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The root of 7 jan

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The root of 7 jan

  1. 1. GarmÖkfa (Preface)    esovePAenHsresreLIgkñúgeKalbMNgedIm,Idas;sμartI kUnecAExμrCMnan;eRkay RbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;BIRKb;RsTab;kñúgsgÁm TaMgkñúg nigeRkARbeTs RBmTaMgRbCaCatiTaMgGs;enAkñúgtMbn; EdlrgeRKaHedaysarkareKobsgát;CiHCan;BIyYnkumμúynisþ eGayPJak;rlwkemIleXIjBIeRKaHfñak;RbeTs CatiCaBiesscg;bgðajBI b£sKl;bBaða Edl)annigkMBugekItmanenAkñúgRbeTsExμrbc©úb,nñ. kñúgnameyIgCakUnExμrmYyrUb EdlkMMBugGanesovePAenHenAkñúgéd eyIgRtUvrYbrYmKñaKitKUrBIGayuCIvitRbeTsCatirbs;eyIg edayminRtUvbeNþayeGay Cati sasna RbCaCatiiExμr enArgTukçevTna Føak;cUleTAkñúgkNþab;édyYnkumμúynisþ dUcRbeTscm,a: nig km<úCaeRkameLIy. eyIgCaExμrRtUvBicarNafa etIeyIgrs;enAelITwkdIExμr smCaBUCExμrsagGgÁrb¤eT? ebIsinCa eyIgmin)ansagGIVCaRbeyaCn_CUnCati EfmTaMgeyIgminGackarBarplRbeyaCn_Cati karBarekrþ×mt’krbs;dUntaeyIgEdl)ansagTuksMrab;kulbuRtExμreGay)anKg;vgSenaH? eyIgminRtUvbeNþayeGayCnBukrlYy mYykþab;tUc bMpøajCati lYcCatiykeTAeFIVCaRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜn b¤bMerIplRbeyaCn_neya)ayeGaybreTsbnþeToteLIy. eyIgTaMgGs;KñaminRtUvbeNþayeGayRbeTsExμr CatiExμrkøayCakm<úCaeRkamTI2 tamneya)ayRtCak;rbs;yYn Edlmanrbbpþac;kar h‘un Esn CYybiT)aMgenaHeLIy. esovePAenHlatRtdagbgðajb¤sKl;énbBaðaenAkñúgRbeTsExμr edIm,IeGayRbCaCatiExμrTaMgGs;)aneXIjnUvGIVEdlCnpþac;kar BYkkumμúynisþxitxMlak;)aMgkb;Tuk mineGayRbCaBlrdæExμryl;dwgBIEpnkarneya)ayd¾exμARkxVk;rbs;yYnkumμúynisþ EdlmanmhicätaelbykTwkdIExμr. edaysarmhicätaneya)ayyYnkumμúynisþenHehIy Edl)aneFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμr ExμreRkam nigRbCaBlrdækñúgtMbn;rgeRKaH søab;)at;bg;CIvitrab;lannak;knøgmk.Cak;Esþg bc©úb,nñeyIgeXIjRsab;ehIyfa bBaðaCaeRcInkMBugEtekItmanenAkñúgRbeTsExμr dUcCakarkab;rukranéRBeQI CIkEr: kayPñM rwbGUsdIFøIRbCaBlrdæ BukrlYy biTsiTi§esrIPaB CnGenþaRbevsn_yYnxusc,ab; kgT½ByYnTaMgÉksNæan TaMgsIuvilenAkñúgRbeTsExμr Etrbbpþac;kar h‘un Esn enHKμanqnÞ³BitR)akdedaHRsayrkyutþiFm’CUnRbCaBlrdæExμr nigKμankarBarplRbeyaCn_CatiExμr eyIgeLIy. müa:gvijeTot tamry³esovePAenHEdr GñkniBnæcg;bgðajGMBIGIVEdlRbCaBlrdæExμrcg;)anRbCaBlrdæcg;eXIjkarpøas;bþÚrneya)aydwknaMRbeTsnigemdwknaM BIrbbkumμúynisþpþac;kareRkamyYnRtYtRta eTACaRbeTsmYyman ÉkraCü snþiPaB siTi§esrIPaB nigRbCaFibetyüBitR)akd.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๑ rkSasiT§i
  2. 2. RbCaBlrdæExμrCaCnrgeRKaHBImYyCMnan;eTAmYyCMnan; edaysarEtemdwknaMrbs;xøÜnelaPln;GMNac KitRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜnCagplRbeyaCn_Cati suxelIKMnrTukçRbCaBlrdæ CaBiessdUcBYkemdwknaMkumμúynisþpþac;karbc©úb,nñ h‘un Esn ehg sMrin Ca sIum )anlg;kñúgmenaKmn_kumμúynisþyYn.yYn)anykliTi§kumμúynisþenHCameFüa)ay mksabeRBaHelIExμr eGayExμrEbk)ak; eRbobdUcTwkexμAmYytMNk;EdlRsk;elITwks¥atl¥brisuT§ eRBaHEtcg;deNþImrwbGUsykplRbeyaCn_BIExμr elbTwkdIExμr .yYnmanectnarMelIgb£sKl;ExμreGayFøak;exSay enAkñúgrbb b:ul Bt edIm,IbMeBjmhicätaelbTwkdIExμrehIyRtYtRtaExμrtaMgBIéf¶7 mkra 1979 mk. RbeTsExμrCaRbeTstUcmYy Edlsm,ÚredayFnFanFmμCati esIÞrEtRKb;Ebbya:g b:uEnþCaGkusl eRkamkardwknaMrbs;BYkRtYtRtabc©úb,nñ Edlsuxcitþ»nk,aleRkamyYnRtYtRta eGaymkbMpøajFnFanFmμCatiExμr nigrwbGUsykeTARbeTseKKμansl; manCaGaT× dI éRBeQI Er: RtI stVéRBnigCaeRcIneTot. yYnkumμúynisþ)aneFIVGaNaniKmn_EbbfμIelIRbeTsExμr edayeRbIsini§sBaØaxusc,ab;Edl)aneFIVeLIgCamYy h‘un Esn Ca sIum ehg sMrin taMgBIqñaM 1979 1982 1983 1985sþIBImitþPaB snþiPaB shRbtibtþikar nigcuHhtßelxasin§isBaØabMeBjbEnßméf¶TI 10 Extula qñaM2005.eyIgeXIjehIy rdæaPi)albc©úb,nñpþl;dIsm,TaneGayRkumh‘unyYn Edlmanry³eBl 99 qñaM Gs;cMnYn45 PaKry eRkamBaküfa vinieyaK nigGPivDÆn_. karrwbGUsdIEdleFIVeLIgedayRkumh‘unyYnenH)aneFIVeGayb:HBal;dl;CIvPaBRbCaBlrdæExμrRkIRkya:gxøaMg eRBaHdIERsdIcMkarenaHehIyCaqñaMg)ayrbs;BlrdæRkIRk. eRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;Cnpþac;kar h‘un Esn CaCnlYcCati lk;Cati dUcr)aykarN_køblviFENs)anpSBVpSay eyIgeXIjfa BYkenHmin)ankarBarplRbeyaCn_CatiExμr min)anbMerIpl-RbeyaCn_eGayRbCaBlrdæExμrTUeTAeT pÞúyeTAvij BYkenHRbRBwtþGMeBIBukrlYy lYcCati lk;CatieGayyYn EdlCnCMBUkenH ebItamkarbeRgonrbs;RBHsmμasm<úT§fa mRnþIraCkarEdlGyutþiFm’ BukrlYyKWCaecarEdl eFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæevTna BYkCnRbePTenH GaRkk;CagecarFmμtaeTot BIeRBaHfaBYkenHlYcTaMgRTBü sm,tþiCati nigRTBüsm,tþiRbCaBlrdæ ehIyeFIVeGayCatimanbBaða minecHcb; RbCaBlrdæCam©as;GMNac mansiTi§eBjelj edIm,IdkmRnþITaMgenaH nigdak;TNÐkmμBYkeK.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๒ rkSasiT§i
  3. 3. ebIsinCaRbCaBlrdæExμr)andwgehIy B¤ehIy eXIjehIy minrYbrYmKñaedaHRsaybBaðaenH eGaycb;eT vasnaExμrnigrgTukçevTnadUcCaExμrenAkm<úCaeRkam tkUn tecA eRkamkarRKb;RKgrbs; yYnEkøgePTCaExμr CaminxaneLIy. cugbBa©b;enH ´rIkrayTTYlnUvkarriHKn;Eklm¥RKb;Ebby:agBIGs;elakGñkGan nUvral;kMhusqÁgTaMgLayNa EdlmanenAkñúgesovePAenH. sUmTMnak;TMng tamGIuEm:l sar_dharmmarainsey@yahoo .com (2)     niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๓ rkSasiT§i
  4. 4. esckþIepþIm (Introduction) RbeTsExμr CaRbeTsmYymanTItaMgsißtenAGasIuPaKGaeKñy_ manépÞdIcMnYn 181 035 KILÚEm:Rtkaer: RBMRbTl;xaglicCab;RbeTséf xageCIgCab;RbeTséfnigRbeTsLav nigxagekItCab;RbeTsyYn. RbCaBlrdæExμrmancMnYn 14 5 00 000 nak; kñúgenaHmanCnCatiyYncMnYn 4 500 000 nak;kMBugrs;enAkñúgRbeTsExμr nigmYycMnYneTotCacarkmμyYnEkøgePTCaExμr kMBugRtYtRtaExμrenAkñúgRksYgsMxan;²sBVéf¶ manTaMgsIuvil eyaFa nigb:UlIseTotpg. ExμrPaKeRcInCaGñkkan;RBHBuT§sasnanigExμrcMnYntictYckan;sasna GIusøam nigRKwsþ. RbeTsExμrbc©úb,nñenHRtYtRtaedayrbbpþac;karh‘un Esn EdlyYnelIkbnþúbeLIgeGayeFIVCaGay:g kan;GMNactaMgBITsvtS 1980. enAqñaM 1999RbeTsExμr)ankøayCasmaCikeBjsiTi§rbs;smaKmRbCaCatiGasIuGaeKñy_ ehAkat;fa ¬Gas‘an¦. RbeTsExμrFøab;)anyYnRtYtRtamþgmkehIy enAkñúgrC¢kalesþcGgÁmIu cenøaHqñaM 1835-1841EtRtUvExμrerIbMr:HrYcBIGaNaniKmn_enH edayExμrrYbrYmsamKÁIKña egIbeLIgedjyYnecj kalenaHemT½ByYneRTOg mijya:g CaGñkkan;kab;RbeTsExμr. eRkaymkeTot Exμr)anFøak;;kñúgGaNaniKmn_)araMgenAcenøaHqñaM 1863-1954 cab;BIesþc neratþm rhUtmkdl;esþc neratþm sIhnu. Exμrk¾Føab;enAeRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;Cb:unmYyry³eBlxøI enAkñúgsm½ysRgÁamelakelIkTI2 Edr. eRkayBIExμr)anrYcBIGaNaniKmn_)araMgmk RbeTsExμr)anFøak;cUlenAkñúgsRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI2 . enAkñúgeBlenaH BiPBelaksßitenAkñúgdMNak;kalsRgÁamRtCak; rvagkumμúynisþ nigesrI ¬shPaB sUevot nig shrdæGaemrik ¦.cMENkÉRbeTsExμr)angakeTArkb:UlfμImYyeTot Rbkan;neya)ayGBüaRkit ¬mincUlbkSsm<½n§¦ KWcin.eBlenaH sRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI 2 )ancab;epþImeLIg EdlmanyYnxageCIg ¬yYnkumμúynisþ¦ dwknaMedayhU CImij KaMRTeday cin )ancab;epþImeFIVsRgÁamCamYyeyokNamxagt,ÚgdwknaMeday eg:a DijyimEdlKaMRTedayshrdæGaemrik enAqñaM1958 edIm,IbRgYbbRgYmeyokNamTaMgBIr. eKalbMNgBitR)akdrbs;yYnkumμúynisþmanmhicäta vatTITwkdIcUlmkkñúgTwkdIExμr edIm,Ikan;kab;NÐÚcinTaMgmUl .kalenaH sIhnu nig sa Lútsr ¬b:ul Bt¦ CaGñkKaMRT CYyxagkumμúynisþ ¬eyokkug¦ edIm,IRbqaMgExμrsaFarNrdæ ln; nl; EdlKaMRTedayshrdæGaemrik. eBlEdleyokkug)anTTYlC½yCMnHelIExμrsaFarNrdæenAelITwkdIExμr enAéf¶TI17 Exemsa qñaM1975 yYn)anbMBak;C½yCMnHenH nigelIkGMNaceTAeGay sIhnu nig b:ul Bt EdlbMerIxagkumμúynisþ. 13éf¶eRkayBIeyokkugQñHelIrbbniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๔ rkSasiT§i
  5. 5. saFarNrdæExμr ln; nl; KW enAéf¶TI 30 Exemsa qñaM1975 yYnkumμúynisþ)anbBa©b;sRgÁamrvagyYnxageCIg nigyYnxagt,ÚgPøam. Rtg;enHbBa¢ak;eGayeXIjfa sRgÁamEdlyYneFIVeLIg maneKalbMNgvatTITwkdInigplRbeyaCn_rbs;CatieK edIm,Idak;RbeTsTaMgGs;eGayeTACacMNuH shB½n§NÐÚcin. dUecñH éf¶ 17 emsa 1975 Caéf¶C½yCMnHrbs;BYkkumμúynisþNÐÚcin EdlmanyYneFIVCaemekøag.enAkñúgrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü yYn)anerobcMEpnkarl¥itl¥n;tameKalkarN_shB½n§NÐÚcin mkkkUrsßankarN_kñúgRbeTsExμrkñúgrbbenH rYmCamYyExμrkumμúynisþTaMgBIrRkum EdlyYn)anbMBak;bMb:nmenaKmn_kumμúynisþrYcCaeRsc. ktþaTaMgGs;enHehIy CabuBVehtueFIVeGayRbeTsExμrFøak;eTAkñúgeRKaHmhnþraymYyya:gF¶n;F¶reTAkñúgrbbRbl½yBUCsasn_. yYnykliTi§kumμúynisþCameFüa)ay eFIVeGayExμr TaMgExμreRkam nigExμrbc©úb,nñ søab;rgÁalGs;rab;lannak; kñúgcenøaHqñaM 1975-1979. enAcenøaHeBlenaHRbeTsExμrdwknaMeday neratþm sI hnu nig saLút s ehAfa b:ul Bt. kñúgsRgÁamCamYyExμrsaFarNrdæ ln; nl; eyokkug)anesøokBak; nigBak;rUbqayl½kçsemþc« edIm,IykQñHxagcitþsaRsþ bMP½nþRbCaBlrdæExμreGayKaMRT edayEkøgeFIVCakgT½BsIhnu. eRkayBIQñHExμrsaFarN³rdæyYn)anbþÚrexaGavBIeyokkug eTAesøokBak;exaGavexμAbMP½nþCaExμrRkhmvij rYmCamYyRkumExμrRkhmEdlbNþúHbNþalBIhaNUy)ansmøab;bBaØvnþExμr GñkR)aCJExμr GñkesñhaCatiExμr eFIVeGayRbeTsvikvrenAkñúgrbb b:ul Bt. eRkaymk yYn)anpøas;bþÚrneya)ayfμI bBa¢ÚnkmøaMgT½B cUlmkQøanBanExμrkan;kab; TwkdIExμrenAéf¶TI7 Exmkra qñaM1979. CemøaHrvag yYn nig cin )aneFIVeGayyYnedaHédBIcinehIy)angakeTATMnak;TMngCamYysUevot cMENkÉneya)ayExμrvij yYn)anbþÚrExμrkumμúynisþcas;Edlniymcin nigelIkExμrkumμúynisþfμIniymyYn dUcCa ehg sMrin h‘un Esn Ca sIum CMnYsvij eGaykan;GMNacbMerIneya)ayeGayxøÜn. RbeTsExμr)anFøak;cUleTAkñúgsRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI3 rvagyYnQøanBan nig rbbkumμúynisþ h‘un Esn xusc,ab; CamYynigRkumExμresñhaCati ExμrGñkts‘UtamCayEdn.sRgÁamenH minxusBIsRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI 2 EdlmanExμrmçagkumμúynisþyYn sIhnu nig b:ul Bt¬enATsSvtS 60-70¦ cMENkExμrmçageTotxagesrI ExμrsaFarNrdæ ln; nl; esrImt³eLIy.sRgÁamenH)anbnþrhUtdl;sRgÁamRtCak;rvagkumμúynisþ nigesrI bBa©b;enAqñaM 1989. yYnk¾)andkkgT½BÉksNæaneyaFaecjBIRbeTsExμr Etbgáb;TukkgT½BesøokBak;sIuvilRtYtRtaExμrbnþeTot enAkñúgCYrKNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn edayminGnuBaØateGayGgÁkarshRbCaCatiRtYtBinitüeLIy. rhUtdl;kic©RBmeRBogTIRkug)a:rIséf¶TI23 Extula qñaM1991 ExμrbYnPaKI)ancuHhtßelxa elIkic©RBmeRBogsnþiPaBniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๕ rkSasiT§i
