Wine is an alcoholic beverage often made of fermented grapes juice. without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients.. Wine is produced by using various types of yeast which convert them into alcohol.
Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera, such as Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%), the result is a varietal, as opposed to a blended, wine.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine, made by fermenting grapes, took place as early as 8,000 years ago in Georgia 7000 years ago in Iran, and 6,100 years ago in Armenia. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis Vinitera Throughout history, has been highly regarded by senior Western society, around him have signed treaties and major historical events of the West. In Egypt, Greece and Rome, was worshiped Dionysus or Bacchus (god of the vineyards) and the Bible refers to wine in several passages, among others which relates the Last Supper of Jesus. In China 4,000 years ago, they knew the fermentation of the grape.
Main wine regions:•La Rioja – located in northern Spain. WhereSpanish Rioja wine is produced.•Penedes – Where Spanish sparkling wine, or cava, isproduced.•Ribera del Duero – Fairly new area of winegrowing.• Galicia – Ribeiros, Valdeorra, Albariños (D.O. Rías Baixas).•Andalusia – The Sherry wine district of Spain.
Every bottle of wine is required to contain its quality and aging which are based on specific laws.• Vino de Mesa – The lowest quality wine.• Vino de la Tierra – Better quality with few requirements of grape varieties, yields, or aging.• Vinos de Calidad con Indicación Geográfica – Wine’s made in a certain region using grapes from that same region, higher quality.• Vinos de Denominación de Origen (DO) – Wines of high quality that require better barrels, aging requirements, yields, & vineyards.• Vinos de Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOC) – Wine that has achieved high levels of quality over a long period of time
• Reserva – applies to red wines aged• Vino noble (quality wine) – Minimum for a minimum of 36 months, at least ageing period of 18 months 12 months in oak and the rest in the bottle; white and rosé wines aged for• Vino añejo (aged wine) – Minimum aging 18 months, to include 6 months in period of 24 months , wood.• Vino viejo (old wine) – Minimum ageing • Gran Reserva – Red wines aged for a period of 36 months when the ageing minimum of 60 months at least 18 process is of a strong oxidative nature due to the action of light, oxygen, hot or a months in oak, white and rosé wines conjunction of all aged for 48 months, to Include 6 months in wood• Vino de crianza (crianza wine) – Red wines aged a minimum of 24 months, of which 6 are spent in oak containers with a capacity of 330 liters. White and rosé wines aged at least 18 months.
Craftsman of wooden barrels and casks. A cooperage is a companyCooper that produces such casks. Wine scientist or wine chemist; a student of oenology. A winemakerOenologist may be trained as oenologist, but often hires a consultant instead A restaurant specialist in charge of assembling the wine list, educatingSommelier the staff about wine, and assisting customers with their wine selections A person who specializes in the science of grapevines—can also beViticulturist someone who manages vineyard pruning, irrigation, and pest control
Stemming Crushing Pressing Fermentation Maceration : Characters Fermentation begin during maceration : ethanol is the major solvent for pigment and tannin extractions Maturation in Oak : Wine maturation in new oak cooperage is often used to add elements of flavor complexity
Country ProductionRank (with link to wine (tonnes) article)1 Italy 4,580,0002 France 4,541,8203 Spain 3,610,0004 United States 2,211,3005 China 1,657,5006 Argentina 1,625,0807 Australia 1,133,8608 South Africa 921,7009 Chile 915,23810 Germany 720,000