PRESIDENT ELPIDIO QUIRINO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
AGOO, LA UNION
GROUP 3 PRESENTATION
ANGELICA ROSE B. MANZANO
GINALYN D. RIVERA
MEYH ERNALYN F. BALANGUE
GYWNETH G. SALES
MARJORIE F. TOLEDO
ADRIAN C. SELIN
JOCELYN P. DALAO
SHEENA M. LOPEZ
ALLEN LLOYD F. PALMA
ERIKA C. DOCTOLERO
ARNEL D. PECATOSTE
SHELLEY MARISSE T. BARROS
MRS. NATALIE F. ESTABILLO
Wayang Kulit HistoryThe term for puppetry, wayang, comes from the Indonesian word
for shadow bayang. Kulit means skin or leather.
Wayang kulit, shadow puppetry using figures made from water
buffalo hide, is considered to be the oldest freestanding puppet
form; the earliest references to it date from the 800s. A court poet
during the reign of King Airlangga (1035–1049) wrote: “There
are people who weep, are sad and aroused watching the puppets,
though they know they are merely carved pieces of leather
manipulated and made to speak. These people are like men who,
thirsting for sensuous pleasures, live in a world of illusion; they do not
realize the magic hallucinations they see are not real.”1
It has been debated whether or not puppetry is indigenous to
Indonesia or was introduced from India or China.
Regardless of whether the impulse behind wayang is indigenous,
widespread development of the art took place during the Hindu-
Buddhist period, especially between 800 and 1500. According to
myth, a prince named Aji Saka brought aspects of Indian culture to
Java. A long ritual opening to the wayang performance celebrates
his arrival on the island; he came bearing the hanacaraka, the
Sanskritized Javanese alphabet, which he then split into four,
casting a quarter to each of the four directions and thus transmitting
literacy and prosperity throughout the land.
The poetic language used by puppeteers in songs and narratives is laced with Sanskrit-based words.
The repertoire is largely based on the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the great Hindu epics. Some
scholars feel that the Balinese puppet traditions resemble—in the realistic form of their puppets and the
looser structure of their performance sequences—the art as it was performed on Java before the arrival of
Islam to Indonesia in the 1500s. The Balinese (who remained Hindu) believe wayang was introduced by
refugees from Majapahit, the last Hindu-Buddhist kingdom on Java, when it fell around 1520.
By the 1700s most of the features that characterize contemporary wayang were in place, but this
dramatic form had not yet spread beyond the region where Javanese was spoken, and wooden doll
puppets were used solely to tell Islamic tales while leather puppets were used for Hindu-based stories.
By the late 1800s shadow puppetry was rare in West Java, and wooden rod puppetry had become the
Today major wayang performers are known all over Java. They appear on television and radio, and
cassettes of their performances are available in stores. While it is still true that most major dalang are
descendants of the families of traditional performers, in the twentieth century there began to be performers
who were not trained by their own elders.
The National High School of the Performing Arts, Sekolah Menengah Karawitan Indonesia (S.M.K.I.)
The College Academy of Javanese Performing Arts, Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia (S.T.S.I.)
Wayang originated as a way of telling religious stories using
elongated and sylised figures that did not represent human form.
These stories originate from the Ramayana, an ancient epic Hindu
poem dating back 2000 to 3500 years ago in India. The main
character is Rama, who is an ideal reincarnation of the God
Vishnu. The stories of the Ramayana celebrate the triumph of good
over evil and each character is tested to make moral choices.
Favourite stories include:
Rama's marriage to Sinta
Their banishment to the forest together with Rama's brother,
Sinta's abduction by the monster king Rahwana and her rescue,
with the help of the monkey king, Hanuman
Escaping from the kingdom of Sri Lanka.