  6. 6. ebIk»kaseGayyYnedaHédecjBIqakGnþrCati rYcxøÜnBIkarecaTRbkan;fa yYnQøanBanExμr eRBaHyYnman h‘un Esn nig sI hnu CakUnGuk eFIVeGayGnþrCatiemIleXIjfa sRgÁamEdlekItmanenAkñúgRbeTsExμr CasRgÁamsIuvileTAvij. enAqñaM 1993 RbeTsExμrTTYl)anBnøWénliTi§RbCaFibetyü tamry³karerobcMe)aHeqñatedayesrI nigyutþiFm’ EdlerobcMeLIgedayGgÁkarshRbCaCati. xN³eBlenaH GgÁkarshRbCaCatiminTan;bBa©b;ebskkmμeBjeljpg Rsab;EteBlEdl h‘un Esn caj;eqñatenAqñaM1993 h‘un Esn )anbegáIttMbn;Gb,Kmn_enAeRtIyxagekIt KMrameFIVsRgÁam eRBaH h‘un EsnsMGagyYnenABIeRkayxñg EdlkalenaHmanneratþmcRkBgS CaGñkdwknaMeFIV. esþc sIhnu )anedjGgÁkarshRbCaCatieGaydkecjBIRbeTsExμr ehIyEbgEckGMNaceGayBYkkumμúynisþ h‘un EsneFIVCanaykrdæmRnþITI2. b:uEnþeTaHCaya:gNak¾eday RbCaBlrdæExμrKμanvasnaTTYl)annUvsuxsnþiPaBRbCaFibetyü nigkarGPivDÆn_BitR)akd dUcGIVEdlGgÁkarshRbCaCatixitxMenaHeLIy eRBaHenAéf¶5-6 kkáda 1997 Cnpþac;kar h‘un Esn )aneFIVrdæRbhardeNþImGMNac smøab;GñkesñhaCatiExμrGñkRbCaFibetyü enAkñúgKNbkShViunsIunbiuc nig smaCikelakta sWn san Gs;Cag 280nak;. enHCaemeronExμrRtUvcgcaMfa BYkkumμúynisþminEdlcat;TukExμrGñkesñhaCati CaExμrenaHeT vaEtgEtsþab;ecAhVayyYnrbs;va eRbIl,ice)akR)as;Exμr eGaycUleTAkñúgRTug bnÞab;mkeKcab;smøab;Exμrtamcitþ.bBaðaTaMgenHk¾edaysarkarlg;eCOemdwknaMe)akR)as;dUcCnkumμúynisþ sI hnu mþgehIymþgeTot.cMENkkare)aHeqñateRkay²mkCabnþbnÞab; vaCakarerobcMrbs;KNbkSRbCaCn edIm,IbMP½nþEPñkCatinigGnþrCatiEtb:ueNÑaH lT§ple)aHeqñatTaMgGs;enaH minEmnecjBIqnÞ³RbCaBlrdæExμrBitR)akdeT.karerobrab;bgðajxagelI)ansreGayeXIjfa RbeTsExμrbc©úb,nñkMBugEtFøak;eTAkñúgrbbpþac;kar h‘unEsn eRkamGaNaniKmn_yYnEbbfμI EdleFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrrgTukçtElðrhUtmkdl;eBlenH. 3niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๖ rkSasiT§i
  7. 7. esckþIEføgGMNrKuN (Acknowledgement) Cabzm´sUmelIkhtßfVaybgÁM RBHBuT§ RBHFm’ RBHsgÇ CaTIskáar³d¾x<g;x<s; nigCamøb;d¾RtCak;sMrab;sgÁmCatiExμrRKb;sm½ykal. ´sUmRkabfVaybgÁM elak»Buk Gñkmþay EdlCaGñkmanKuNd¾elIslub )anpþl;kMeNIteGaykUnekItCaCatiExμr ciBa©wmbI)ac;EfrkSakUn edayKμanKitkarenOyht;.´sUmEføgGMNrKuNdl; elakRKU GñkRKU saRsþacarüTaMgGs;Edl)anxitxMGs;BIkmøaMgkaycitþ edIm,Ipþl;cMeNHdwgdl;´ nigsisSanusisSRKb;rUb edIm,ICaRbTIbmYysMrab;bMPøWpøÚvkñúgCIvit. CaBiess ´sUmEføgGMNrKuNdl;bgb¥ÚnCnrYmCatiExμr GñkesñhaCatiExμrTaMgGs;Edl)ancUlrYm]btßmKaMRT edIm,IeGayesovePAenHelcecjCarUbrageLIg kñúgkarpþl;cMeNHdwgfμI² dl;RbCaCatiExμrTaMgGs; EdlminFøab;)aneXIj minFøab;)anB¤BIerOgra:vRbeTsrbs;xøÜnknøgmk edaysarEtkarlak;)aMg karbMP½nþsMrab;cMeNjneya)ay plRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜn GMNac nigEpnkarrbs;yYnhaNUy edIm,ImkelbykTWkdIExμreyIgEtmþg. esovePA b£sKl; 7 mkra Edl´)ancgRkgeLIgenH CakarrMlwkKuNdl;virPaBGñkesñhaCatiExμrRKb;sm½ykal Edl)ants‘UedIm,IbuBVehtuCatiExμr TaMgGñkEdl)an)at;bg;Civit nigGñkEdlenAmanCivitEtBikar nigrgeRKaHepSg²edaysarBYkkumμúynisþyYn nigh‘un Esn. vaCakUnesovePAtUc mYysMrab;rYmcMENkkñúgkarpþl;cMeNHdwg CaÉksarsMrab;GñksikSaRsavRCav eGayyl;dwgbEnßmEpñk neya)ay ehIyCYyykBt’manenHeTApSBVpSaydl;RbCaCatiExμrTaMgGs; GñkesñhaCatiExμrGñkCatiniym GñkRbCaFibetyü eGayemIleXIjbBaðaBitR)akdEdl)annwgkMBugekItmanenAkñúgsgÁmExμr. GaRs½yehtuenH eyIgCaExμrRtUvh‘anegIbeLIg ebþCJacitþTaMgGs;KñaedaHRsay b£sKl;bBaðaenHeGaycb; ha‘nlHbg;RKb;Ebbya:gedIm,I buBVehtu Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr rbs;eyIgedayminbeNþay eGayCnmYykþab;tUc EdleGank,albMerIneya)ayeGayyYnkumμúynisþ dUcKNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn lk;Cati bMpøajCati eGayrlay tamEpnkarshB½n§NÐÚcinenaHeLIy. cugbBa©b;´sUm]TiÞsdl;vtßús½kþisiTi§TaMgGs;EdlEfrkSaRbeTsExμr CYyEfrkSabgb¥ÚnCnrYmCatiExμr CaBiessGñkesñhaCatiExμrTaMgGs; Edlh‘anegIbeLIgRbQmmuxedaHRsaybBaðaRbeTsCatieGay)anesckþIsuxcMerIn suPmgÁl manCIvPaBFUrFar tamkarb:gR)afña. cMeBaHbgb¥ÚnCnrYmCatiExμrEdllHbg;CYyftcMlgesovePAenHpSBVpSaybnþeGayRbCaBlrdæExμr sUmeGayGs;elakTTYl)anbuNükusleRcIn CYbEtsuxsuPmgÁl rYcputBITukçevTnanigeRKaHcéRgepSg²EdlekItmanbc©úb,nñ nigGnaKt. eFIVenATIRkugva:sIunetan éf¶TI 9 Ex kBaØa qñaM 2009 bNÐit s FmμrgSIniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๗ rkSasiT§i
  8. 8. matikaesckþIepþIm ------------------------------------------------------------------ 1GarmÖkfa ------------------------------------------------------------------- 4esckþIEføgGMNrKuN ----------------------------------------------------------- 7 CMBUkTI 1 b£sKl;bBaðaI-edImkMeNItExμrkumμúynisþenAkñúgRbeTsExμr ----------------------------------------- 11II-b£sKl;énrbbRbl½yBUCsasn_Exμr --------------------------------------------- 20III-ehtuGIV)anCaExμrFøak;kñúgrbbRbl½yBUCsasn_ ------------------------------------- 21IV-b£sKl; éf¶ 7 mkra ------------------------------------------------------- 25V-yYnkumμúynisþQøanBanRtYtRtaExμr éf¶ 7 mkra 1979 ------------------------------- 26VI-sRgÁamrvagExμrGñkts‘U CamYyyYnQøanBan nigrbbkumμúynisþ h‘un Esn xusc,ab; ----------- 27VII-sn§isBaØaTIRkug)a:rIs ------------------------------------------------------ 28VIII-kMeNItliTi§RbCaFibetyüenAkñúgRbeTsExμreLIgvij ------------------------------- 29IX-karFøak;cuHliTi§RbCaFibetyü ------------------------------------------------- 30X-RbeTsExμrFøak;kñúgrbbpþac;kar h‘un Esn eRkamGNaniKmn_yYnEbbfμI ------------------- 31XI-KμantulüPaBxagnitibBaØtþi nitiRbtibtþi nigtulakar -------------------------------- 32 1-B½t’man ---------------------------------------------------------- 32 2-karGb;rM---------------------------------------------------------- 33 3-kare)aHeqñat ------------------------------------------------------- 34 4-esrIPaBbeBa©jmti --------------------------------------------------- 34 5-c,ab; ------------------------------------------------------------- 35XII-emdwknaMpþac;karbc©úb,nñ)aneFIVGIVxøH b:HBal;RbCaBlrdæ ------------------------------ 35 1-karbeNþjRbCaBlrdæ rwbGUsykdI -------------------------------------- 35 2-GMeBIBukrlYy -------------------------------------------------------36 3-PaBRkIRk -------------------------------------------------------- 37 4-kat;eTasExμrRkhm ------------------------------------------------- 37 5-GaNaniKmn_yYnEbbfμI ------------------------------------------------ 39 6-FnFanFmμCati ------------------------------------------------------ 39niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๘ rkSasiT§i
  9. 9. CMBUkTI 2 bBa©b;bBaðaI-etIRbCaBlrdæExμrcg;)anGIV? --------------------------------------------------- 42II-etIExμrRtUveFIVGVIxøHedIm,ICYyseRgÁaHExμr? ------------------------------------------ 42III-etIRbCaBlrdækñúgtMbn;EdlrgeRKaH Lav m:ug cam Exμr RtUveFIVdUcemþc? ---------------------- 43IV-etIshKmn_GWr:ub nigshrdæGaemrik CYyGIVxøHdl;RbCaCatirgeRKaH? ----------------------- 43V- RbeTsExμrRtUvdwknaMtameKalkarN_RbCaFibetyüÉkraCüBitR)akd - ------------------- 44 1-nitibBaØtþi ---------------------------------------------------------- 45 2-tulakar ---------------------------------------------------------- 45 3-nitiRbtibtþi -------------------------------------------------------- 45 4-B½t’man ----------------------------------------------------------- 45 5-bM)at;GMeBIBukrlYy --------------------------------------------------- 46 6-begIánCIvPaBRbCaBlrdæ ----------------------------------------------- 46 7-KNbkSneya)ay--------------------------------------------------- 46 8-KN³kmμkarerobcMe)aHeqñat -------------------------------------------- 46 9-CnGenþaRbevsn_ nigcarkmμyYn ------------------------------------------ 47VI-karsnñidæan -------------------------------------------------------------- 47Éksareyag --------------------------------------------------------------- 48niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๙ rkSasiT§i
  10. 10. CMBUkTI 1niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๑๐ rkSasiT§i
