Exploring Humanitarian Law workshop


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Power Point presentation for Workshop at CCSS on Exploring Humanitarian Law. Presented by Rosemary Blanchard (Cal State Sacramento) and Tanya Milelli (No. NV Chapter, American Red Cross)

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  • Today, people are engaged in armed conflicts on almost every continent on the globe. This includes: Internal conflicts, or civil wars taking place within countries; Conflicts with non-state actors, such as insurgent or rebel groups that aren’t part of any government military; and Terrorism CASUALTIES: WWI – 90% combatants WWII – 50% combatants Today – 90% civilians Around the world, these conflicts have devastating effects for those actually involved in fighting these battles and the civilians that are impacted by being killed or hurt, forced out of their homes and into refugee camps or losing their loved ones. ++++ worldwide refugees – 1970s – less than 3 million; today UNHCR estimates 32.9 million ref/IDPs But, how do these conflicts affect your students here in the United States? Some might be thinking about joining the military or civil service in the future. Others have family or friends currently serving. There are those whose parents or relatives may have come to this country as refugees or to get away from conflicts at home. And there are those who see and hear stories about wars in the news, but have a hard time understanding these complicated issues taking place half a world away. Whether they are personally touched by these conflicts or not, students know that war is a lot more complicated than it seems when playing a video game or watching a movie, but they don’t always have the skills to help them understand these conflicts and how they are governed. And that’s what I am here today to talk to you about.
  • I’m here today to talk to you about Exploring Humanitarian Law – a toolkit of resources, developed by the Red Cross, that gives educators easy-to-use materials to expose students to issues of international humanitarian law, the rules that call for respect for life and human dignity in war. During our discussion, we’re going to go over: What EHL really means How using the materials included in the EHL curriculum can help you and your students What’s included in the materials How you can put those resources to use in your own classes; and Upcoming professional development opportunities and trainings – so you can get hands-on experience with the EHL tools while earning Continuing Education Units at the same time.
  • What is Exploring Humanitarian Law? The curriculum explores ethical and humanitarian issues that arise during armed conflict. The learning materials, which are based on historical and contemporary situations, show how humanitarian law aims to protect life and human dignity during armed conflict and reduce and prevent the suffering and destruction that result from war. IHL: body of rules and principles that protect persons/objects during armed conflict and limits methods and means of warfare. Goal of EHL: Primary goal is to help young people embrace principles of humanity in their daily lives (bullying, harassment) and understand how those rules play out on a global level EHL challenges students to investigate real situations and discuss some of the most important humanitarian questions facing us today – connecting lessons of the past with the issues of the present.
  • What is Exploring Humanitarian Law? In a practical sense, EHL is resource pack for teachers that includes: 30 hours of activities that introduce young people to the basic rules of international humanitarian law The resources in EHL include Materials such as: news accounts, testimonials, photos, videos, case studies and interactive projects – allow students, not just to read about real events, but to experience them for themselves – through the eyes of those who lived them. one exploration takes between 1-3 classroom sessions, each 45 minutes. In total, the 22 explorations offer over 30 hours of active learning. Primary source materials – so students can see and hear first-hand experiences, without any outside filter and help students see events from a different perspective. Enough resources to develop a whole course around, but flexible enough to pull only the materials that work best for your class and fit them right into your current lesson plans
  • What is Exploring Humanitarian Law? Geared toward young people between the ages of 13 and 18, but flexible enough to be used with younger or older students. Integrates seamlessly with a wide variety of courses – some of these include: social studies, history, law, literature, civics, psychology and gifted programs
  • What is Exploring Humanitarian Law? EHL is highly-regarded throughout the world– since the curriculum was developed (in 2002) schools in over 40 countries have integrated lessons from EHL into their curricula.
