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MAPEH (ARTS) Grade 8-NARRA, Wayang Kulit


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Our Presentation during our Grade 8. Regarding the history of Wayang Kulit and other more informations and details. Hope You Like It ! :)

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MAPEH (ARTS) Grade 8-NARRA, Wayang Kulit

  3. 3. WAYANG KULIT Indonesian Puppet Theater
  4. 4. Wayang Kulit HistoryThe term for puppetry, wayang, comes from the Indonesian word for shadow bayang. Kulit means skin or leather. Wayang kulit, shadow puppetry using figures made from water buffalo hide, is considered to be the oldest freestanding puppet form; the earliest references to it date from the 800s. A court poet during the reign of King Airlangga (1035–1049) wrote: “There are people who weep, are sad and aroused watching the puppets, though they know they are merely carved pieces of leather manipulated and made to speak. These people are like men who, thirsting for sensuous pleasures, live in a world of illusion; they do not realize the magic hallucinations they see are not real.”1 It has been debated whether or not puppetry is indigenous to Indonesia or was introduced from India or China. Regardless of whether the impulse behind wayang is indigenous, widespread development of the art took place during the Hindu- Buddhist period, especially between 800 and 1500. According to myth, a prince named Aji Saka brought aspects of Indian culture to Java. A long ritual opening to the wayang performance celebrates his arrival on the island; he came bearing the hanacaraka, the Sanskritized Javanese alphabet, which he then split into four, casting a quarter to each of the four directions and thus transmitting literacy and prosperity throughout the land.
  5. 5. The poetic language used by puppeteers in songs and narratives is laced with Sanskrit-based words. The repertoire is largely based on the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the great Hindu epics. Some scholars feel that the Balinese puppet traditions resemble—in the realistic form of their puppets and the looser structure of their performance sequences—the art as it was performed on Java before the arrival of Islam to Indonesia in the 1500s. The Balinese (who remained Hindu) believe wayang was introduced by refugees from Majapahit, the last Hindu-Buddhist kingdom on Java, when it fell around 1520. By the 1700s most of the features that characterize contemporary wayang were in place, but this dramatic form had not yet spread beyond the region where Javanese was spoken, and wooden doll puppets were used solely to tell Islamic tales while leather puppets were used for Hindu-based stories. By the late 1800s shadow puppetry was rare in West Java, and wooden rod puppetry had become the favored form. Today major wayang performers are known all over Java. They appear on television and radio, and cassettes of their performances are available in stores. While it is still true that most major dalang are descendants of the families of traditional performers, in the twentieth century there began to be performers who were not trained by their own elders. The National High School of the Performing Arts, Sekolah Menengah Karawitan Indonesia (S.M.K.I.) The College Academy of Javanese Performing Arts, Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia (S.T.S.I.)
  6. 6. Wayang originated as a way of telling religious stories using elongated and sylised figures that did not represent human form. These stories originate from the Ramayana, an ancient epic Hindu poem dating back 2000 to 3500 years ago in India. The main character is Rama, who is an ideal reincarnation of the God Vishnu. The stories of the Ramayana celebrate the triumph of good over evil and each character is tested to make moral choices. Favourite stories include:  Rama's marriage to Sinta  Their banishment to the forest together with Rama's brother, Laksmana  Sinta's abduction by the monster king Rahwana and her rescue, with the help of the monkey king, Hanuman  Escaping from the kingdom of Sri Lanka. Wayang stories have a strong influence on people and are said to protect them from evil power and give moral and spiritual strength.
  7. 7. Wayang refers to kinds of puppet theaters. Sometimes the puppet itself is referred to as Wayang. Performances of shadow puppet theaters are accompanied by a Gamelan Orchestra in Java, and by gender wayang in Bali. Wayang Kulit, or shadow, are w/o a doubt the best known of the Indonesian Wayang. Kulit means skin and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully shaped w/ very fine tools and supported w/ carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods. It was given recognition as a masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on November 7, 2003 by UNESCO and required Indonesians to preserve their heritage.