  11. 11. b£sKl;bBaða (The Root of Problems)I -edImkMeNItExμrkumμúynisþenAkñúgRbeTsExμr (Origin of Khmer Communism in Cambodia) kñúgdMNak;kalEdlliTi§kumμúynisþkMBugEtrIkraldalxøaMgenATIVbGWur:ub ekItmansRgÁamelakelIkTI 2 ehIysRgÁamenH)anbBa©b;enAqñaM 1945. GgÁkarshRbCaCatiRtUv)aneKbegIáteLIg edIm,IedaHRsaybBaðaBiPBelak kñúgenaHmanRbeTssMxan;²CasmaCikGciéRnþy_ dUcCa shrdæGaemrikshPaBsUevot cin Gg;eKøs nig)araMg. BiPBelak)anFøak;eTAkñúgsRgÁamRtCak;. kalenaHBiPBelak)anEbgEckCaBIr kumμúynisþ nigesrI. RbeTskumμúynisþmancMnYn 97 RbeTs nigmYycMnYnepSgeTotCa RbeTskan;liTi§RbCaFibetyüesrI. kumμúynisþmanRbPBedImecjmkBIRbeTsr:UsSIú¬elnInsþalIn¦ GaLWm:g; ¬GIuEtø kalma:kS¦ GIutalI GWur:ubxagekIt )araMg cMENkRbeTskan;liTi§RbCaFibetyüesrIvijKWman shrdæGaemrik Gg;eKøs nigRbeTsmYycMnYneTot. liTi§kumμúynisþ)anrIksayPayenAGWur:ubnig mktMbn; GasIu kñúgenaHmanRbeTscin ¬emA: esTug ¦ RbeTseyokNam ¬hU CImij¦nigRbeTsExμrCaedIm Edl)anykliTi§kumμúynisþmkGnuvtþn_. RbeTsExμr)aneFIVtammenaKmn_kumμúynisþeBlEdleyokNamykliTi§enHmkpSBVpSay cab;taMgBIExμrenAkñúgsm½yGaNaniKmn)araMg. enAeBlenaH eyokNamdwknaMeday hU CImij eFIVbdivtþn_pøas;bþÚresþc e)A day nigrMedaHRbeTseGayrYcecjBIGaNaniKmn_)araMg. edayrs;enAeRkamGaNaniKmn_)araMg KμansiTi§esrIPaB Bi)akevTna eBlenaHesþcyYn e)A day )anmanKtibNÐitTukfa eFIVCaRbCaraRsþsamBaØkñúgRbeTsÉkraCü mansiTi§esrIPaBRbesIrCageFIVesþc mRnþIeRkambreTsRtYtRta. eTIbenAqñaM 1945 e)A day )andak;raCüRbKl;eGayhU CImij dwknaM. hU CImij )anpøas;bþÚrrbbRKb;RKgBIrbbraCaniymeTACasaFarNrdæsgÁmniymeyokNam ehIybnþts‘Uedj)araMgecjBITwkdIrbs;xøÜn. nisSitExμrmYycMnYn Edl)anecjeTAeronenAeRkARbeTs CaBiess nisSitEdl)aneTAsikSaenARbeTs)araMg dUcCa saLúut s eGog sarI )annaMykliTi§kumμúynisþmksabeRBaHenAkñúgRbeTsExμr. liTi§kumμúynisþenHminEmnecjBIqnÞ³neya)ayrbs;xøÜnBitR)akd EdlmansSrHPaB ÉkraCü edIm,IplRbeyaCn_CatiExμreLIy EtCaliTi§kumμúynisþsaxarbs;bkSkumμúynisþNÐÚcin Edl)anerobcMdwknaMedayyYn hU CImij. GñkdwknaMmanyYneQμaH swugg:ukmij ehAGacarü emon bnøMxøÜneFIVCab¥Ún swug g:ukfaj; CaRbFanbkSkumμúynisþkm<úCa ¬saxabkSkumúμynisþNÐÚcin¦. TU samut nig sa Lútsr )ancUleTAeFIVkareRkambkSkumμúynisþenaH. eBlenaHehIyEdlyYn)anykliTi§kumμúynisþenH mkbNþúHbNþaldl;kUnecAExμr Edlekμgx©I minTan;dwgGMBIRbvtþisaRsþ nigneya)ayc,as;las; edIm,IeGayExμrbMerIneya)ayrbs;eK kñúgeKalbMNgRtYtRtaelbTwkdIExμr enAtMbn;NÐÚcinTaMgmUl.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๑๑ rkSasiT§i
  12. 12. kñúgdMNak;kalEdlRbeTsTaMgbI Exμr eyokNam Lav enAeRkamGaNaniKm)araMg edaymanCMnYyBIbkSkumμúynisþcin KUmIgtaMg nigRsbeBlEdl hU CImij )ancUlCasmaCikbkSkumμúynisþGnþrCati yYn)anerobcMeFIVbdivtþn_mYyedIm,Iedj)araMgecjBITwkdINÐÚcin. yYn)anykliTi§kumμúynisþCameFüa)ay GMBavnaveGayRbCaCnkñúgtMbn;cUlrYmts‘Uedj)araMgecjBITwkdINÐÚcin edIm,IRbeTsTTYl)anÉkraCü. sUmbBa¢ak;fa menaKmn_kumμúynisþEdlyYnbNþúHbNþalExμrenaH KWCamenaKmn_kumμúynisþxusTwssMrab;bMerIneya)ayeGayyYnb:ueNÑaH. kareFIVdUcenH eRBaHyYncg;rMelIgCatiExμreGayexSay dUcCaenAkñúgrbb b:ul Bt edIm,IelbykTwkdIExμr. yYnkumμúynisþ)ancUlmkbBa©úHbB©aÚlExμrCasm¶at;enAkñúgTwkdIExμr bNþúHbNþalExμrenAkñúgTwkdIExμr edIm,IeGayExμrcUlCasmaCikbkSkumμúynisþyYncab;taMgBIqñaM1946 . eRkaymk yYn)ancab;kUnExμrcMnYn 3 500 nak; eTA 4 000 nak; ykeTAbNþúHbNþalmenaKmn_viC¢akumμúynisþenATIRkughaNUy. BYkekμgExμrTaMgenaHenAekμgx©IxagRbvtþisaRsþnigneya)ay eFIVeGayExμrTaMgenaHlg;kñúgmenaKmn_kumμúynisþyYn ehIybMerIneya)ayeGayRkughaNUy ekobsgát;CiHCan;CatiÉgCabnþbnÞab;mkrhUtdl;sBVéf¶. emdwknaMyYn eQμaH egVog éGkuk ¬hU CImij¦ bkSkumμúynisþNÐÚcinRtUv)an hU CImij begIáteLIgenATIRkug hug kug naéf¶ 3 kumÖ³ 1930.bkSkumμúynisþenHmankarKaMRTBIcin nigbkSkumμúynisþGnþrCatir:UsSúI. cin)anbNþúHbNþalkmμaPi)alyYnpþl;CMnYyEpñkesdækic© smÖar³sBVavuF nigpþl;kEnøghVwkhat;eGay hU CImijenAPaKxagt,ÚgénRbeTscinxageCIgRbeTséf RbeTslav cMENkÉrU:sIuvijCYyxaghVwkhat;kmμaPi)alyYnsMxan;². hU CImij)anyklTi§kumμúynisþ BIma:kS elnIn mksabeRBaHenAtMbn;NÐÚcin eRkayBIxøÜn)ancUlCasmaCikbkSkumμúynisþGnþrCatimYyenH. hU CImij )andwknaMRbeTsTaMg 3 enANÐÚcin edIm,IrMedaHRbeTsecjBIGaNaniKmn_)araMg nigpøas;bþÚrkardwknaM RbeTsrbs;xøÜnBIrbbraCaniymeTACarbbsaFarNrdæniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๑๒ rkSasiT§i
  13. 13. sgÁmniym EdlkalenaH RbeTseyokNamsißt enAkñúgkardwknaMrbs;esþc e)A day enAeLIy.TIbBa©b; hU CImij )anTTYlC½yCMnHesþcelI e)A day enAqñaM1945 bþÚrRbeTseTACasaFarNrdæ. hUCImij )anbnþneya)ayrbs;xøÜnedIm,IedjGaNniKmn_ )araMgecjBINÐÚcineTot. hU CImij maneQμaHTaMgGs; 19 nigCaGñkmanRbCaRbiymYyrUbkñúgcMeNamRbCaCnevotNam . hU CImij ekItenAéf¶TI 19Ex]sPa qñaM1890 enAkñúgPUmi KIm elon kñúgextþ ejGan RbeTseyokNam. enAqñaM 1911 hU CImij)ancakecjBIRbeTsevotNameTARbeTs)araMgtamka)a:l;Twk edayeFIVCacugePArbs;)araMg. hU CImij)ankøayCasmaCikbkSkumμúynisþ)araMgenAqñaM 1920 ehIy)anbþÚreQμaHeTACa egVog éGkuk mann½yfaGñkesñhaCati. enAqñaM 1921-1929 hU CImij )ancUlrYmskmμPaBneya)ayCamYybkSkumμúyniisþGnþrCati nigpSBVpSayesovePAmYymancMNgeCIgfa pøÚvbdivtþn_ enAqñaM 1927. enAqñaM 1923 hU CImij)aneTAshPaBsUevot edIm,IEsVgrkkarKaMRT GMBIbuBVehtuénkarts‘Urbs;Kat;kñúgcMeNamCnCati eyokNam EdlCaGñkRbqaMg ehIy)annireTseTAeRkARbeTs. hU CImijk¾)aneFIVdMeNIreTAkan;RbeTscinPUma nigNÐapgEdr. clnaneya)ay yYneyokmij)ancUlmkeFIVclnas¶at;²enATwkdIExμr EdlkalenaHmanyYnPaKeRcIn eFIVCakmμkrekAs‘U EtBYkeKCaCnkumμúynisþdMbUg cUlmkeFIVclnaneya)ayenARbeTsExμr dUcCaenAtamextþkMBg;cam extþkMBt nigextþmYycMnYneTot. yYn)ancab;epþImeFIVkareXasna nigeFIVcitþsaRsþCamYyExμr EdleFIVkmμkrenATIenaH edIm,IeGayExμrcUlCasmaCikrbs;bkSkumμúynisþNÐÚcin bMerIneya)ayeGayBYkkumμúynisþyYn. tamry³kareXasnayYnkumμúynisþ¬eyokmijeFμjexμA¦ ExμrmYycMnYn)anlg;eCO cUlbMerIskmμPaBneya)ayeGaybkSkumμúynisþyYnenaH.enA cenøaHqñaM 1946-1954 ekμgExμr CaeRcInBan;nak; 3500-4000nak; RtUv)aneKcab;ykeTAbMBak;bMb:nmenaKmn_kumμúynisþBIRkughaNUy EdleBlenaH ExμrehAfaRbma:t;Rbm:g; eRkay²mkeTotyYnenAEtbnþykkUnExμreTAbNþúHbNþalCabnþbnÞab;. hU CImij )aneFIVkarts‘UCamYy)araMgrhUtdl;QñHsRgÁamenA eDon ebonPU enAqñaM 1954 ehIy)ancab;Tahan)araMgCacMNab;xμaMg bgçMeGay)araMgcuHhtßelxa RbKl;ÉkraCümkeGayNÐÚcin enAéf¶TI20 Exkkáda qñaM1954. yYncab;epþImbnþeFIVneya)ay edIm,IRtYtRtaNÐÚcinCMnYs)araMgbnþeTot. kUnExμrEdlyYnkumμúynisþ bMBak;bMb:nmenaKmn_kumμúynisþ eGaysmøab;ExμrniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๑๓ rkSasiT§i
  14. 14. cMENknisSitExμrEdlTTYl)anGaharUbkrN_eTAsikSaenARbeTs)araMgvij dUcCa sa Lút sreG‘og sarI CYn mMu hU‘ nwm hU‘ yn; )ancab;GarmμN_nigesovePARkhmrbs;kumμúynisþ ma:kS elnInEdlkalenaHRTwsþIkumμúynisþkMBugEtmanRbCaRbiyenATIVbGWur:ub. enAeBlenaHnisSitExμrTaMgGs;enaH)ancab;ykliTi§kumμúynisþ eFIVkarRbqaMgneya)ayCamYyrbbskþiPUmirbs;semþc sI hnu . TIbMputneratþm sIhnu )ankat;pþac;GaharUbkrN_rbs;nisSitmYycMnYn kñúgenaHman sa Lútsr EdlCaGñkRbqaMg neratþm sIhnu . enAqñaM 1951 eBlEdl sa Lútsr RtLb;mkRbeTsExμrvijTaMgminTan;eroncb;EpñkxageGLicRtUnicpgenaH sa Lútsr )aneFIVCaRKUbeRgon nigbegIátsalaeronÉkCneQμaHkm<úCbuRt. sa Lúts )aneFIVclnaneya)ayRbqaMgneratþmsIhnuCasm¶at; . eBlEdlEbkkarN_neratþm sIhnu )anRbkasecaTRbkan;edjcab; sa Lútsr nigbkSBYkmYycMnYn bnÞab;mkRkumrbs;Kat;)anrt;cUléRB cUlrYmts‘UCamYybkSbdivtþn_RbCaCnkm<úCa EdlCasaxarbs;bkSkumμúynisþNÐÚcin.bkSbdivtþn_RbCaCnkm<úCaenH dwknaMedayyYneQμaH suwg g:ukmij ehAfa Gacarü emon EdlbnøMeFIVCaExμr. karEdlyYndak;eQμaH swug g:ukmij KWedIm,IbMP½nþExμrfaCab¥Únrbs; swug g:ukfaj; mkdwknaMExμrBIeRBaH swug g:ukfaj; CaemdwknaMExμr manRbCaRbiymYyrUbEdlRbCaBlrdæExμrsÁal;faCaGñkesñhaCatiExμrnasm½yenaH. bkSbdivtþn_RbCaCnExμrenaH )ankøayCaKNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCadwknaMeday ehg sMrin Ca sIum h‘un Esn naeBlbc©úb,nñenH. dUcenH tamkarsegáteXIjfa enAéf¶TI28Exmifuna qñaM 2009 CaqñaMKMrb;xYbTI 58 rbs;KNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa. eRkayBIsin§isBaØa TIRkughSWENv RbeTsTaMgbI Exμr Lav yYn enANÐÚcin)anTTYlÉkraCüBI)araMgenAqñaM1954. eyokmijEdlenAkñúgRbeTsExμr RtUv)aneKtMrUveGaydkecjBIRbeTsExμr.eBlEdlyYneyokmijdkecjeTA yYn)ancab;ykkUnExμrmYycMnYneTAbMBak;bMb:nmenaKmn_kumμúynisþxusTws nigExμrmYycMnYn)aneTAtamk)a:l;yYn. ExμrTaMgGs;enaHehIy EdlyYnbBa¢ÚnmkRbeTsExμrvijedIm,IeFIVCaBiCXatsmøab;Exμr enAkñúgrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü. ExμrEdlyYnbNþúHbNþalTaMgGs;enaHehIy Cab£sKl;énkarRbl½yBUCsasn_Exμr eFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrRbmaNCag 1>7 lannak;søab;¬1975-1979¦. cMENkÉvasnakUnExμrTaMgGs;enaH k¾RtUvyYnerobcMEpnkarsmøab;bMbiTPsþútagCabnþbnÞab; eRkayBIyYneRbIR)as;Gs;plRbeyaCn_ehIy edIm,IkMueGayxUcEpnkarRkughaNUy EdlmanbMNgelbTwkdIExμr. enAqñaM 1958 yYnkumμúynisþ)ancab;epþImeFIVsRgÁamCamYyyYnxagt,ÚgeTot edaymaneKalkarN_fa edIm,IbRgYbbRgYmRbeTsTaMgBIr rvageyokNamxageCIg nigeyokNamxagt,Úg.EttamkarBit sRgÁamenHyYnmaneKalbMNgBRgIkTwkdI vatTIenAtMbn;NÐÚcinEtb:ueNÑaH. yYnniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๑๔ rkSasiT§i