  • Central to the EHL materials are several key concepts Human Dignity – what it is, how to respect it, what it is to have one’s dignity taken away what stands in the way of behaving in a humanitarian way (bystander) some questions have no single right answer or no easy answer at all emphasis on critical thinking that enables students to cultivate important skills such as: communication disagreeing respectfully perspective taking reasoning research problem solving
  • The resources in EHL include primary source materials that teachers can use to help students see events from a different perspective. Materials such as: news accounts, testimonials, photos, videos, case studies and interactive projects – allow students, not just to read about real events, but to experience them for themselves – through the eyes of those who lived them.
  • There are 5 core modules with lesson plans, teacher and student tools – 30+ hours of activities Teacher and student videos (DVD), Introduction & Methodology guide Legal Manual for Teachers, Glossary Additional resources: Guidelines books on testing, evaluation and insertion into curriculum Online resources The content includes: Images and Perceptions (Introductory exploration): an introduction to the topic through the exploration of perceptions and current images of what armed conflict is. Module 1: examines what bystanders can do – Through dilemma exercises, students explore what makes someone a bystander, the difficult position someone can be in as a bystander and the effects that they can have on situations Module 2: explores the limits and rules of war – Here, students will think about: what limits are needed in war and why? Where do these limits come from? How do laws to limit war develop? This module also contains a special focus on child soldiers and one on weapons Module 3: offers materials to study how humanitarian law works in the real world – Questions to explore include: which rules are most often violated and why? What dilemmas do combatants face? Who is responsible for respecting? This module includes a very popular case study on My Lai – with testimonials from the soldiers’ perspectives Module 4: concentrates on the rationales and options for dealing with violations (judicial and non-judicial options) – Here, students will examine questions like: Why is dealing with violations important? In what ways can violations be addressed? Module 5: Responding to the consequences of armed conflict This module helps students think about the consequences of war, the efforts needed to respond to them and the dilemmas that those taking humanitarian action might face. Closing Exploration: Helps students understand where they can go from here: Students will focus on thinking about: How they can promote human dignity; make a difference and help develop awareness of humanitarian concerns in others.
  • As you can see, the modules that make up the Exploring Humanitarian Law toolkit are designed so they can be easily pulled and worked right into your existing lesson plans. EHL stands out because it can be used by teachers to challenge students to play an active role in the learning process. The rich primary source materials included in EHL will engage the emotions and minds of your students and allow your class to explore issues together – analyzing dilemmas, pondering choices and tracing consequences **Insert story of how EHL can be used** Example story: “ Alone on the bench” (from Exploration 1A) tells the story of Elizabeth Eckford and Grace Lorch: In 1954, Elizabeth was one of nine black students to be admitted to an all-white school in Little Rock, Arkansas. Elizabeth arrived at school alone to face a crowd of angry community members who were protesting desegregation and trying to stop her from entering the school. Although there were police there, no one came to help Elizabeth enter the school and she ran to a bench to get away. In her own words, Elizabeth describes the scene: “ Somebody started yelling, ‘Lynch her! Lynch her!’ I tried to see a friendly face. I made eye contact with an old woman, but she spat on me. I looked down the block and saw a bench at the bus stop. I ran to the bench and sat down.” As Elizabeth sat on the bench, barred from entering the school, a white woman – Grace Lorch – came up to her and spoke to her. Grace then faced down the mob and escorted Elizabeth to safety, waiting with her until she could board a bus. This story, with an account from Elizabeth herself, can be used to begin a discussion of what it may have felt like to be in school during desegregation in America – and the complicated issues that came with desegregation: was it safer for students if segregation remained? What actions led to the tipping point where desegregated schools became the norm? how do the actions of individuals (like Grace Lorch from the story) make up a larger movement?
  • One area of law that is often confused with international humanitarian law is international human rights law, which many of you are familiar with or at least have had some exposure with. Certainly the two fields are related, as illustrated in part here by the overlap of the two circles. What are some of the differences between them? they apply in different contexts the protections of IHL are directed toward specific groups of people rather than to all people. the rights/freedoms shown on the left apply to a government’s treatment of its own citizens the protections that are specific to IHL apply to parties to a conflict, specifically to the adverse party So as you can see, IHL is not IHRL, even though they are certainly related. OK, so now that we’ve talked about what IHL isn’t, let’s talk about where it comes from.
