• Is based on the concept of “key ProcessAreas” that achieve a set of goalsimportant for enhancing processcapability.• The CMM is not prescriptive, but aframework to help software organizationto gain control of their processes fordeveloping and maintaining software forexcellence in engineering andmanagement.
Step 1: Creating a profileStep 2: Clarifying Goals and ObjectivesStep 3: AnalysisStep 4: Financial PlanStep 5: Independent ImplementationStep 6: Monitoring and Reporting
• Initial: the software process ischaracterized as ad hoc, and occasionallyeven chaotic. Few process are defined,and success depends on individualefforts.• Repeatable: basic project managementis process are established to track cost,schedule and functionality.
• Defined: The software process for bothmanagement and engineering aredocumented, standardized and integratedinto a standard software process for theorganization.• Managed: detailed measures of softwareprocess and products are quantitativelyunderstood and controlled.
• Optimizing: Continuous processimprovements is enabled by quantitativefeedback from the process and pilotinginnovative ideas and technologies.
• Letter in Greek alphabet used to donatestandard deviation in statistics.• The objective:– Reduce variation and defects– Increase customer satisfaction.– Increase profit.
• Statistical expression that denotes apopulation‟s standard deviation and is ameasure of variation about mean.
• It concerns with its customer focus andcreative process improvements.• There is a strong relation between level ofdefects, cost and customer satisfaction
• It emphasize process of achieving the SixSigma level• In order to implement Six Sigma in aninstitution, it needs people who aretrained in the methodology of six sigma.
ActivitiesStepSelect project, set goals and targets, identify the cost ofpoor quality, prepare the team, develop process maps.DefineDevelop measurement tools, standards and collectdata.MeasureCause and effect diagrams, critical thinking, usestatistical tools such as scatter plots, hypothesis testing,analysis of variance.AnalyzeBrainstorm one the course, and countermeasures,develop solution alternatives, probability of success,cost, time to execute.ImproveImplement the new initiative and put appropriatecontrol in place to give signal of negativedevelopments.Control
• It is a philosophy that subsumes earliermethods of inspection, quality control andquality assurance.• TQM is a people drive process (it involveschanges in people‟s attitude primarily.• It deals with process orientation andcontinuous improvement of the process.
• The customer: can be anyone whoreceives or is affected by the product,process or service and (can be external or internal).• Continuous improvement: it should aimstowards „zero defects‟.
• Update and training: the focus should beto reinforce employee commitment andhave a positive effect on morale leading toproductivity gains.• Teamwork: the involvement of allstakeholders is key to success.• Measurement: monitor the progress andreview the objectives.
• Four core activities that takes care ofquality in higher education:• Teaching and learning• Students assessment• Staff development• curriculum