  15. 15. kumμúynisþ)anecaTyYnxagt,ÚgEdldwknaMeday eg:a DijyIm faCaGay:gbrivarbs;GaemrikkaMg.yYneyokkugsMueGayExμrCYypþl;CMrkdl;T½BeyokkugRCkenAelITwkdIExμrPaKxagekIt edIm,IeFIVsRgÁamedjGaemrikkaMg. eRkamelsfa eFIVsRgÁamedjGaemrikaMg BYkRbtikiriyaecjBITwkdINÐÚcin sI hnu)ancuHhtßelxas¶at;²CamYy hU CImij enAqñaM1965 GnuBaØateGayyYndak;kgT½BeyokkugenAkñúgTwkdIExμrPaKxagekItman extþRkecH mNÐlKIrI éRBEvg sVayerog nigkMBg;camCaedIm. yYndak;T½BenHedaysMueGayExμrCYy edIm,IvayyYnxagt,Úg nigedjGaemrikaMgecj EtenHCal,icx©IpøÚvedIr edIm,Ix©b;ykbUrIrbs;yYnkumμúynisþEtb:ueNÑaH eRBaHfayYn)anBRgIksRgÁam enaHFøak;mkelIRbeTsExμr. smrPUmisRgÁamBitR)akdKW TwkdIExμr eRBaHmUldæanT½BéRByYneyokkugtaMgenAelITwkdIExμr ehtuenH TaMgyYnxagt,Úg nigGaemrikaMg)anvaylukcUlmkkñúgTWkdIExμr eFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrsøab;)at;bg;CivitnigrgeRKaHya:gxøaMg. enAéf¶TI 9 Ex kBaØa qñaM 1969 hU CImij )anTTYlmrNPaB ehIysaksBRtUv)aneKrkSaTukrhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ. emdwknaMExμrman sIhnu nig h‘un Esn k¾eGank,aleKarBsBhUCImijEdr. enApÞHh‘un Esn )anerobcMGasn³dak;taMgrUb hU CImij fVaybgÁM eRbob)andUcCaRBHBuT§. sIhnu kMBugeKarBexμachUCImij sRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI2 enH yYnTTYl)anplRbeyaCn_CaeRcIn plRbeyaCn_TaMgenaH mandUcCa EpñkhirBaØvtßú EpñksmÖar³ nigsBVavuF nigTwkdIExμr.l. kalEdlhUCImijRtUvsøab; BIeRBaHyYnRtUvedaHédecjBIcin edaymin)ansgbMNulepSg²eTARbeTscin EdlCYyyYntaMgBIqñaM 1930 .yYn)anplRbeyaCn_BICMnYyBIGaemrikaMg EdlCYyyYnxagt,Úg eg:a DijyIm nigcMeNjTwkdIExμrExμreRkam TwkdIlav. edIm,IkarBarplRbeyaCn_TaMgGs;enH yYn)angakeTAcgsm<½n§CamYyshPaBsUevotvij. dUcenHeyIg segáteXIjfa yYnTTYl)anplRbeyaCn_CaeRcInBImhaGMNacTaMg3 ehIynigplRbeyaCn_BIRbeTstUc² dUcCa lav Exμr nigcamCaedIm. kñúgeBlsRgÁamenaH yYneyokkug)anCMritesdækic©Exμr tamkare)aHBum<luyEkøgkøay TijTMnijExμr )aj;eKaRkbIExμr eFIVCacMNIGahar ¬x©IdInigesdækic©Exμr edIm,IciBa©wmkgT½B¦. cMENkyYnxagt,Úgvij )anTTYlCMnYyBIGaemrikkaMg nigkan;kab;TwkdIExμrenAkm<úCaeRkam. hUCImij suxcitþlHbg;Civitsøab;enAqñaM 1969 edIm,IplRbeyaCn_Cati eyokniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๑๕ rkSasiT§i
  16. 16. NamTaMgmUl edaymincaM)ac;sgsMNgTaMgLayeTAeGaycin nigGaemrikehIypøas;neya)ay gakeTArkRbeTsrU:sISú edIm,IRbqaMgnigshrdæGaemrik nigbM)at;kic©snüarvag sI hnu nig hU CImijedIm,I)anRKb;RKgelbTwkdIExμreTotpg. sIhnu CYypþl;es,ogeGayyYn nig pþl;CMrkeGayyYn ¬kumμúynisþ¦ b¤eyokkug hU CImij CasmaCikkumμúynisþGnþrCati KU mIgtaMg . edIm,IBRgIkkumμúynisþenAtMbn;GasIu hUCImijCasmaCikmYyrUbrbs;bkSkumμúynisþGnþrCatiEdlerobcMbegIátedaycin )aneTARbeTséf m:aeLsIunigsigðbUrI edIm,IeFIVCaGFibtIkñúgkarbegIátsaxabkSkumμúynisþenAkñúgRbeTsTaMgenH. shPaBsUevot)anRbKl;eGay hU CImij TTYlxusRtUvbegáItsaxabkSkumμúynisþenAkñúgRbeTsExμr nigLav EdlCaEpñkmYyénbkSkumμúynisþGnþrCati tamkaryl;RBmpþl;mUlniFiedayshPaBsUevot. GIVEdlCaEpnkarrbs;hU CImij begIáteLIgedIm,IBRgIkTwkdIevotNameGayFMedayQøanBanRbeTsExμr lav ehIyeRkaymkeTot RbeTsenAGasIuGaeKñy_ dUcGIVEdlsþalIn nigrU:sSIú)aneFIVeLIg cMeBaHRbeTsCitxagrbs;eKkñúgkarbegIátshPaBsUevotEdr. enAkñúgsRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI 2 edaymanCMnYy]btßmÖnigGnuBaØatBIneratþm sIhnu yYn)aneRCotcUlTwkdIExμrkan;EteRCAeTABaseBjTwkdIExμr edayyYn)anx©ITwkdIExμredIm,IeFIVCasmrPUmiRbyuT§ e)aHBum<luyEkøgkøay edIm,ITijTMnijsac;es,og dUcCa Ggár RCUk eKaykeTAciBa©wmkgT½BeK. cMENk sI hnu min)anenAedaHRsaybBaðaEdlkMBugEtvikvrenAkñúgRbeTseTdUcCa)atukmμdutsßanTUteyokkug eyokkugenABaseBjRbeTs edayRtUvmehsI mU:nic nig mþayekμknaMeTAkMsanþenARbeTs)araMgeTAvij. tMNagraRsþ 2 rUb)aneTAyagRBHGgÁmkBIRbeTs)araMg edIm,IedaHRsaybBaðaTaMgLay EdlRBHGgÁ)anbegáIteLIg dUcCakgT½BeyokkuglukluycUlTwkdIExμrPaKxagekIt nigBIkMBg;esam rhUtmkdl;kMBg;s<WCaedIm. b:uEnþRBHGgÁminRBmyagRtLb;mkvij edaysþab;tameyabl;mþayekμk nigmehsI EdlelIkeCIgbeBa¢arfa RBHGgÁCaGñkmanbuNü CaRBH)aTFmμik KμannrNaeFIVGIVekIteT. eTaHCaRBHmata kusm³ TUrs½BÞeTAedIm,Iyagmkk¾eday k¾sIhnucecs minsþab;niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๑๖ rkSasiT§i
  17. 17. eyabl;GñkNaTaMgGs;. ehtuenHehIyeTIb ln; nl; esrImt³ )anTMlak;semþc sIhnu enAéf¶TI 18ExmIna qñaM 1970 edaykare)aHeqñatdkesckþITukcitþBIsPa edIm,IedaHRsaybBaðakgT½ByYneyokugEdlkMBugEtQøanBanelITwkdIExμrPaKxagekIténRbeTs. eRkayBI sI hnu Føak;BIGMNacRBHGgÁminRBmKg;enAes¶omenaHeT eTaHCaeKsnüafanigRbKl;GMNacmkeGayRBHGgÁvij eRkayBIedaHRsaybBaðaeyokkugQøanBanecjBITwkdIcb;k¾eday. RBHGgÁ)anyageTARbeTs r:UsSIú nig RbeTscin edIm,IEsVgrkkarKaMRT. eBlenaHcin)anKaMRT yYnCaGñkCYyBIeRkayxñg snüadeNþImraCblø½gÁmkeGayRBHGgÁvij. tamkarjúHjg;rbs;BYkkumμúynisþ sIhnu eGaybegIátrNsirSrYbrYmCatikm<úCa enAéf¶TI 23ExmIna qñaM 1970 edayRBHGgÁCaRbFanrNsirSrYbrYmCatikm<úCa rYmCamYyBYkExμrRkhm EdldwknaMeday b:ul Bt eGog sarI exov sMpn. cMENkÉyYnkumμúynisþvij CaGñkCYyExμrRkhmxagRKab;rMesvkaMePIøgtUc FM es,og kmøaMg nigkarhVwkhVWneFIVeGaymanC½yCMnHelIExμrsaFarNrdæ enAéf¶TI 17 ExemsaqñaM1975. eRkayBITTYl)anC½yCMnHelIBYksarFarNrdæExμr ln; nl; yYn)anelIkGMNaceGayExμrRkhm ¬Exμrkumμúyniisþ¦. yYnEdl)anEkøgePTeTACaExμr nigExμrEdlyYnbMBak;bMb:nmenaKmn_kumμúynisþenaH )anTTYlbBa¢aBIhaNUy eGaymke)assMGatExμrsaFarNrdæEdlRbqaMgyYn CaehtunaMeGaymanrbbRbl½yBUCsasn_Exμrrab;lannak;ekItmanenAkñúgRbeTsExμr nigExμrenAkm<úCaeRkamenAkñúgrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü. edIm,Icab;ExμrGñkRbqaMgnigyYnkumμúynisþ eKrkelsecaTRbkan;TMlak;kMhus dUcCa eKecaTRbkan;faPñak;gar sIu Gay eG rbs;Gaemrik ka es eb b¤xμaMgrbs;bdivtþn_ehIycab;ykeTAsmøab; . ExμrPaKeRcInenAkñúgsaFarNrdæExμr mannisSit bBaØvnþ GñkesñhaCatiRtUveKkab;smøab;Gs;enAkñúgrbbenaH. rbbRbl½yBUCsasn_enH eFIVeGayExμrxUceQμaHya:gxøaMgenAelIqakGnþrCati faExμrCatisasn_eXaeXA smøab;Catisasn_Ég cMENkÉyYncMeNjTaMgTwkdI nigRTBüsm,tþiExμr edayéf¶TI 7 Exmkra qñaM1979 yYn)ancUlmkbþÚrneya)ayfμI elIkbnþúbExμrevotmijEdlyYn)anbNþúHbNþal dUcCa Eb:n suvNÑ can; sIu ehg sMrin h‘un Esn Ca sIum eGayeFIVtamneya)ayrbs;xøÜn. éf¶ 7 mkra 1979 minEmnCaéf¶EdlyYnrMedaHExμreT b:uEnþCaéf¶EdlyYnQøanBanExμr bøn;RTBüsm,tþiExμr bnþkab;smøab;ExμrtamyuT§saRsþ edayecaTfa b:ul Bt nigbBa¢ÚnExμreGaysøab;enA tMbn; k5eTot. yYn)andak;kgT½B 120 000 nak; eFIVGaNaniKmn_elITwkdIExμr ehIyEkERbneya)aytamsßankarN_ CabnþbnÞab;rhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ. BYkkumμúynisþEdlRbqaMgyYn¬ExμrRkhm¦ RtUvpøas;bþÚrfμIedayBYkkumμúynisþ¬ExμrRkhm¦niymyYn ehIyyYnhaNUyelIkbnþúbeGaykan;GMNac dUcmanBYk h‘unEsn ehg sMrin nigCa sIum EdlLÚvenH BYkenHkMBugEtRtYtRtaRbeTsExμr.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๑๗ rkSasiT§i
  18. 18. dUcenHbkSkumμúynisþNÐÚcin hU CImij )ancab;epþImneya)ayGaNaniKmn_EbbfμIelIRbeTsExμrnig RbeTslav edaycat;TukCnCatievotNamPaKeRcInEdlrs;enAkñúgRbeTsTaMgenH CaCnCatiExμr b¤CnCatilav . karGnuvtþEpnkaredIm,IRtYtRtaExμrenH eK)anbBa©ÚlPñak;garyYnkumμúynisþEdl)anGb;rMbNþúHbNþalenAhaNUyrYcehIy edIm,IbegIátmuxrbrepSg²edayxøÜneKenAkñúgRbeTsTaMgenH ehIyLÚvenHkUnRbus nigkUnRsIrbs;CnCatievotNamTaMgenaH)anerobcMdwknaMrebobkumμúynisþenAkñúgRbeTsExμrniglav. eRkayBIcb;sRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI 3 yYn)anrkSaTukkgT½ByYnenAkñúgRbeTslav mancMnYnya:geRcInedIm,ICYykumμúynisþRbeTsLav kñúgkarbRgáabBYk m:ug EdlKaMRTedayshrdæGaemrik.cMENkRbeTsExμrvij eRkayBIkarcrcarKña nigcuHhtßelxa elIsni§sBaØaRkug)a:rIs 23 tula 1991yYn)andkEtkgT½BÉksNæan edayyYn)anbgáb;TukkgT½BsIuvilCaeRcIneFIVkarenAkñúgRksYgsMxan;² enAkñúgRbeTsExμr tamkarGnuBaØatedayKNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa kñúgkarbRgáabBYkGñkRbqaMgnigyYnkumμúynisþ . cMeBaHRbCaCnyYn)anhUrmkrs;enAelITwkdIExμr CaCnGenþaRbevsn_xusc,as;ya:g GaNaFibetyü manGtþsBaØaNb½NÑCaCnCatiExμreTotpg dUcCaenA bwgTenøsab c,arGMeBA GñkelOg RkecHkMBg;qñaMg nigkMBg;camCaedIm. karbRgáabrbs;yYnkumμúynisþeTAelIBYkRbqaMgTaMgBIrRbeTsEdleKecaTfaCabrivaGaemrikaMg b¤BYkRbtikiriya KWeKeFIVdl;b£sKl;vaEtmþg EdlmanBaküesøakeKniyayfaCIkesμACIkTaMgb£s mann½yfasmøab;GñkRbqaMg brivaGaemrikkaMgeGayGs; enHCaBakümenaKmn_EdlyYnsabeRBaHelIExμr edIm,IeGayExμrsmøab;Exμr edaymindwgxøÜn EtpÞúyeTAvij yYnCaGñkcMeNjkñúgkarelbTwkdIExμr eBlEdlGñkR)aCJ bBaØvnþExμrsøab;Gs;. RbFanaFibtIGaemrik rIqat nicsun Bnül;BIkarQøanBanrbs;yYnkumμúynisþenANÐÚcin bc©úb,nñenH yYn)anbnþneya)aykumμúynisþNÐÚcinrbs; hU CImij edIm,IRtYtRtaExμr nig lavedayeFIVeGayeKemIleXIjfa RbeTslavCaextþmYyrbs;yYnxageCIg. cMENkRbeTsExμrvij yYn)anrkSaTukkgT½BesøokBak;sIuvilcMnYn 3000 nak; edayrYmbBa©ÚlTaMgPñak;garcarkmμ nigkmøaMgBiessEdlmanrfeRkaH nig]T§mÖcRksßitenAcMgayRbmaN 2 KILÚEm:RtknøHenAeRkATIRkugPñMeBj Cab;TYlniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๑๘ rkSasiT§i