Wayang stories have a strong influence on people and are
said to protect them from evil power and give moral and spiritual
Wayang refers to kinds of puppet theaters. Sometimes
the puppet itself is referred to as Wayang. Performances of
shadow puppet theaters are accompanied by a
Gamelan Orchestra in Java, and by gender wayang in
Wayang Kulit, or shadow, are w/o a doubt the best
known of the Indonesian Wayang. Kulit means skin and
refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are
carefully shaped w/ very fine tools and supported w/
carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods.
It was given recognition as a masterpiece of Oral and
Intangible Heritage of Humanity on November 7, 2003 by
UNESCO and required Indonesians to preserve their
The stories are usually from the Hindu Epics:
•Mahabharata The 2 Great Hindu Epics
•Serat Menak- a story about the heroism of Amir
Wayang Kulit Puppets being
manipulated in a shadow-play in
→ flat, wooden, carved and painted
puppets that perform on a stage.
Varieties of Wayang:
→ three-dimensional, costumed, wooden
rod puppets that perform on an open
→ illustrations on long scrolls that are unrolled by
the puppet master, ‘Dalang’ as he recites the
the story and chants.
→ dance and drama performances that involve
live actors who dance and sing and talk.
→ dance and drama performances that
involve live actors who wear masks.
Wayang Kulit performance consists of shadows cast on a
cotton screen and an oil lamp. In Java, a halogen electric
light is most often used as a light source.
WAYANG SANDOSA has employed spotlight, colored lights
and other innovations
TheHandwork In Making a Wayang Kulit Figure
The puppets start from master models (typically on paper) w/c are
traced out onto skin or parchment, providing the figures w/ an outline and
w/ indication of any holes that will need to be cut (such as for the mouth or
The figures are then smoothened, usually w/ a glass bottle and primed.
The structure is inspected and eventually the details are worked through.. A
further smoothing follows before individual painting, w/c is undertaken by
yet another craftsman.
Finally, the movable parts (upper arms, lower arms w/ hands, and the
associated sticks for manipulation) are mounted on the body, w/c has a
cantral staff by w/c it is held.
Wayang Kulit Puppets are made from finely
carved and decorated wooden rocks and
The face and the feet of the puppet provide
a side-on view while the body is viewed front-
The puppets are posed w/ the bodies held
The only moving parts are arms, shoulders
The features of the puppet display good trails that are
valued by the Indonesian people such as loyalty,
courage, purity, wisdom, compassion and emotional
The characters face certain trials in which these traits
The colours of the puppets have Symbolic Meanings.
The colours indicate an emotion or attitude:
(Gold)- for dignity and calmness.
Elements of Performance
The Fundamental Components of a performance include:
•The puppeteer, dhalang (Java) / dalang (Bali)
•A hammer used by the dhalang to knock on the puppet
•Metal plates that the dalang hits w/ his foot, Kepyak
•A traditional Indonesian orchestra, Gamelan
•Shadow puppets, Wayang Kulit
•A light source, Blencong
•Female singers and a male chorus, Pesindhen and
•A screen frameand screen, Gwanag and Kelir; the main
focus of the performance
•Banna logs, Gedebog; the pointed sticks of the wayang
base handle pierce the peeled trunk of a banana tree and
the spongy substance holds the puppets in place
•A puppet box, Kothak
The Gamelan is the traditional music of Indonesia and is used for traditional dances,
shadow plays and sacred temple ceremonies.
The Gamelan orchestra accompanies Dalang, who manipulates the puppets from
behind the screen.
The orchestra is on the same side of the screen providing continuous music appropriate
to each scene.
Gamelan means 'to hammer'.
It is a form of percussive music.
The musicians use wooden and padded mallets to hit bronze key instruments to make
different levels of sound for two different tunings, quite different in character,
named Slendro and Pelog.
The instruments also include double-headed drums and bamboo flutes.
The drummer and the 'gender' player have unspoken communication with the Dalang to
coordinate the visual and musical elements of the performance.
Gender refers to an instrument which accompanies Wayang performances.
Changes in tempo and volume accompany the events in the performances to build the
drama of the story and hold the attention of the audience.