  • The entire EHL curriculum is available free on our Web site: ehl.redcross.org On the site you can: Access all of the resources available through EHL – videos, exercises, stories, etc. Sign up for alerts and read the EHL newsletter Get the latest headlines about humanitarian law issues around the world – a great resource for talking about current events in your class Find out more about professional development opportunities – like the EHL Summer Institute
  • Teacher trainings and workshops: Help you to integrate EHL resources into your lessons while earning Continuing Education Units at the same time. The American Red Cross is an authorized provider of Continuing Education Units through the International Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACT) Trainings are offered as half-day workshops or 1, 2 and 3-day trainings. Benefits of participating in teacher training: Walk into a teacher training or workshop and walk out with concrete plans on how to integrate Exploring Humanitarian Law into your current curricula. Learn the array of primary source materials included in the EHL toolkit, including news accounts, testimonials, photos, videos, case studies and interactive projects that will bring real events to life for your students. Trainings and workshops are led by highly skilled instructors, who are educators with first-hand experience integrating EHL materials into lessons. **Insert information on upcoming trainings in your area** Summer Institute: August 3-5, 2010 in Washington, DC
  • Exploring Humanitarian Law, aligned with national standards, offers a wide array of resources that teachers can use easily to enhance your current curricula. EHL not only: Challenges students to investigate real situations and discuss some of the most important humanitarian questions facing us today – connecting lessons of the past with the issues of today But also: Connect students learning right in your schools with those that are learning the same curriculum on the other side of the world – building the 21 st century skills of our students in an increasingly globally-dependent world.
  • Exploring Humanitarian Law workshop

    1. 1. Exploring Humanitarian Law A Teaching Toolkit for Educators EHL Workshop California Council for the Social Studies March 4, 2011 Image Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    2. 2. A World of Conflict Image Source: Population Action International
    3. 3. <ul><li>Defining Human Dignity </li></ul><ul><li>What is Exploring Humanitarian Law? </li></ul><ul><li>The Explorations </li></ul><ul><li>EHL Curriculum and Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing EHL into the Classroom </li></ul>AGENDA
    4. 5. What is Exploring Humanitarian Law? Exploring ethical & humanitarian issues of armed conflict Understanding how humanitarian law protects life and human dignity Making connections between personal and global events Image Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    5. 6. What is Exploring Humanitarian Law? 30 hours of activities Primary source materials Fits into current lessons
    6. 7. What is Exploring Humanitarian Law? <ul><li>Who should use EHL? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle & high school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher ed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where does EHL fit? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gifted programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At-risk youth programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Relations </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. What is Exploring Humanitarian Law? Taught in nearly 50 countries worldwide Image Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    8. 9. What’s Inside EHL? Key Concepts: Human dignity Obstacles to humanitarian behavior No easy answers Dilemmas Multiple perspectives Chain of consequences Image Source: International Committee of the Red Cross/ A. Gutman
    9. 10. What’s Inside EHL? <ul><li>High-quality primary source materials including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testimonials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive projects </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. What’s Inside EHL? Introductory Exploration: Images and Perceptions The Modules: Module 1: The Humanitarian Perspective Module 2: Limits in Armed Conflict Module 3: The Law In Action Module 4: Dealing With Violations Module 5: Responding to the Consequences of Armed Conflict Closing Exploration: Where Do We Go From Here?