  19. 19. RksMag Ek,rtaexμA CaBiessTahanyYn EdlesøokBak;sIuvilmkeFIVCakmμkrcMkarekAs‘U nigtamry³rUbPaB Rkumh‘unvinieyaK deNþImrwbGUsykdIRbCaBlrdæExμrCabnþbnÞab;. TahanyYnmanenATIenaH edIm,IFanaGegátemIlfa Gay:grbs;haNUy h‘un Esn mingakerBIneya)ayrbs;RkughaNUykMBugdak;GaNaniKmn_yYnEbbfμIenAelIRbeTsExμr. cMENkGgÁrkSrbs; h‘un Esn EdldwknaMeday Gwug b‘un ehogCaCnCatiyYnlayLMCamYyExμrmancMnYn 40 000 nak;. kumμúynisþeyokNam)ancab;epþImdak;GaNaniKmn_EbbfμIelIRbeTsExμr nigRbeTslav tameKalneya)ayBRgIkTwkdIrbs;xøÜn edaydMbUgeKykkgT½Bmkkan;kab;TwkdIRbeTsTaMgBIr ehIybnÞab;mkeKykRkumRKYsarrbs;eKmktaMgCMrkenAkñúgTwkdIfμI. eRkaymkeTot yYnpøas;bþÚrkgT½BTaMgenaH eTAesøokBak;CasIuvil eFIVCaRbCaBlrdæsamBaØ nig)anpøas;bþÚrTahanTaMgenaHCakgT½BmYyfμI edIm,IBRgIkkmøaMgbEnßmeTot. enAqñaM 1989 eRkayBIyYn)ancaj;eRbobxagneya)aykarTUtrbs;clnats‘UTaMg 3 RkumenAtamRBMuEdnExμréf yYn)anbgçMGay:g h‘un Esn eGaycuHhtßelxaxusc,ab;GnuBaØatpþl;dIPaKxagekIténRbeTsExμreGaykgT½ByYn nigBlrdæevotNamTaMgenaHCag 500 000 nak; dUckalEdl sI hnucuHhtßelxas¶at;²eGayeyokkugenAqñaM1965 Edr. ehtudUecñHehIy yYnnUbnIykmμenAkñúgRbeTsExμrekItmantaMgBIyYn)ankan;kab;RtYtRtaExμrenAéf¶ 7 mkra 1979 mk. yYnbgçMeGayrbbGay:gRkugPñMeBjecjpSayenAqñaM 1982 saracrN_elx 240 sr mc hh nigsaracrN_GMBavnaveGayRbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;BicarNaGMBIkarBRgIksamKÁIPaB CamYyRbCaBlrdæevotNam nigPar³kic©rbs;eKkñúgkarCYyCnCatievotNamedIm,IRCkekanenAkñúgRbeTsExμr. enAqñaM 1989 cMnYnCnCatiyYntaMgCMrkenAkñúgRbeTsExμrmanrhUtdl; 1 250 000nak;. eRkaymkyYn)anbegIátEpnTIfμI bgçitRBMEdnfμIBRgIkrhUtdl; 40 KILÚEm:RtcUlmkTwkdIExμr nigTwkdIlav. h‘un Esn )ankat;dItamRBMEdn kat;ekaHRtl; nigekaHesHTaMgenaHeGayRkughaNUyCapøÚvkar tamry³snii§sBaØaCabnþbnÞab; nigfμI²bMputsn§isBaØabMeBjbEnßmelIsn§isBaØaxusc,ab;naTsvtS 1980 EdlcuHhtßelxaenAéf¶TI 10 tula 2005edayRBHmhakSRt neratþm sIhmunñI. RbCaBlrdæyYnPaKeRcInenAxagekIténRbeTsdUcCaextþ sVayevog nigéRBEvg. yYnkumμúynisþ)anbnþneya)ayrbs;xøÜneFIVGaNaniKmn_EbbfμI edayBRgIkmktamRBMEdn dUcCatameqñrsmuRT nigekaH ¬ekaHRtl; ekaHRkckesH¦tamsni§sBaØaxusc,ab;EdlrbbGay:gRkugPñMeBj)aneFIVxusrMelaPelIsni§sBaØaTIRkug)a:rIs. LÚvenH GgÁkarmitþPaBkm<úCaevotNamEdlmaneQμaHfa rNsirSrYbrYm edIm,IksagCati nigkarBarkm<úCa CarNsirSrbs;yYn)anbegIáteLIgenAextþRkugTaMgGs;enAkñúgRbeTsExμr. rNsirSenHniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๑๙ rkSasiT§i
  20. 20. eRbobdUcCarNsirSrMedaHCatiEdlbegIáteLIgeday haNUy GMLúgeBlsRgÁamevotNam EdlehAfasRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI 2Edr. enAeBlfμI²enH naqñaM 2004 evotNam)anbBa¢aeGayrbbkumμúynisþGay:g lav nigExμrcuHhtßelxaelIkic©RBmeRBogGPivDÆn_tMbn;RtIekaN. kic©RBmeRBogenHeFIVeGayyYnBRgIkTwkdIedayRsbc,ab;eq<aHmkTwsxaglic mkextþ cMnYn 3 enAPaKxag|sanþénRbeTskm<úCaman sÞwgERtg rtnKIrInigmNÐlKIrI ehIyextþ 3 énRbeTslav man GatW BW eskug nig sarava:n;. Rkumh‘uncMkarekAs‘UnigRkumh‘unepSg²cMnYn 400 Rkumh‘un EdlCaKMrbbiT)aMgkgT½ByYncUlmkenAkñúgRbeTsExμr eFIVCakmμkr ehIynigviTüúyYn EdlniyayPasayYnenARkugRBHsIhnuCaedIm. eTaHbICa hU CImij søab;eTAehIyk¾eday k¾b:uEnþEpnkarrbs;hUCImijenAEteKykmkGnuvtþCabnþbnÞab;rhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ edayyklMnaMtamrebobshPaBsUevot. RbeTsExμrLÚvenHRKb;RKgedayGay:grbs;haNUy h‘un Esn nig RtYtRtaBIeRkayxñgminecjmuxedayyYnkumúμynisþ.II -b£sKl;énrbbRbl½yBUCsasn_Exμr (The Root of Khmer Genocide) rhUtmkdl;eBlenH RbCaBlrdæExμrPaKeRcInenAEtmancm¶l; nigmin)andwgc,as;GMBImUlehtuénkarsøab;BlrdæExμrRbmaNCag 1>7 lannak;enAkñúgrbb b:ul Bt . CaBiessExμreyIgmYycMnYn Edl)ak;s,atedaykarKMramkMEhgrbs;BYkkumμúynisþ EdleFIVRKb;Ebbya:gmineGayExμryl;dwgB¤GMBIerOgneya)ay niyayerOgneya)ayCati KwtKUrerOgCati edayBYkvaxitxMlak;)aMgRbvtþisaRsþBitrbs;Exμr.BYkkumμúynisþ)anBgVk;eGayExμrvegVgtamkarbMBulmenaKmn_epSg² kareXasna EdlCakarerobcMrbs;BYkkumμúynisþ . BYkvaeFIVeGayExμrenAvegVgCamYykarbMP½nþrbs;kumμúynisþyYn nigkareRbIkll,iceXasna rMlwkEtsm½y b:ulBt edIm,IeGayExμrcgkMhwgnigExμrKñaÉg Ebk)ak;samKÁI ehIydwgKuNyYnéf¶ 7 mkra 1979 faCaGñkl¥mkCYyseRgÁaHExμrCaedIm. EtBYkenHmin)anlatRtdag GMBIRbvtþisaRsþBitR)akdrbs;Exμr taMgBIsm½ysgÁmraRsþniym saFarNrdæExμr cab;BITsvtSqñaM 60rhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ edIm,IeGayExμr)andwgenaHeT. eRBaHfa ebIniyayBIkarBitenAkñúgRbvtþisaRsþvab:HBal;GñkmanGMNacsBVéf¶ nigneya)ayQøanBanrbs;yYnkumμúynisþ. cab;BIeBlenHeTAExμrQb;vegVgeTotehIy kalBIeBlEdlBYkyYnkumμúynisþ ¬eyokkug¦QøanBandeNþImC½yCMn³elIExμrTaMgRsug enAéf¶ 17 emsa 1975 BYkeK)anbMpøaj Km<Irk,Ünxñat nigsmøab;ExμrGñkecHecalGs; edIm,Ipþac;b£sKl;Exμr mineGaydwgGMBIRBwtþkarN_ nig RbvtþisaRsþekIteLIgcenøaHeBlenaH. BYkyYnkumμúynisþCaGñkerobcMEpnkareGayExμrFøak;eTAkñúgrbbRbl½yBUCsasn_enH edayyYn)anyklTi§kumμúynisþ CameFüay)ay mksabeRBaHbNþúHbNþalelIExμr KYbpSMCamYyemdwknaMExμr dUc sI hnu nig b:ul BtEdlelaPln;GMNac lg;eCOkare)akR)as; cin nigyYn eFIVeGayExμrekItklyuK RkLab;cak;Føak;cuHniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๒๐ rkSasiT§i
  21. 21. kab;smøab;Kña. kl,icx©IkmøaMgExμr tamkareRbImenaKmn_enHehIy eFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμr eyIgenAEtyl;RcLMfa Exμrsmøab;Exμr rhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶. yYnkumμúynisþEkERbneya)aybnþicmþg² tamry³eRbIh‘un Esn CakUnGuk bnþRtYtRtaExμr edayminecjmux. eBlEdlExμrFøak;cuHexSaydl;kMritsUnü KμanKm<IrÉksar søab;GñkecHdwgGs;ehIy yYngayRsYlRtYtRtaExμr EkERbRbvtþisaRsþ edIm,IelbykTwkdIExμrnigdeNþImplRbeyaCn_BIExμrdUcsBVéf¶. dUcenHGñkEdlsmøab;Exμr KWyYnkumμúynisþ b¤kumμúynisþNÐÚcinEdlykliTi§kumμúynisþCameFüa)ay bMBak;bMb:nExμr eGaysmøab;Exμr nigemdwknaMExμrmYycMnYn Edllg;kñúgGMNac raCblø½gÁ bMerIeFIVCa]bkrN_yYn edIm,IeFIVeGayExμrvwkvr kab;smøab; elbykTwkdIExμrtamEpnkarshB½n§NÐÚcin. edIm,IrMelIgCatiExμreGayFøak;exSay gayRsYleKRKb;RKgRtYtRtaÉksarRtUveKbMpøajecal bBaØvnþRtUveKsmøab; cMENkÉRbvtþisaRsþExμreRkaymkeTot RtUv)aneKlak;)aMg EkERbbM)at;kñúgeKalbMNgcMeNjneya)ay CaBiessKWÉksar RbvtþisaRsþneya)ayBak;B½n§eTAnwgemdwknaMkumμúynisþpþac;karnaeBlbc©úb,nñ. ehtudUecñHehIy b£sKl;énrbbRbl½yBUCsasn_Exμr KWCaEpnkarrbs;yYnkumμúynisþEdlykliTi§kumμúynisþCameFüa)ay BgVk;emdwknaMExμrEdlmanesþc sIhnu b:ul Bt h‘un Esn eGayedIrtammenaKmn_kumμúynisþ EdleKalbMNgcugeRkayKWedIm,IelbTwkdIExμr dak;CacMNuHyYntamEpnkarshB½n§NÐÚcinrbs;yYnhaNUy.III -ehtuGIV)anCaExμrFøak;kñúgrbbRbl½yBUCsasn_? (Why Cambodia fell in Genocide?) dUc)anerobrab;xagelImkehIyfa kumμúynisþExμr manedImkMeNItmkBIbkSkumμúynisþNÐÚcinEdlCasaxarbs;bkSkumμúynisþGnþrCati begIáteLIgedayyYn hU CImij enATIRkug hug kug éf¶TI 3 kumÖ³1930. bkSkumμúynisþNÐÚcinenHmankarKaMRT pþl;hirBaØvtßúBIkumμúynisþGnþrCati. bkSkumμúynisþNÐÚcin)anbegIátsaxarbs;xøÜnenARbeTsExμr nigenARbeTslav KWbkSkumμúynisþExμr nigbkSkumμúynisþlav RBmTaMgsaxaenARbeTsmYycMnYneTot dUcCa éf ma:eLsIu nigsigðbUrICaedIm. karEdlExμrsøab;TaMgExμreRkam nigExμrknøgmk vaCaEpnkard¾exμARkxVk;rbs;yYnkumúμynisþ kñúgkarrMlayBUCsasn_ExμredIm,IbMeBjmhicätarbs;xøÜnkñúgkarelbTwkdIrbs;RbeTsCitxagenAtMbn;NÐÚcinEtb:ueNÑaH. BYkeK)aneRbIviFIbMP½nþlak;)aMgExμr EkRkéLRbvtþisaRsþExμreTACaRbvtþisaRsþNÐÚcin ¬sRtUvbgb¥Ún¦ eGaykUnExμreron eFIVtamRKb;meFüa)ay eKobsgát;ExμrmineGaymansiTi§esrIPaB mineGayExμrdwgBIneya)ayniyayBIerOgRbeTsCati edayecaTRbkan;tamviFIepSg²cMeBaHGñkEdlniyaykarBit b¤RbqaMg. eFIVeGayExμrxøac mineGayExμrniyayGMBIerOgneya)ay nigRbvtþisaRsþrbs;xøÜn edaymankarKMramkMEhgcab; nigsmøab;tamkareRbIvIFIRKb;Ebbya:g. bkSkumμúynisþExμrdwknaMedayyYnbnøMxøÜn eFIVCaExμreQμaH swgg:ukmij b¤Gacarü emon nigTUsamut sa Luútsr EdlCasaxarbs;bkSkumμúynisþNÐÚcin.yYnkumμúynisþ)ancUlmkeFIVclnaneya)ayCasm¶at;enAkñúgTwkdIExμrenAtMbn;cMkarekAs‘U extþkMBg;camniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๒๑ rkSasiT§i
  22. 22. enAsMLÚt nigkMBt cab;taMgBIqñaM 1946. yYn)aneXasnaeGayExμr niglavcUlrYbrYmCamYyeKedIm,IedjGaNaniKmn_)araMgecjBITwkdI EtenABIeRkayxñgneya)ayenH yYn)anerobEpnkarRtYtRtaNÐÚcinCMnYs)araMgvij eRBaHyYnman cin nigsUevot CaGñkenACYyBIeRkayxñg. enAqñaM1954 )araMg)ancuHhtßelxaenATIRkughSWENv RbKl;ÉkraCümkeGayNÐÚcin eBlEdlyYn)aneFIVsRgÁamQñH)araMgenAeDon ebonPU. eRkayBIyYnTTYl)anÉkraCüBI)araMgehIy tamsn§isBaØaRkughSWENv)antMrUveGaykgT½ByYn ¬eyokmij¦ dkecjBIRbeTsExμr niglavTaMgGs;. eBlenaHyYn)andkecjBIRbeTsExμredayyYn)ancab;kUnExμrtUc²eTACamYypg edIm,IykeTAbNþúHbNþal enATIRkug haNUy. cMENkÉ sa Lútsr EdlTTYl)anGaharrUbkrN_eTAsikSaRbeTs)araMgEpñkGKÁIsnI)ancab;GarmμN_erOgneya)ay ehIy)anGanesovePAkumμúynisþ¬esovePARkhm¦enARbeTs)araMg. dMbUgeLIy sa Lútsr )andwknaMeFIVkarts‘URbqaMg nigkardwknaMrbbskþiPUmirbs; neratþm sI hnu taMgBIKat;kMBugsikSaenARbeTs)araMg eRkaymkesþc neratþm sIhnu )ankat;pþac;GaharUbkrN_vij edayKat;minTan;eroncb;pg k¾RtLb;mkRbeTsExμrvij. eRkayeBlEdlKat;mkdl;RbeTsExμr edaykarmineBjcitþnigrbbskþiPUmi dwknaMeday sIhnu Kat;)anerobcMeFIVneya)aybdivtþn_enAkñúgRbeTsExμr ehIyEpnkar)anEbkdwgdl;GaCJaFr sIhnu eTIb sIhnu )anRbkasedjcab; sa Lúts nigGñkcUlrYmkñúgkic©karenHmYycMnYneTot mancMnYn 63 nak;kñúgenaHman sun esn Edr. eBlenaH sa Lútsr)anrt;cUléRBehIy)ancUleTAeFIVCaelxarbs; TU samut EdldwknaMeday swug g:ukmij. eyIgeXIjfayYn)anCYyExμrRkhmeGayRbqaMg nigneratþm sIhnu sIhnu CaemExμrRkhm bMerIneya)ayeGayBYkkumúμynisþ yYn nig cin EtBIeRkayxñgmçageTotyYn)ansMueGay sIhnuu CYypþl;es,ogGarhar nigTwkdICMrkdl;yYneyokkugedIm,IeFIVsRgÁamCamYyeyokNamxagt,Úg nigshrdæGaemrik. sRgÁamenH)anFøak;mkelIRbeTsExμr eFIVeGayvinasGnþray dUcykePøIgmkdutpÞHxøÜnÉg. yYnxageCIgcab;epþImsRgÁamCamYyniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๒๒ rkSasiT§i
