His 11 wk 5


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His 11 wk 5

  2. 2. UNITY IN THE PHILIPPINES UNDER THE SPANISH REGIME The country was under Spain for 333 years It was Spain that gave the country its identity (Zaide) The Cross pacified the natives REDUCCION (Fr. Juan de Plasencia) Required the natives to live in the area near the Church RESULTS OF REDUCCION: Easy to collect tax Filipinos became law – abiding citizens Independence of barangay was lost
  3. 3. With Catholicism, Filipinos were transformed into little brown Spaniards Barangays were merged to form pueblos, pueblos into alcaldias, and ayuntamientos But Filipinos started to dislike foreign rule
  4. 4. Spain in the 19th Century Administrative Organization The country was governed indirectly by the Spanish Crown through Consejo de las Indias(Council of Indies) but the King of Spain governed the country directly through Ministries of Colonies. Manila was the seat of the central government
  5. 5. 19th century was a political instability in Spain To save Spain the Spanish crown worked out the canovite or rotavism. Under the policy, the liberals and conservatives took turns in administering the affairs Abandonment of Mercantilism Mercantilism – country’s wealth and power can be measured in its stock of gold and silver and all trade should be conducted within a certain country and its colonies Galleon Trade – a monopolistic venture between Manila and Acapulco (1565)
  6. 6. The Philippines Setting Filipinos lost their ancestral lands because of the encomienda system Forced by Spanish to embrace their culture and religion National Government The country is governed by the Spanish Crown thru the Ministry of Colonies (19th century) Governor-General, appointed by the Spanish monarch, was the head of the Spanish colonial government
  7. 7. He was the Vice Royal Patron over religious affairs and can nominate priests for ecclesiastical administration of the parishes He was also the commander in chief of the colonial army Was the ex-officio president of the Royal Audiencia, the Supreme Court Had legislative powers, can legislate laws for the colony, laws enacted were called actos acordados Had the power of cumplase, to decide which law or royal decree should be implemented or disregarded in the colony
  8. 8. Local Government A. Provinces were called alcaldias headed by an alcalde mayor or provincial governor who exercised executive and judicial functions Was the most corrupt, owing to the privilege to engage in and monopolize trade called indulto de commercio B. Towns or Pueblos Headed by a gobernadorcillo or town mayor Principal task is to maintain peace and order and the collection of taxes and tributes
  9. 9. C. City Government or ayuntamiento Was governed by a cabildo or city councilor composed of a city mayor (alcalde en ordinario), councilors (regidores), chief constable (aguacil mayor), secretary (escribano) D. Spanish Friar A key figure because of the union of Church and State, a principle upon which the Spanish colonial government in the country as founded Was the supervising representative of the Spanish Government
  10. 10. Was practically the ruler of the town and the local school inspector Even civil authorities feared them, frailocracia was the term of Lopez Jaena to this Governors of both body and soul D. Guardia Civil (1867) Corps of native police under the Spanish officers The purpose of dealing with the outlaws and renegades Arrest individuals who are filibusteros or enemies of the government
  11. 11. and erehes or enemies of the Church E. Audiencia Real or the Supreme Court Highest court, did not only fix civil and criminal cases but it served also as a forum for setting important issues on governance, auditing agency of the finances of Spanish colonial administration It has 2 territorial courts: a.) court of first instance, b.) justice of the peace courts F. No Legislature in the country before we were taken over by the US because the Spanish Cortes or law making body was abolished in 1837
  12. 12. As a result, the governance of the Philippines was on special laws and Las Leyes de Indias continued to be the basic law Conclusion: the Spanish colonial administration was corrupt and inefficient Philippines is very far from Spain Governor-General exercised absolute power (favoritism in the bureaucracy), and was not able to resist corruption for his personal interest Widespread selling of lower positions to highest bidders
  13. 13. THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF FILIPINO SOCIETY Was feudalistic because of the encomienda system Filipinos were treated slaves Imposed and collected taxes, there was also polo y servicio or forced labor The structure is pyramidal because of the doctrine limpieza de sangre or purity of blood
  14. 14. Pyramidal Social Structure 1. Peninsulares Insulares 2. Spanish mestizos, Principalia, Chinese Mestizos 3. Indios or native