  8. 8. The stories are usually from the Hindu Epics: •Ramayana •Mahabharata The 2 Great Hindu Epics •Serat Menak- a story about the heroism of Amir Hamza Ramayana-Bima Mahabharata-Arjuna
  9. 9. A Wayang Kulit Puppet Design
  10. 10. Wayang Kulit Puppets being manipulated in a shadow-play in Jakarta. At the Front….. At the back…
  11. 11. Wayang Klitik → flat, wooden, carved and painted puppets that perform on a stage. Varieties of Wayang:
  12. 12. Wayang Golek → three-dimensional, costumed, wooden rod puppets that perform on an open stage.
  13. 13. Wayang Beber → illustrations on long scrolls that are unrolled by the puppet master, ‘Dalang’ as he recites the the story and chants.
  14. 14. Wayang Wong/Orang → dance and drama performances that involve live actors who dance and sing and talk.
  15. 15. Wayang Topeng → dance and drama performances that involve live actors who wear masks.
  16. 16. Wayang Kulit performance consists of shadows cast on a cotton screen and an oil lamp. In Java, a halogen electric light is most often used as a light source. WAYANG SANDOSA has employed spotlight, colored lights and other innovations TheHandwork In Making a Wayang Kulit Figure The puppets start from master models (typically on paper) w/c are traced out onto skin or parchment, providing the figures w/ an outline and w/ indication of any holes that will need to be cut (such as for the mouth or eyes.) The figures are then smoothened, usually w/ a glass bottle and primed. The structure is inspected and eventually the details are worked through.. A further smoothing follows before individual painting, w/c is undertaken by yet another craftsman. Finally, the movable parts (upper arms, lower arms w/ hands, and the associated sticks for manipulation) are mounted on the body, w/c has a cantral staff by w/c it is held.
  17. 17. PUPPET DESIGN Wayang Kulit Puppets are made from finely carved and decorated wooden rocks and buffalo hide. The face and the feet of the puppet provide a side-on view while the body is viewed front- on. The puppets are posed w/ the bodies held rigidly upright. The only moving parts are arms, shoulders and elbows.
  18. 18. Puppet Features The features of the puppet display good trails that are valued by the Indonesian people such as loyalty, courage, purity, wisdom, compassion and emotional control The characters face certain trials in which these traits are tested. The colours of the puppets have Symbolic Meanings. The colours indicate an emotion or attitude: (Gold)- for dignity and calmness. (Red)-for tempestuosness. (Black)-for anger. (White)-for innocence
  19. 19. Elements of Performance The Fundamental Components of a performance include: •The puppeteer, dhalang (Java) / dalang (Bali) •A hammer used by the dhalang to knock on the puppet box, Cempala •Metal plates that the dalang hits w/ his foot, Kepyak •A traditional Indonesian orchestra, Gamelan •Shadow puppets, Wayang Kulit •A light source, Blencong •Female singers and a male chorus, Pesindhen and Penggerong •A screen frameand screen, Gwanag and Kelir; the main focus of the performance •Banna logs, Gedebog; the pointed sticks of the wayang base handle pierce the peeled trunk of a banana tree and the spongy substance holds the puppets in place •A puppet box, Kothak
  20. 20. The Gamelan is the traditional music of Indonesia and is used for traditional dances, shadow plays and sacred temple ceremonies.  The Gamelan orchestra accompanies Dalang, who manipulates the puppets from behind the screen.  The orchestra is on the same side of the screen providing continuous music appropriate to each scene.  Gamelan means 'to hammer'.  It is a form of percussive music.  The musicians use wooden and padded mallets to hit bronze key instruments to make different levels of sound for two different tunings, quite different in character, named Slendro and Pelog.  The instruments also include double-headed drums and bamboo flutes.  The drummer and the 'gender' player have unspoken communication with the Dalang to coordinate the visual and musical elements of the performance.  Gender refers to an instrument which accompanies Wayang performances.  Changes in tempo and volume accompany the events in the performances to build the drama of the story and hold the attention of the audience.
  21. 21. The Javanese Gamelan Instruments (As a Group)
  22. 22. Slendro -Five(5)equidistanttones inoctave. Peloq -heptatonic(7)tonesscalewith semi-tone. 2 Basic Kinds of Indonesian Music Scale
  23. 23. Saron-xylophone of heavy bronze bars. Gender-bronze xylophone resonance chambers beneath. Bonang-set of bronze bowls. Gong & Kempul-hanging gongs. Genong & Ketuk-single inverted bronze bowl. Gambang-wooden xylophone. Rebab-two stringed fiddle. Suling-flute. Kendang-horizontal drum beat w/ the fingers on both ends. Tjelempung-a zither of thirteen double strings. Instruments of Gamelan
  24. 24. The Instruments of Gamelan
  25. 25. Thank You For Watching ! 