  23. 23. yYnxagt,ÚgtaMgBIqñaM 1958 ehIysRgÁamenH)anrIkraldalenAelITwkdIExμrCabnþbnÞab; cab;BIqñaM 1965edaysarEt sI hnu )anGnuBaØatpþl;TwkdIExμrPaKxagekItcMnYn 5 extþ eGayyYneyokkugdak;T½BcMnYn60 000 nak; eTA 80 000 nak; eFIVsRgÁamEdlkalenaHkgT½BExμrmanEtcMnYn 30 000 nak; .cMENkExμrenAkm<úCaeRkam RtUv)anyYneXasnaeGaycUlbMerIxagyYnkumμúynisþ edayyYnkumμúynisþykeQμaH sIhnu eTAeXasnafarMedaHTwkdIkm<úCaeRkam ÉExμreRkammYycMnYneTot)ancUleTAxagyYnxagt,Úg¬esrI¦ edIm,IRbqaMgnigkarQøanBanrbs;BYkyYnkumμúynisþ. yYnkumúμynisþykrUbftsemþc sIhnu nigfasftsemøg edIm,IeFIVkareXasnaeGayExμreCO sIhnu cUlrYmCamYysemþc edIm,IeFIVsRgÁamrMedaHExμrkm<úCaeRkam. ehtuenHExμrCaGñksøab;TaMgsgxag kumμúynisþ nigesrI edayyYnx©IédExμrsmøab;Exμr.cMENkExμrxagelIvij ExμrmçagxagsaFarNrdæ ExμrmçageTotxag sIhnu b:ul Bt nigkumμúynisþyYn.BYkyYneyokkug)anykrUbsBaØa sIhnu Bak;bMP½nþExμreGayKMaRTfaCakgT½B semþc« edIm,IeGayExμrKaMRT. sRgÁamrvagyYnxageCIg nigyYnxagt,Úg)anbBa©b;enAéf¶ 30 emsa 1975 KW 13 éf¶b:ueNÑaHeRkayBIyYnkumμúynisþQñHExμrsaFarNrdæenAéf¶ 17 emsa 1975. yYnTTYl)anplRbeyaCn_cMeNjCaeRcIn dUcCa CMnYyBIcin EdlCYyyYnkumμúynisþ CMnYyBIGaemrik EdlCYyyYnxagt,ÚgesrIEtExμreRkam nigExμrsøab;rab;lannak; ebIk»kaseGayyYnlukluy cUlmkkan;kab;elbTwkdIExμrbc©úb,nñeTot. eBlEdlkgT½BeyokkugenABaseBjTwkdIExμrPaKxagekItnigtamRkugRBHsIhnu dl;extþkMBg;s<W sI hnu min)anenAedaHRsaybBaðakgT½ByYnenAelITwkdIExμr EdlxøÜnGnuBaØatCasm¶at;enaHeT EtEbrCacakecjeTAedIrkMsanþenARbeTs)araMgCamYyPriya mU:niceTAvij . RBHmata kusm³)ansresrsMbuRt eTAyagRBHGgÁmkvij EtRBHGgÁsuxcitþsþab;Priyanigmþayekμk min)anyagRtLb;mkvij edIm,IedaHRsayeyokkugenAeBjTwkdIExμr eTaHbICaRBHGgÁ)ansnüaCamYyGñktMNagraRsþfa RBHGgÁnigyagmkRbeTsExμr enAéf¶TI 17 ExmIna qñaM1970 edIm,IedaHRsaybBaðaenaHk¾edayEtpÞúyeTAvij RBHGgÁ)anbdiesFkñúgkaryagRtLb;mkvij. ehtudUecñH edIm,IedaHRsayyYnkumμúynisþEdlkMBugEtQøanBanTwkdIExμr eTIbenAéf¶ 18 mIna 1970 sirimt³ ln; nl; eFIVkarRbCMusPaTMlak;neratþm sIhnu ecjBIGMNac edIm,IedjyYneyokkugecjBITwkdIExμr. eRkayBI ln; nl;TMlak;esþc sIhnu mk sIhnu )aneFIVdMeNIreTARbeTsr:UsISú nigbnÞab;mkeTARbeTscin edIm,IEsVgrkkarKaMRT deNþImGMNac raCblø½gÁmkvij . edaymancin nigyYnenABIeRkayxñg cin)anbBa©úHbBa©ÚleGaysaLút s nigsIhnurYbrYmKñabegIátCarNsirSrYbrYmCatikm<úCamYyenATIRkugeb:kaMg enAéf¶TI 23 ExmInaqñaM1970 eFIVsRgÁamCamYyExμrsarFarNrdæ Edlman ln; nl; nigesrImt³ CaedIm. kñúgenaHcinCaGñkCYy xagsBVavuF es,og cMENkyYnCaGñkCYyxagbec©keTs hVwkhat; bBa©ÚlmenaKmn_nigCYykmøaMgc,aMg dl;ExμrRkhm. edIm,IEtGMNac nigraCblø½gÁ sIhnu min)anKitBIplRbeyaCn_niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๒๓ rkSasiT§i
  24. 24. RbeTsCati nigGayuCivitrbs;RbCaBlrdæExμrEdlsøab;enaHeLIy. kgT½Beyokkug EdlmanenAkñúgTwkdIExμrRsab;)anBak;pøakrUbPaB sI hnu R)ab;RbCaBlrdæExμrCakgT½B semþc« edIm,IeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrCYyKaMRT eRBaHyYndwgfaeBlenaHesþc sIhnu enAmanRbCaRbiycMeBaHRbCaBlrdæExμrenAeLIy. ExμrPaKeRcIn)anCYyKaMRTCYyyYneyokkugTaMgenaH edIm,IeFIVsRgÁamCamYykgkmøaMgExμrsaFarNrdæ ExμrGñkesñhaCati Edlman nisSit bBaØvnþ RBHsgÇ RbCaBlrdæExμr)anrYbrYmKñaeLIg.cMENkExμrmYycMnYneTotlg;eCO kareXasnarbs;yYneyokkug EdlykeQμaH sIhnu mkeRbInigkarRbkasrbs; esþc sIhnu eGayExμrrt;cUléRBma:KI edIm,Ic,aMgdeNþImGMNac nigraCblø½gÁmkeGayRBHGgÁvij. TIbMputBYkExμrRkhm Edl RbqaMg neratþ sIhnu )anrYbrYmKña edayman cin nigyYneyokkugCaGñkCYy edIm,Ic,aMgnigExμrsarFarNrdæ ln; nl; EdlRtg;cMNucenH Exμr)anedIreRkamyuT§saRsþrbs;BYkkumμúynisþ eFIVtamBYkkumμúynisþ x©IédExμr eFIVsRgÁamCamYyExμr ExμrCaGñkxatRbCaBlrdæExμrCaGñksøab; TwkdIExμrRtUvbMpøajedaysarsRgÁam TIbMputRbeTsExμrRtUvFøak;kñúgkNþab;édyYnkumμúynisþ. eBlEdlkgT½BshrdæGaemrik)andkecjBINÐÚcin eRkayBIcuHhtßelxaCamYyyYnenATIRkughSWENvenAqñaM1973 edIm,IbBa©b;sRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI 2 yYn)anenAEtbnþeFIVsRgÁamQøanBanExμreToteRkampøak sIhnu nigExμrRkhm CaGñkbiT)aMgeGayGnþrCatiemIleXIjfa sRgÁamsIuvil rhUtdl;yYnkumμúynisþ)anQñHsaFarNrdæExμrenAéf¶ 17 emsa 1975 ehIyelIkC½yCMnHenaHeTAeGayExμr RkhmEdlman sIhnu nigb:ul Bt CaemdwknaM cMENkyYnvij)anpøas;bþÚrexaGaveyokkugeTABak;GavbnøMxøÜneFIVCaExμrRkhm bnþsmøab;Exμr. enAeBlEdlExμrRkhmTTYl)anC½yCMnHenaH kalenaHExμrRkhmmanbIRkumTI1 ExμrRkhm EdlyYncab;eTAbNþúHbNþaledayRkughaNUy BYkenHsMrab;eFIVCaBiCXatsmøab;ExμrEdlRbqaMgyYnedaykarecaTRbkan;epSg² dUcCaecaTfa Pñak; sIu Gay eG karesebnig brivaGaemrikaMgCaedIm. TI2 ExμrRkhmEdlKaMRT sIhnu TI3 ExμrRkhmEdlKaMRT b:ul BtExμrTaMgbIRkumenH suT§EtbNþúHbNþalmenaKmn_viC¢aneya)ayxusTws BIhaNUy ¬cgkMhwgnigExμrsmøab;ExμrEtKaMRTyYn¦. ehtudUcenHehIy GñkEdlbgávinasskmμsmøab;ExμrenAkñúgRbeTsExμrenAkñúgrbbenH KWRkumBiCXatEdlyYn)anbMBak;bMb:nmenaKmn_kumμúynisþmk ehIyBYkBiCXatTaMgenaHRtUv)aneKbBa¢ÚnCabnþbnÞab; BIRkughaNUycUlmkkñúgrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü edIm,Ismøab;Exμr ¬yYnykliTi§kumμúynisþenHCameFüa)ay x©IédExμreGaysmøab;Exμr edIm,IbMP½nþExμreGay emIleXIjfaExμrsmøab;ExμrcMeNjneya)ayyYn 7 mkra 1979¦. RkumTaMgenHTTYlEpnkar pÞal;BIRkughaNUy edIm,Ismøab;ExμrCIkesμACIkTaMgb£s. menaKmn_rbs;BYkkumμúynisþyYn RbqaMgnigBYkRbtikiriya brivar EdlsMedArMelIgb£sKl;rbs;CatiExμr eGaydYlrlMFøak;cuH eFIVeGayExμrRcbUkRcbl; CaehtunaMeGayExμrRkhmxagniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๒๔ rkSasiT§i
  25. 25. b:ulBt mankarsgS½y ehIybegIáteGaymankarkab;smøab;tbtvij eRkayBIyYnkkUrsßankarN_kñúgsgÁmExμr enHCakareRKagTukrbs;yYn eRkayBIExμrRcbUlRcbl;vikvrkñúgRbeTsehIy yYn)ancUlmkEkERbneya)ayfμI 7 mkra 1979. eBlEdleKsmøab;Exμr GñkecHdwgGs;ehIy dUcenHRbeTsRtUvFøak;kñúgkarRKb;RKgrbs;BYkkumμúynisþNÐÚcinEdlmanyYnCaemekøagrhUtmkdl;eBlenH. cMeBaHExμrEdlenAsl;sBVéf¶ xøac)ak;s,at minh‘anniyaykarBit manEtkarQWcab;eFVIKr eFIVføg;minh‘anniyaybBaðaBitEdlekIteLIgenAkñúgsgÁm nigeGank,aleRkamyYnedIm,ICivitrs; edaykarekobsgát;RKb;Ebbya:gtamkareRbIGMNacpþac;karrbs;BYkkumμúynisþsBVéf¶ etIeyIgbeNþayTukeGayCatiExμrTaMgmUlRtUvrlay)at;bg; ehIyTukçevTnaRtUvFøak;elIkUnecAeyIgCMnan;eRkayeTot b¤mYyya:gNa?.IV -b£sKl; éf¶ 7 mkra (The Root of 7 January) dUc)anerobrab;xagelImkehIyfa neya)ayrbs;yYnkumμúynisþeFIVtamEpnkarrbs;hU CImijEdlerobcMtaMgBIqñaM 1930. edIm,IeGayRbCaBlrdæCaeRcInrbs;xøÜnrs;enARsYl yYnRtUvvatTITwkdIenAtMbn;NÐÚcin dUcmanRbeTs lav Exμr cam nig ExμrenAkm<úCaeRkam edIm,Idak;CacMNuHrbs;shB½n§NÐÚcin. yYnkumμúynisþ)aneFIVsRgÁam lukluyRbeTsExμr eRbIl,ickl, yuT§saRsþRKb;viFIedIm,IeFIVeGayCatiExμrFøak;exSay. yYn)anerobcMEpnkar pþac;b£sKl;CatiExμreGaydYlrlMFøak;exSayenAkñúgrbbb:ul Bt dUcCakardutKm<Ir k,Ünxñat lubbM)at;RbvtþisaRsþ nigsmøab;GñkR)aCJ bBaØvnþCaedIm.sUmbBa¢ak;fa rbbExμrRkhm EdlmansIhnu CaRbFanrNsirSrYbrYmCatikm<úCaeFIVkarshkarCamYy b:ulBt enH KWmanyYnRkhm ¬kumμúynisþ¦ b¤ehAfaeyokkugnigcin CaGñkCYyRKb;Ebbya:g rab;taMgBIkarbNþúHbNþal pþl;sBVavuF RKab;rMesv CYyc,aMgCamYykgT½B ln; nl; esrImt³ rhUt)anC½yCMn³enAéf¶17 emsa1975. BYkeyokkugTaMgenH )anelIkC½yCMn³eGayBYk ExμrRkhm ¬Exμrkumμúynisþ¦.eyokkugEdlenAkñúgExμrRsab; nig ExμrEdlyYnbNþúHbNþal bþÚrexaGaveTAesøokBak;exaGavexμA bnøMeFIVExμr ¬Rkhm¦ edIm,IbMP½nþeGayeXIjfa Exμrsmøab;Exμr enAkñúgrbbenH. eRkayBIyYnkkUrsßankarN_eGayFøak;cuHdl;kMritsUnüehIy yYn)anbþÚrneya)ayfμI vaylukQøanBanExμr kan;kab;TwkdIExμrTaMgRsugbnþkab;smøab;Exμréf¶TI 7 mkra 1979Etmþg. karbMpøajexÞcxÞIKm<Irk,Ünxñat smøab;GñkR)aCJ GñkecHdwgEdlCaRKwHya:grwugmaMrbs;Catisasn_Exμr ehIybnSl;TukGñkEdlecHdwgBIneya)aytictYc. bnÞab;mkBYkeKxitxMEkRkéLRbvtþisaRsþfμIeGaykUnecAExμrCMnan;eRkayeron. edIm,IcMeNjneya)ayelbTwkdIyYnlak;)aMgRbvtþisaRsþBitR)akd mineGayExμrCMnan;eRkay)andwgc,as;las; eFIVeGayExμrvegVgrkkarBitmineXIj. LÚvenHtamRKb;salaeron nayksalaeKbgçMeGaykan;KNbkSRbCaCn hammineGayExμreronRbvtþisaRsþ niyayBIRbvtþisaRsþBitR)akd hamR)amRKUmineGayniyayBIerOgsgÁmBitnig RbvtþisaRsþBit. ebIelakRKUGñkRKUNah‘anniyaykarBit enaHeKecaTfaerOgneya)ay b¤beRgonniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๒๕ rkSasiT§i
  26. 26. neya)ay. EteKkMBugEtbeRgonRbvtþisaRsþNÐÚcinCMnYsvij ¬yYnCaGñkmanKuN CYyrMedaHExμrCaedIm¦. dUcenHehIy eyIgeXIjfab£sKl;rbs; éf¶ 7 mkra KW yYnkumμúynisþ ¬shB½n§NÐÚcin ¦Edl)anyklTi§kumμúynisþmksabeRBaHelIExμr. yYnQñHExμr taMgBIéf¶ 17 emsa 1975 edayeRbIneya)ayTaMgRtCak;TaMgekþA eRbIBYkExμrkumμúynisþ b¤ExμrRkhmEdlniymyYn ehg sMrin Ca sIumh‘un Esn eGaykan;GMNacCMnYs rhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñedIm,IelbTwkdIExμr sMerctamEpnkarshB½n§NÐÚcin. CnCatievotExμrlavrYmsamKÁImWunqñaV -yYnkumμúynisþRtYtRtaExμr éf¶ 7 mkra 1979 (Vietnamese Communist Colonize Cambodia on January 7, 1979) cab;BIéf¶TI 7 Exmkra qñaM1979 yYn)anpøas;bþÚrneya)ayfμI edayyYn)anpøas;bþÚrExμr ¬Rkhm¦kumμúynisþniymcinecjBIGMNac elIkbnþúbExμrRkhm ¬kumμúynisþ¦niymyYnvij eGaykan;GMNac. BYkkumμúynisþEdlniymyYnmandUcCa Eb:n suvNÑ can; sIu ehg sMrin h‘un Esn Ca sIum say b‘UfgnigCaeRcIneTot. yYnelIkExμr edIm,IeFIVCa]bkrN_neya)ayeGayxøÜn eRBaHyYn)angakBIcin ehIyP¢ab;TMnak;TMngCamYyr:UsIu. cinmanCemøaHCamYyr:UsIu cin)anbþÚrTMnak;TMngeTArkshrdæGaemrikvij. Cak;EsþgenAeBlEdlyYnelIk Eb:n suvNÑ nig can;sIu eGayeFIVCaGay:g bMerIneya)ayrbs;xøÜn EtEb:n suvNÑnigcan; sIu mineFIVtamneya)ayrbs;xøÜn yYn)ancak;fñaM can; sIu smøab;enAelIynþehaHEdleTABüa)alenARbeTsr:UsIu. cMENkÉ Eb:n suvNÑvijRtUv h‘un Esn nig say b‘Ufg XubXitCamYyyYn cab;;ykeTAdak;KukenATIRkughaNUy cMnYn 10 qñaM 52éf¶ enHedaysaEb:n suvNÑ manRbBn§yYnCakUnRbsarpaMva:n;dug emø:HRtUvsøab;dUc can; sIu. yYn)anelIkbnþúbCnelμaPGMNacdUc h‘un Esn Ca sIum nigehgsMrin eGaykan;GMNacrhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ. yYn)anQøanBankan;kab;TwkdIExμr rwbGUsbøn;ykRTBüsm,tþiExμr cab;BIeBlenaHmk ehIyEfmTaMgedjsmøab;ExμrEdlRbqaMgnigyYn rbbGay:gyYn edayniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๒๖ rkSasiT§i