  15. 15. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Primary education was not given attention Establishment of parochial schools Instruction was centered on the teaching of fear of God and obedience to the friars with indoctrination as principal method of teaching Students were of inferior intelligence and suited for manual work Parrot learning(repeat after me style of teaching) University of Santo Tomas(1611), was the existing higher education founded by the Dominicans
  16. 16. The courses were, medicine, pharmacy, philosophy, theology, canon, civil law There were also secondary schools like Colegio de Santo Tomas, Letran and the Ateneo de Municipal (Jesuits) Schools for girls were: Santa Isabel, La Concordia, Santa Rosa, Santa Catalina Schools were supervised by friars Educational Decree of 1863 Required the establishment of one elementary for boys and one also for girls in each town of the country Spanish is the medium of instruction
  17. 17. Weaknesses of the Educational System 1.over-emphasis on religion 2.Limited and irrelevant curriculum 3.Obsolete classroom facilities 4.Inadequate instructional materials 5.Absence of academic freedom 6.Racial discrimination against the Filipinos in school Economic Situation The country was opened to foreign trade in 1834 The trade stimulated agricultural production A number of families prospered
  18. 18. ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS ENCOMIENDA SYSTEM It was Legazpi who subdivided the country into encomiendas and classified into two: 1.Royal encomieda – cities, seaports, regions rich in natural wealth 2.Private encomienda – under private persons, charitable institutions, Catholic Church TAXATION From 8 to 10 to 12 reales in 1851 Cedula was introduced after the abolition of tribute Bandala, the compulsory sale of farmers of their lands
  19. 19. FORCED LABOR (POLO Y SERVICIO) 16 to 60 years old must render services for 40 days Polistas, name of the laborers Falla, exemption fee for the forced labor GALLEON TRADE A trade between Manila and Acapulco of the Chinese and the Spaniards in Manila and in Mexico Resulted cultural exchanges but agriculture was neglected and forced labor was more intensified
  20. 20. CHALLENGES TO SPANISH IMPOSITION OF SOVEREIGNITY Spanish soldiers had to fight off Chinese pirates like Lumahong and Dutch and Portuguese and Muslims In 16th century the Japanese thru Hideyoshi control the country The British invaded the country because Spain sided with France in the 7 years war of British and France Arch. Manuel Antonio Rojo surrendered at Fort Santiago in Intramuros(seat of the Spanish colonial government) in 1762 who was then the acting governor general of the country
  21. 21. INTERSTING EFFECTS OF THE EVENT WAS THE PRESENCE OF 3 GOVERNOR GENERALS 1.Dawsonne Drake, the British governor appointed by the British East – India Company 2.Arch. Rojo, the acting governor general 3.Simon de Anda, the renegade governor general who headed the Spanish-Filipino army against the British The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the war. It restored Manila to Spain in 1764.
  22. 22. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Governor general Jose Basco y Vargas started the scientific farming, they are: 1.Development of Agriculture Planting of mulberry trees, production of cotton and silk textiles, cinnamon and indigo 2. Organization of the Economic Society of Friends of the Country Basco organized this for him to implement his economic programs Manufacturing was improved because of importation of machineries
  23. 23. 3. Tobacco Monopoly Based on Royal Decree 1780 of Charles II Controlled by the government and it generated revenues for the government It led to abused of authority by the Spaniards 4. Royal Company of the Philippines Required 4% of its profit for agriculture, products of the Philippines which are exported to Spain are tax free However, it was a failure because of the incompetent officers and poor management but it helped further in the development of agriculture in the country
  24. 24. OPENING OF MANILA TO FOREIGN TRADE Adam Smith doctrine of laissez faire or let alone policy was accepted by European countries Spain abandoned mercantilism and this led to the opening of Manila to foreign trade in 1789 Basco’s successor Felix Berenguer de Marquina encouraged foreign merchants to come and invest in the country Philippines experienced economic prosperity and more ports were created for foreign trade International telegraph communication was establish in 1888 to support the growing trade, communication and transportation
  25. 25. Filipino families were able to send their sons in Europe to study Spanish colonization transformed the Filipinos socially, culturally, and educationaly SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1. Conversion of the Filipinos to Catholicism 2.Beginnings of a Feudalistic Society 3. Hispanization of Filipino Surnames 4.Metamorphosis of Bahay Kubo into Bahay na Bato 5.Indigenization of Spanish and Chines Cuisine 6.Change in Filipino mode of dressing 7.Introduction of the Spanish Language 8.Religious Feasts in honor to Patron Saints
  26. 26. CULTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1.Latin Alphabet 2.Art of Printing 3.Theocratic Literature 4.Persistence of Folk and Colonial Art 5.Hispanic Music and Western Musical Instruments