been done.
documentation may be lacked. That will make management hard
The normal contract may include a specification; without a specification, different forms of contract
have to be used.
Without a specification, what is the system being tested against?
Continual change tends to corrupt software structure making it more expensive to change and evolve to
meet new requirements.
Because during the development process needs to be adapted and refined, it may be that
the original purpose fades. It can happen that it continues to change and it never
finished. This is called Scope Creep.
Project managers who are accustomed to linear development can be confused by the
strong dynamics.(-may be problems because of the lack of understand about
The rapid development has the potential to draw a bill on the organization and resources
of the great dynamics.
Inexperience with the way of working can lead to misunderstandings and
Commonly used Iterative and Incremental
Database programming language
Links to office applications
creation of fake prototypes (pure
creation of working prototypes
teamwork and collaboration
use of reusable components
use of standard APIs
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12th January 2 000