  27. 27. ecaTfaBYk b:ul Bt. cMENkGñkEdlenAesssl;Rbus² EdlCaGñkmankmøaMg va)ancab;bgçMeGayeTAeFIVCaTahan nigxøHRtUvcab;mkeFIVCaBlkr eTAsøab;enAtMbn;k 5 PaKeRcInsøab;edaysarCm¶WRKuncaj;Can;mInCaedIm. enAkñúgeBlenaH yYnkumμúynisþCaGñkkan;kab;RbeTsExμrTaMgRsug. yYn)anedjsmøab;ExμrGñkts‘UenAtamCayEdneTot edayeFIVsRgÁame)assMGat smøab;ExμrEdlts‘UCamYyyYnenAtamCayEdnenAqñaM 1984. TIbMputExμrts‘UtamCayEdn)ancaj;yYn ehIy)anRbmUlKñaeTArs;enACMrMsayFU nigsayb‘Í CaedIm. enAqñaM 1985 eTIbshrdæGaemrikcab;epþImpþl;CMnYydl;Gñkts‘U edaypþl;TwkR)ak;RbmaN 5 landuløa pþl;smÖar³swk nighVwkhat;TahanenAkøaMgdug . cMENkyYnRtUv)anGnþrCati nigRbeTskñúgtMbn; dUcCa cin Gas‘an efáaleTasedaysar karQøanBanrMelaPGFibetyüPaBRbeTsExμr elIkElgEtRbeTsNÐÚensIuenACaGaBüaRkit cMENkRbeTsr:UsSIúb:ueNÑaHEdlKaMRTyYn.eRkayBIkardYlrlMrbs;shPaBsUevotenAqñaM 1989 sUevotQb;pþl;CMnYyeGayyYn eRBaHr:UsISúmanvibtiþhirBaØvtßú edayGs;fivkaBITunbMrug. karGs;fvikaBITunbMrugenH eRBaHEtshPaBsUevotBRgwgEpñkeyaFaxøaMgeBk CaBiess xatCaeRcIncMeBaHneya)ayenANÐÚcin EtcMeNjenAxagGWur:ubxagekIt.yYncaj;eRbobxagkarTUt cMeBaHkmøaMgGñkts‘U EdlCYy]btßmÖedayshrdæGaemrik cin nigGas‘an.b:uEnþtamkarsikSaRsavRCaveXIjfa kgT½BGñkts‘UExμr BMumanbec©keTsRKb;RKan;kñúgkareFIVsRgÁameFIVeGaycaj;eRbobkgT½ByYnEdlmankarhVwkhat;c,as;las; sBVavuFRKb;RKan;. eBlenaH eK)anbBa¢ÚnkgkmøaMgts‘UExμreGayeTAeronenA m:aeLsIu nigRbeTséf . eRkaymkeTIbkmøaMgts‘UmaneRbobelIyYnkumμúynisþ nigBYkGay:g ehg sMrin h‘un Esn eRBaHsUevotEdlCasm<½n§miRtrbs;yYn)ancaj;GaemrikkñúgsRgÁamRtCak; sUevot)angakeTArkshrdæGaemrikvij enAkñúgrdæaPi)al kU )aqUvedIm,IeGayesdækic©rbs;xøÜndMeNIrkarl¥vij. ehtudUcenHehIy eTIbyYn)anpøas;bþÚrriyabfeGay h‘unEsn nigsIhnu ccarcuHsn§isBaØasnþiPaBTIRkug)a:rIsnaéf¶ 23 tula 1991 edIm,IRbmUlExμrGñkesñhaCati cUlkñúgRTugeGayBYkkumμúynisþcab;Exμrsmøab;mþgmYymþgmYy CabnþbnÞab;rhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ.VI-sRgÁamrvagExμrGñkts‘U CamYyyYnQøanBan nigrbbkumμúynisþpþac;kar h‘un Esn xus c,ab;(The War between Khmer Resistances with Vietnamese Aggressor and Illegal Dictactor Hun Sen) cab;taMgBIsRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI 2 naTsvtSTI 60 yYnEtgEteRbIExμr eRbIemdwknaMExμrEdlelμaPGMNac Ca]bkrN_bMerIneya)ayeGayxøÜn. dUckalBIqñaM 1970 yYn)aneRbI sI hnu nig b:ul BtCa]bkrN_ CaKMrbeGayGnþrCatiemIleXIjfasRgÁamEdlekIteLIgCasRgÁamsIuvil . cMENkenAqñaM1979 yYn)aneRbIBYkkumμúynisþ h‘un Esn Ca]bkrN_sMrab;bMerIneya)ayeGayxøÜn x©IédExμreFIVsRgÁamCamYyExμreTot dUckalEdlyYneFIVsRgÁamkalBIqñaM 1970 EdlyYnx©IédExμrRkhm b:ul BtnigExμrRkhm sIhnu mkeFIVsRgÁamCamYyExμrsaFarNrdæ. enAeBlenaH yYn)anlukluyRbeTsExμrniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๒๗ rkSasiT§i
  28. 28. BaseBjépÞRbeTs ehIycab;epþImeFIVneya)ayyYnnUbnIykmμenAkñúgRbeTsExμr edayTahanyYn)anykRbBn§Exμr cMENkÉRsIyYn)anykbþIExμr ehIyyYncMnYn 5 nak;enATIRkug b¤TIRbCMuCn 1 nak;cMENkenAtamCnbTyYn 1nak;Exμr 5 nak;. dMNak;kalenH KWmnxusBIsRgÁamsm½ysaFarNrdæ ib:unμaneT eRBaHExμrmçagKaMRTedaykumμúynisþyYn EdlmanBYkGay:g h‘un Esn ehIymçageTotKaMRTedaycin GaemrikkaMg Gas‘an CaehtueFIVeGayGñkts‘UtamCayEdnmaneRbobelIyYn nig rbbkumμúynisþh‘un Esn xusc,ab;. eBlEdlshPaBsUevot)andYlrlM ehIybBa©b;sRgÁamRtCak;CamYyGaemrikenAqñaM 1989 cMENkRbeTsGaløwm:g;)ankøayeTACaRbeTsEtmYy sUevot)anQb;CYy]btßmÖyYneBlenaHyYn)ansMerccitþdkkgT½BesøokBak;ÉksNæanecjBIRbeTsExμrmun EtyYn)anbgáb;TukkgT½ByYn EdlesøokBak;sIuvilCaeRcInenAkñúgRbeTsExμrvij. yYn)aneRbI h‘un Esn eTAcrcarCamYysI hnu CabnþbnÞab;rhUtdl;mankic©RBmeRBogsnþiPaBTIRkug)a:rIsenAéf¶ 23 tula 1991. yYneFIVdUcenH edIm,IedaHédBIkarefáaleTasBIGnþrCati fayYnQøanBanExμr eFIVeGayGnþrCatiemIleXIjfaCasRgÁamsIuvilrvagExμrnigExμr. ebIeyIgRkeLkemIlenAkñúgrbbExμrRkhmEdlmanExμrsøab;rab;lan k¾yYneFIVdUcenHEdr edayyYnykExμreTAbNþúHbNþalmenaKmn_kumμúynisþ eFIVCaBiCXadmksmøab;Exμr ehIyeRbIExμrRkhm sIhnu b:ul Bt edIrtamneya)ayrbs;xøÜn bMP½nþExμreGayvegVgrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶.karcrcarrvag sIhnu nig h‘un Esn CabnþbnÞab;enA )a:taya: RbeTséf enAya:kata RbeTsNÐÚensIuehIyenATIbMputenA TIRkug)a:rIsRbeTs )araMgenAéf¶ 23 tula 1991.VII -sn§isBaØaTIRkug)a:rIs (Paris Agreement Treaties) sn§isBaØaTIRkug)a:rIs)aneFIVeLIg eRkayBImankarcrcarCabnþbnÞab;rvag sIhnu nig h‘un Esncab;BIqñaM 1987 mk. cMENksRgÁamRtCak;rvagkumμúynisþ nigesrI)anbBa©b;enAqñaM 1989.shPaBsUevoteRbImenaKmn_kumμúynisþ cMENkshrdæGaemrikeRbImenaKmn_esrI nigRbCaFibetyü.shPaBsUevotCaGñkKaMRTyYnkumμúynisþTaMgxagbec©keTs GñkCMnajkar nigsmÖar³sBVavuF. kñúgeBlenaHCMnajkarsUevotTaMgcl½t nigGciéRnþy_CaeRcInRbmaN 1 Esnnak; eFIVkarenAkñúgRbeTseyokNam. cMENkÉRbeTscin shrdæGaemrik nigGas‘anCaGñkKaMRTclnats‘UExμrTaMg 3Rkum.ExμrTaMg3Rkum enaHmanRkumTI1 rNsirSCatirMedaHRbCaBlrdæExμrdwknaMeday elakta sWn san RkumTI2 km<úCa RbCaFibetyüdwknaMeday exov sMpn cMENkRkumTI3 hViúnsiunbiuc dwknaMeday neratþm sIhnu. edaysarcin shrdæGaemrik nigGas‘an )andak;sm<aFkarTUteTAelIrdæa)alRkughaNUynigenAeBlEdlshPaBsUevot)andYlrlM minGacKaMRTyYnbnþeTAeTot eFIVeGayyYncaj;eRbobExμrGñkts‘UxagkarTUt nigneya)aykñúgRbeTsyYn)andkkgT½BesøokBak;ÉksNæanRtLb;eTAvij EtTukkgT½BesøokBak;sIuvil bgáb;TukenAkñúgRbeTsExμr tamry³karbiT)aMgrbs;KNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa h‘unniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๒๘ rkSasiT§i
  29. 29. Esn. yYn)aneGay h‘un Esn mkcrcarCamYy sI hnu EdltMNagGñkts‘UExμrCMnYsvij. eBlenaHyYn)anedaHédecjBIkarefáaleTasBIqakGnþrCati edayGnþrCatiemIleXIjfasRgÁamEdlekIteLIgenARbeTsExμrCasRgÁamsIuvil minEmnCasRgÁamQøanBanenaHeT. karcrcarKñaCabnþbnÞab; rvag h‘un Esnnig sIhnu rhUtQaneTAdl;kic©RBmeRBogTIRkug)a:rIs enAéf¶ 23 tula 1991 Edlman NÐÚensIu nig)araMg eFIVCashRbFankñúgeBlcuHhtßelxasn§isBaØasnþiPaBbYnPaKI sWn san tMNagrNsirSCatirMedaHRbCaBlrdæExμr neratþm rNriTi§ hViúnsIunbiuc exov sMpn km<úCaRbCaFibetyü nig h‘un Esnrdækm<úCa. kalEdlRbeTsTaMg 2 enH eFIVCashRbFanenaH BIeRBaHRbeTsTaMg2 enH CaRbeTsGBüaRkitenAkñúgsRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI3enH edayminKaMRTxagyYn b¤KaMRTxagExμrGñkts‘U. kic©RBmeRBogTIRkug)a:rIs)annaMeGayRbeTsExμr Qb;)aj;Kña nigeFIVeGayRbeTsQaneTArkliTi§RbCaFibetyüsnþiPaB tamry³karerobcMe)aHeqñatEdlerobcMedayGgÁkarshRbCaCati ehAkat;fa G‘untak;enAqñaM1993. enAeBlenaHKNbkShViúnsiunbiuc dwknaMeday neratþm rNriTi§ CaGñkQñHeqñat TTYlsemøg)an58 ekAGI . KNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa)ancaj;eqñatTTYlsemøg)an 51 ekAGI. h‘un Esn erobcMeFIVGb,Kmn_enAeRtIyxagekItTenøemKgÁ edIm,IeFIVsRgÁam. sI hnu )anedjGgÁkarshRbCaCatiecjBITwkdIExμr ehIyEckGMNaceGayBYkkumμúynisþ h‘un Esn EdlmanyYnenABIeRkayxñgeFIVCanaykrdæmRnþITI2. kic©RBmeRBogTIRkug)a:rIséf¶ 23 tula 1991 CacMNucrbt;neya)aymYyya:gsMxan;sMrab;RbvtþisaRsþExμr nigCakþIsgÇwmsMrab;RbCaCatiExμrTUeTA BIeRBaHfa kic©RBmeRBogenH )annaMExμrQaneTArksnþiPaB nigliTi§RbCaFibetyüBitR)akd. b:uEnþpÞúyeTAvij kic©RBmeRBogenaHRtUv)anlubbM)at;ecal ERbCatn½y edayCnkumμúynisþpþac;kar h‘un Esn mineKarBtamkic©RBmeRBogenHeLIy EfmTaMgeFIVrdæRbharsmøab;GñkesñhaCatiExμr GñkRbCaFibetyü enAéf¶ 5-6 kkáda 1997 rMelaPsiT§imnusSCabnþbnÞab;. Cnpþac;kar h‘un Esn EdlCa]bkrN_neya)ayrbs;yYn )annaMRbeTsExμreGayFøak;cUlkñúgrbbkumμúynisþeRkamyYnRtYtRtadEdl.VIII -edImkMeNItliTi§RbCaFibetyüsareLIgvij (The Democracy Was Reborn) edImkMeNItliTi§RbCaFibetyüsareLIgvij KWenAeBlEdlGgÁkarshRbCaCati )anerobcMe)aHeqñatedayesrI nigyutþiFm’enAkm<úCanaqñaM 1993. RbeTsCatiRtUvxatbg;CaeRcInenAkñúgsRgÁamlukluyrbs;yYnenH yYnCaGñkcMeNjRKb;Ebbya:g rab;cab;taMg RTBüsm,tþi elIdI eRkamdI EdlyYnqk;bøn;ykeTARbeTseK )at;Twk )at;dI tamsinsBaØaxusc,ab;rvagGay:gyYn nigBYkQøanBan. §ikarBlICivitrbs;ExμrGñkesñhaCati nigbgb¥ÚnCnrYmCatiExμrTaMgGs; ERbCatn½y edaysaremdwknaMqáÜtlIla tamExSjak;neya)ayrbs;yYnkumμúynisþ dUcesþc sIhnu nig h‘un Esn. eyIgsegátniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๒๙ rkSasiT§i