    11. 13. Explorations 1A: What can bystanders do? 1B: Looking at humanitarian acts 1C: A bystander’s dilemma Module 1: The Humanitarian Perspective
    12. 14. How Can You Use EHL? Image Source: Will Counts
    13. 15. There is always a moment when the moral choice is made. Often because of one story or one book or one person, we are able to make a different choice, a choice for humanity, for life. -Elie Wiesel A lack of protest can confirm the perpetrators’ faith in what they are doing. - Ervin Staub Use of Quotes
    14. 16. 1B: Humanitarian Acts
    15. 18. Module 2: Limits in Armed Conflict Explorations 2A : Limiting the devastation of war 2B: Codes and traditions over time 2C: Focus on child soldiers 2D: Focus on weapons 2E: Widespread availability of weapons
    16. 19. 2A Photo Collage
    17. 20. Basic Rules of IHL
    18. 21. At all times During armed conflict IHL <ul><li>Protection of: </li></ul><ul><li>Civilians </li></ul><ul><li>Combatants out of combat </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded & sick </li></ul><ul><li>Prisoners </li></ul>HR <ul><li>Freedom of: </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul>IHL and Human Rights Law <ul><li>Prohibition of: </li></ul><ul><li>Torture </li></ul><ul><li>Degrading treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Violence to life/person </li></ul><ul><li>Hostage taking </li></ul>Right to life
    19. 22. The captive is your brother. It is by the grace of God that he is in your hands and working for you. Since he is at your mercy, see that he is fed and clothed as well as you are. Do not demand from him work beyond his strength. - The Prophet Mohammed (570-632AD) Use of Quotes
    20. 23. 2B: Refer to Codes and Traditions
    21. 25. Explorations 3A: Identifying violations of IHL 3B: From the perspective of combatants 3C: Who is responsible for respecting IHL? 3D: A case study: My Lai - What went wrong? What went right? Module 3: The Law in Action
    22. 26. 3A: Dealing with violations
    23. 27. 3A: Dealing with violations
    24. 29. Dilemmas
    25. 30. Dilemma Worksheet
    26. 31. When IHL and Core IHRL are Violated.. RB example 1) Form discussion groups to watch the following two video clips. How do IHL and human rights law apply to the unrest in Libya and the response of the Libyan government? Libya - Fighter Jets Ordered To Fire On Protesters - Air Force Commanders Defect !!! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lm2LSUdAB74&NR=1 Libya warplanes bombing Tripoli-resident (21 Febuary 2011): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ucNHrwKvreE&NR=1 Make up a list of the IHL and “hard core” human rights laws that you think have been violated in the situations portrayed in these videos.
    27. 33. Explorations 4A: Rationales and options for dealing with IHL violations 4B: Judicial options 4C: Non-judicial options Module 4: Dealing with Violations
    28. 34. 4A: Dealing with violations
    29. 35. Dealing with violations of IHL and Core IHRL .. RB Example <ul><li>2) Next, watch what President Obama and the Secretary General of the United Nations had to say about the Libyan government’s actions: </li></ul><ul><li>Obama breaks silence, condemns Libya crackdown </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PS2WERGGv54 </li></ul><ul><li>What are these world leaders talking about? What international laws do they say Col. Gaddafi and his followers have broken? </li></ul><ul><li>The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution condemning the violations of IHL and core IHRL by Co. Gaddafi and his government: </li></ul><ul><li>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sysbDMAuUx4&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>What consequences is this Security Council Resolution preparing to put in motion? </li></ul>
    30. 37. Explorations 5A: Needs that arise from the devastation of war 5B: Planning a camp for people displaced by war 5C: Focus on protecting prisoners 5D: Focus on restoring family links 5E: Ethics of humanitarian action Module 5: Responding to the Consequences of Armed Conflict
    31. 38. What are the basic human needs? Needs that arise from the devastation of war <ul><li>What are the resources that have been lost or destroyed? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the resulting needs of people impacted by war or disaster? </li></ul>
    32. 39. Forced to Flee <ul><li>You are a family or group of neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Your area is under devastating attack </li></ul><ul><li>You must leave now in order to save your lives </li></ul><ul><li>You do not know where you will be going and whether you will be able to return </li></ul><ul><li>You have only 10 minutes to prepare to leave; what do you take with you? </li></ul><ul><li>Watch: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ucNHrwKvreE&NR=1 </li></ul>
    33. 40. 5B Photo Collage
    34. 41. Planning a Refugee Camp in Tunisia PLAN AN EMERGENCY REFUGEE CAMP IN TUNISIA, ALONG THE LIBYAN BORDER BASED ON THE FOLLOWING SCENARIO: Watch the interview on Democracy Now with a Representative of Human Rights Watch on the Tunisia/Libya Border about the approximately 40,000 refugees, mostly migrant workers from Egypt and Tunisian, who have escaped from the violence in Libya to Tunisia. http://www.democracynow.org/2011/2/28/as_death_toll_grows_100_000
    35. 42. Planning a Refugee Camp in Tunisia (cont.) <ul><li>Approximately 20,000 of these refugees are Egyptians. </li></ul><ul><li>They have been in Tunisia for several days. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptian migrant worker refugees cannot yet return to Egypt because the interim government in Egypt has not been able to prepare for evacuation of all their nationals. </li></ul><ul><li>They are living in tents in cold, rainy weather and becoming very frustrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan a refugee camp to meet their most </li></ul><ul><li>basic needs. </li></ul>
    36. 43. Points to Consider: RB Note <ul><li>There are a large group of Tunisian nationals who need help to get home to their families in various parts </li></ul><ul><li>of Tunisia. </li></ul><ul><li>There are a large group of Egyptians who cannot go anywhere just now. </li></ul><ul><li>There are other refugees whose situations are more individual. </li></ul><ul><li>All the refugees need to make contact with their families so that their families will know that they are safe. </li></ul><ul><li>All need food and shelter and sanitation until they can go somewhere else. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tunisians need help reuniting with their families. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians need help to stay where they are until the Egyptian government is able to help them get home, or until things calm down in Libya enough so they can safely return to their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>There are other refugees who can’t get back home either, or who are hesitant to get too far from Libya in case calm returns and they can return to the jobs they desperately need. </li></ul><ul><li>There are undoubtedly some children, women, elderly people, sick people in the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Tunisia and Egypt have both just been through traumatic overturning of their autocratic governments. </li></ul><ul><li>This is good for democracy, but it means that organization and resources are in short supply </li></ul><ul><li>just now. </li></ul>
    37. 44. More Points to Consider: RB Note <ul><li>There are other refugees who can’t get back home either, or who are hesitant to get too far from Libya in case calm returns and they can return to the jobs they desperately need. </li></ul><ul><li>The refugees from other countries may also need help connecting with resources that can help them get home, maybe even resources provided by their own countries or their families. </li></ul><ul><li>There may be groups within the refugees who see each other as enemies – either because of the conflict in Libya or because of the recent conflict in their own home nation or for other reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>There may be infiltrators from one group or another (supported by the Libyan government, mercenaries, agents of the former Tunisian or Egyptian governments, terrorists of one type or another, escaped criminals, etc.) who are there to create fear and violence or engage in terrorism. </li></ul><ul><li>There are undoubtedly some children, women, elderly people, </li></ul><ul><li>sick people in the group. </li></ul>
    38. 45. THERE ISN’T TIME!!! RB Exclamation <ul><li>OK, so choose a couple of the most immediate needs – Each table can choose an area of need to plan for </li></ul><ul><li>Lets see what we can come up with! </li></ul>
    39. 46. How Others Have done this: P R E T T Y G O O D !
    40. 48. Want to Learn More? Visit www.redcross.org/ehl Sign up for alerts Attend an EHL Workshop Exploring Humanitarian Law Program International Services Department American Red Cross, NHQ 2025 E Street, NW Washington, DC 20006 [email_address]
    41. 49. Professional Development
    42. 50. Connecting EHL: Subject Areas
    43. 51. And Remember… Exploring Humanitarian Law Program International Services Department American Red Cross, NHQ 2025 E Street, NW Washington, DC 20006 [email_address] www.redcross.org/ehl Image Source: Left –International Committee of the Red Cross; Right – International Committee of the Red Cross/M. Kokoîc