  30. 30. eXIjfaenAqñaM 1993 RbCaBlrdæ)aneTAe)aHeqñatya:geRcInkuHkr edaysarcg;eGayRbeTsmankarpøas;bþÚrRbeTsCatimankarrIkcMerIntamRbCaFibetyü BIeRBaH RbCaBlrdæExμrrs;enArgnUvkareKobsgát;CiHCan; eFIVTukçbukemñj biTsiTi§esrIPaB BIBYkGay:g h‘un Esn nig yYnkumμúynisþ CayUrmkehIy.GgÁkarshRbCaCati CaGñkerobcMkare)aHeqñatmYyedayesrI nigyutþiFm’. BIeRBaHExμr EdlFøab;rs;enArgkareKobsgát;CiHCan; eFIV)abRKb;Ebbya:grbs;BYkGay:g nigyYnkumμúynisþ. b:uEnþRbCaBlrdæExμrGs;sgÇwm edaysar sI hnu )anedjGgÁkarshRbCaCatiecjBIRbeTs ehIyRbKl;GMNaceGayBYkkumμúynisþ h‘un Esn vij. kalenaH eKeXIjRbeTsExμrdwknaMedaynaykrdæmRnþI 2 KWnaykmRnþITI1neratþm rNriTi§ nig naykrdæmRnþITI2 KW h‘un Esn. cab;BIqñaM 1993 mkdl;qñaM 1997RbeTsExμr)ansÁal;enABnøWRbCaFibetyümYyry³eBlxøI EteRkaymkBYkkumμúynisþ h‘un Esn)aneFIVrdæRbharsmøab;GñkRbCaFibetyü GñkesñhaCatiGs;RbmaNCag 280 nak;. matuPUmiCaTIesñharbs;eyIg )anFøak;cuHsnSwmbnþicmþg² cUleTAkñúgkNþab;édrbs;Cnpþac;kar h‘un Esn EdlsißtenAeRkamyYnRtYtRtaminecjmux rhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ.IX -karFøak;cuHRbCaFibetyü (Declining down the Democracy) karFøak;cuHRbCaFibetyüeTAkñúgkNþab;édrbs;BYkkumμúynisþKWcab;taMgBI h‘un Esn eFIVrdæRbhardeNþImGMNacBIKNbkShVú‘nsiunbiuc dwknaMeday neratþm rNriT§ enAéf¶TI 5-6 kkáda 1997 emøH.h‘un Esn elIkbnþúb Gwug h‘Yt CatukátaCMnYsvij. kareFIVrdæRbharenH CaEpnkarrbs;BYkkumμúynisþEdlmanyYn Caemekøag edIm,Ipþac;b£sKl;GñkesñhaCati GñkRbCaFibetyüEdlmankmøaMgxøaMgeGayGs;edIm,IgayRsYlyYnnig BYkGay:g eFIV)abRbCaBlrdæExμrdUcbc©úb,nñ. kalenaHeKeXIjmanGñkRbCaFibetyü nigGñkesñhaCatiCaeRcIn enAkñúgKNbkShV‘únsiunbiuc nig KNbkSRbCaFibetyüesIrIniymRBHBuT§sasnarbs;elakta sWn san RtUveKcab;ykeTAsmøab;dUcCa hY sux RkUc eyOm ecAsm,tþi Ca riTI§Qut nigCaeRcInnak;eTot RbmaNCit 300nak;. cMENkGñkEdlrYcxøÜnenAEsssl;)anrt;eTAkan;tMbn; GUsμac; ehIyeFIVkarts‘UCamYyBYk h‘un Esn nig yYnkumμúynisþeTot. BYk h‘unEsn )anelIkGMNac xül;eTAeGay Gwug h‘Yt CMnYsvij dUckalEdlyYncUlmkQøanBanExμr éf¶ 7mkra 1979 ehIyelIkGMNacxül;eGay ehg sMrin nig hu‘n Esn Edr. eBlEdlBYk h‘un EsnminGacvayEbkRkumGñkts‘UenAGUsμac;RbmaN 300nak; . eBlenaH RBwT§sPashrdæGaemrik r:UNaEbK½r )ancuHmkRtYtBinitüpÞal;dl;tMbn;GUsμac; dMNwgenH)aneFIVeGay sIhnu R)ab;kUnneratþm rNriTi§eGayehA jwk b‘unéq xan; saevOn RtLb;cUleTAkñúgRbeTsvij edaysnüafaeGaytMENgCaedImEtTIbMputGMNacenaH RtUvBYkkumμúynisþdkbnþicmþg²rhUtdl;cb;Etmþg. GIVEdlRbCaBlrdæExμrenAEtP½nþRcLMenaHyl;fa esþc sIhnu CaGñkRsLaj;kUnecARbCaBlrdæExμrBitR)akd EdlGñkesñhaCatiExμrniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๓๐ rkSasiT§i
  31. 31. GñkRbCaFibetyüxMdEgðrtamRBHGgÁtaMgBIts‘UéRBma:KI ts‘UtamCayEdnExμr-éf edaykaryl;RcLMsμanfaesþc sIhnu bMerIplRbeyaCn_eGayCatiExμr RsLaj;karBarRbCaBlrdæExμr EtTIbMput esþc sIhnuCaCnkumμúynisþ EdlEkøgxøÜneTAtamCMenarneya)aybMerIeGaykumμúynisþ tamkarjak;RbmUlExμrGñkesñhaCati mkeGayBYkkumμúynisþsmøab;CafμI . sI hnu b:ul Bt h‘un Esn suT§EtCaCnkumμúynisþEdlehAfa Exμr Rkhm. dUecñHehIy eyIgeXIjfa kare)aHeqñatEdlekIteLIgCabnþbnÞab;eRkayBIrdæRbharqñaM 1997CakarerobcMrbs;KNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCaEtb:ueNÑaH lT§ple)aHeqñatTaMgGs;enaH minEmnecjBIqnÞ³rbs;RbCaBlrdæExμrBitR)akdeT. karFøak;eTAkñúgGMNacrbs;BYkkumμúynisþenHehIy eFIVeGayBYkRbCaFibetyü BYkGñkesñhaCatiExμr RtUveKsmøab;CabnþbnÞab;mkeTot edayKμanrkXatkrmkpþnÞaeTaseLIy. RbeTs)anFøak;kñúgkNþab;édrbs;mnusSEtmñak; rdæCaGñksMerckic©karRKb;Ebbya:g RbCaBlrdæExμr KμansiTi§esrIPaBkñúgkarsMerckic©karTaMgLay eRBaHxøaceKeRbIRbB½n§ tulakar nigGMNac cab;dak;KuknigKMramkMEhgsMlab;CaedIm.X -RbeTsExμrFøak;kñúgrbbpþac;kar h‘un Esn eRkamGaNaniKmn_yYnEbbfμI(Cambodia fell into Hun Sen Dictatorship under Vietnamese Neo-Colonism) ebIeyIgRkeLkemIlRbvtþisaRsþExμreyIg cab;taMgBIsm½yRtsk;Ep¥mmk eXIjfaGtItkalmankarRcbUkRcbl; minc,as;las; eRBaHKm<Irk,ÜnxñatRtUv)aneKbMpøajecal lubRbvtþisaRsþ Kμankarkt;Rtac,as;las;. ktþaTaMgenH eFIVeGayRbeTsExμrFøak;kñúgPaBRcbUkRcbl; sRgÁamvwkvr minecHcb;edaysarkarBwgelIbreTs mineCO nigeGaytMélCatisasn_xøÜnÉg. KnøgRbvtþisaRsþenH )anFøak;mkelIRbeTsExμrmþgehIymþgeTot rhUtmankarkab;smøab;Exμr CitputBUCenAkñúgsm½y b:ul Bt.Km<Irk,Ünxñat RbvtþiBgSavtaRtUveKdutbMpøajGs; EfmTaMgEkøgRbvtþisaRsþEkøgkøay mkeGaykUnecAExμrCMnan;eRkayeronsURteTotpg. Cak;EsþgenAkñúgRbvtþisaRsþExμrfμI²enH eRkayBIExμr)anTTYlÉkraCüBI)araMgmk eyIgeXIjfakarEkRkéLRbvtþisaRsþ edIm,IbMP½nþExμreGayKaMRT eRBaHGMNacnigraCblø½gÁb:ueNÑaH. yYn)anerobcMqakneya)ayenAkñúgtMbn;NÐÚcin begIátCabkSkumμúynisþ enAtambNþaRbeTsnImYy² man lav Exμr CaedIm. yYnCaGñkbegIáteGaymanExμrRkhm ¬Exμrkumμúynisþ¦.eRkaymkyYn)anbþÚrExμrRkhm EdldwknaMeday b:ul Bt nig sIhnu edayelIkExμrRkhm ehg sMrin CasIum h‘un Esn eGaykan;GMNac bMerIneya)ayeGayxøÜnbnþeTAeTot. dUecñHehIy eyIgeXIjfaRbeTsExμr)an Føak;kñúgkarkan;kab;rbs;yYnkumμúynisþtaMgBIéf¶ 7 mkra 1979. éf¶ 7 mkra 1979minEmnCaéf¶yYnmkCYyExμreT Caéf¶yYnQøanBanelbTwkdIExμr pøas;bþÚrneya)ayfμI edIm,IbMP½nþExμrEtb:ueNÑaH. Gñkkac;cgáÚtneya)ay KWecjBIyYnhaNUydEdl eRBaHyYn)anerobEpnkar pþac;b£sKl;CatiniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๓๑ rkSasiT§i
  32. 32. Exμr KWsmøab;EtnisiStbBaØvnþ . BYkkumμúynisþ kMBugEteXasnaRKb;Ebbya:g eGaymtiRbCaBlrdæmtiCati nigGnþrCatiemIleXIjfa RbeTsExμrCaRbeTsRbCaFibetyü EtpÞúyeTAvijRbeTsExμrsißtenAkñúgrbbpþac;kar h‘un Esn eRkamGaNaniKmn_yYnEbbfμI. yYnEkøgePTCaExμr RtYtRtaExμrBak;pøakRbCaFibetyü taMgesþcCarnaMg)aMg kMueGayExμremIleXIjBIeKalbMNgneya)ayRtCak;rbs;BYkva edIm,IelbTwkdIExμrTaMgmUl. cab;BIyYndkT½BÉksNæaneyaFaeTA bnSl;TukkgT½B ÉksNæansIuvil eGaykan;kab;tMENgx<s;² sMxan;² eFIVeGayExμreyIgvegVg nig kll,icneya)ayrbs;yYneFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμryl;fa RbeTsExμr)ansuxsnþiPaB. EtpÞúyeTAvij ExμrkMBugEtrgTukçevTnaRKb;Ebbya:g edayrbbpþac;karrbs; h‘un Esn EdlyYn)anelIkbnþúbtaMgBIqñaM 1979. LÚvenHRbeTsExμrmanEtsMbkxageRkAfaCaExμr EttamBitExμrRtUvsßitenAkñúgGaNaniKmn_yYnEbbfμI edayyYnykrUbPaBRkumh‘un c,ab; karecaTRbkan; cab;dak;Kuk edIm,IKMramkMEhg bM)ak;sμartIExμrxøacminh‘anRbqaMgCamYynigBYkva.XI -KμantulüPaBxagnitibBaØatiþ nitiRbtibtþi nignititulakar(No Balance in Legislative, Executive and Court) tameKalkarN_RbCaFibetyü GMNacrdæTaMgbI¬nitibBaØtþi nitiRbtibtþi tulakar¦ RtUvEtmanGMNacesμIrKña ehIysißtenAdac;edayELkBIKña. b:uEnþ cMeBaHkardwknaMenAkñúgRbeTsExμrvij minEmnCaRbeTsEdlkan;liTi§RbCaFibetyü mansiTi§esrIPaB BitR)akdeT eRBaHeyIgeXIjfaGMNacTaMg 3enHsßitenAeRkamEtmnusSEtmñak; KWh‘un Esn. BYkkumμúynisþykRbCaFibetyüesrIBhubkS mkbiT)aMgfaCaRbeTsRbCaFibetyüesrI edIm,IbMP½nþEPñkRbCaBlrdæExμr. eyIgsegáteXIjfa RbCaFibetyüenAkñúgRbeTsExμrxusBIeKalkarN_RbCaFibetyüBitR)akd. GMNactulakar KμanÉkraCü BukrlYyGyutþiFm’ lMeGogeTAGñkmanluy nigGñkmanGMNac CaBiess GMNactulakar xøacGMNac h‘un EsnEdlCakUnGukrbs;yYn. tamBittulakarminRtUvsißtenAeRkamTi§BlbuKÁlNamñak; KNbkSneya)ayNamYyeLIy. cMENkÉGMNacnitibBaØatiþvij smaCiksPa RBwT§sPaPaKeRcIn min)anedIrtYrCaGñktMNagraRsþ tMNagRbCaBlrdæ BitR)akdeT EbCatMNageGaybkSeTAvij. karCECkBiPakSaedaHRsaymin)ansVHEsVgrkplRbeyaCn_Cati karBarplRbeyaCn_Cati EtnaMKñaxitxMedIm,IdeNþImGMNacKñakarBarGMNac RbRBwtþi GMeBIBukrlYy eKgRbv½Ba© CBa¢k;QamBICati sasna nig RbCaCatiExμr mkdak;plRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜn b:ueNÑaH. 1-B½t’man (Information) B½t’manRtUvEtÉkraCü manesrIPaBeBjeljebIkcMhr. cMeBaHRbB½n§sarB½t’manenAkñúgRbeTsExμrvij eyIgeXIjfa esÞIrEtRKb;bNþajpSBVpSayBt’man viTüú TUrTsSn_ karEstPaKeRcInRtUvRKb;RKgedayKNbkSkan;GMNac b¤sißtenAeRkamTi§Blrbs; ¬KNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa¦. enHcMNucniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๓๒ rkSasiT§i
  33. 33. mYYyeTot EdlpÞúyBIeKalkarN_rbs;RbCaFibetyüBitR)akd eRBaHfatameKalkarN_RbCaFibetyüBitR)akd Bt’manRtUveFIVtamviC¢aCIv³ ÉkraCüRtwmRtUvsMrab;qøúHbBa©aMgTegIVrbs;emdwknaM nigGIVEdlekItmanenAkñúgsgÁmBitR)akd. RbeTsEdlkan;liTi§RbCaFibetyüesrI RbB½n§sarB½t’manRtUvEtÉkraCüminlMeGogeTArkKNbkSneya)ayNamYyb¤sißtenAeRkamGMNacrbs;buKÁlNamñak;. ebIeyIgRkeLkemIlkardwknaMenAkñúgRbeTsExμrvij etICaRbeTsRbCaFibetyü b¤pþac;kar ebImanemdwknaMEtmñak;kan;GMNac cMENkGñksarBt’man minh‘ansresrkarBitenAkñúgsgÁm PaKeRcInsresIrrdæaPi)alebIsinCah‘anriHKn; RtUveKKMramkMEhg eKobsgát;ecaTRbkan; bþwgGMBIbTbriharekrþi_ júHjg;cab;b¤)aj;smøab;CaedIm. Cak;EsþgenAkñúgeBlfμI²enH GñkkarEst Kwmsm,Úr RtUveK)aj;smøab;GñkniBn§karEstExμrm©as;RsukmYyrUbeQμaH hgS cRka RtUveKbþwg ehIycab;dak;KukryHeBl 2 qñaM.ÉelakemOg sun RtUveKecaTRbkan;fa pSayB½t’manminBit nigjúHjg; edaysarEtelakniyaykarBitR)ab;RbCaBlrdæExμr GMBIkarb:HBal;GcäriyvtßúExμr GgÁrvtþ EdlRtUvBYkCnBukrlYy yYn sux Kg;kMBugEtdab;fμrR)asaTdak;GMBUlePøIg. ehtuenHehIy ebIsinCaExμreyIgh‘anniyayBIkarBitenAkñúgsgÁm BYkeKRtUvRbQmmuxeRKaHfñak;dl;GayuCivitnig suvtßiPaB RBYy)armÖ BIsuvtißPaB nigsnþisux.GñksarB½t’man GñkesñhaCati nigGñkRbCaFibetyüPaKeRcIn EdlXatkr)aj;smøab;GaCJaFr h‘un EsnminEdlcab;Xatkr b¤CnelμIsykmkpþnÞaeTaseLIy EtpÞúyeTAvij BYkeKcab;EtCnsøÚtRtg;mkdak;kMhusCMnYsvij. Bt’manmin)anebIkTUlMTUlaydl;RbCaBlrdæeGay)andwg pÞúyeTAvij GñkEdlsþab;viTüú GasIuesrI vIGUeG RtUveKbMPitbMP½y KMramkMEhg hammineGaysþab;. yYn sux Kg; dab;fμR)asaTGgÁrvtþ bMpøajGcäriyvtßúExμr 2-karGb;rM (Education) karGb;rMRtUvmanTaMgKuNPaB nigbrimaNsMrab;RbCaBlrdæExμrTUeTA. edaysarGMeBIBukrlYykMritGb;rMenAkñúgRbeTsExμrenAEtminTan;manKuNPaBsikSaRKb;RKan; tamkMrittMbn; kMritGnþrCati b¤mankMritesμInwgRbeTsCitxageLIy edayRbB½n§Gb;rMmanGMeBIBukrlYy xVHsmÖar³sikSa xVHeBlevla sikSaniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๓๓ rkSasiT§i
  34. 34. RsavRCavedaysarEtCIvPaBRkIRk RKUR)ak;ExminRKb;RKan; CaehtueFIVeGayRKUKμanTwkcitþkñúgkarbeRgonnigCaBiesssißtenAeRkamKMnabTi§Blneya)ay min)anelIktMekIgeGayeronRbvtþisaRsþExμrBitR)akdnigmin)anGb;rMeGayecHRsLaj;Catirbs;xøÜn. karminR)ab;BIeKalbMNgeKaledAdl;sisSeGay)anc,as;las; edIm,IeFIVRbeyaCn_CUnCatimatuPUmi karBarplRbyaCn_Cati EtbeRgoneGayExμremIleXIjluyCaerOgsMxan; nigeronedIm,IEsVgrkkargar rkluyCaedIm. RKUbeRgonKμansiTi§esrIPaBRKb;RKan;kñúgkarniyaykarBit BIbBaðasgÁmenAkñúgRbeTs edaysarkareKobsgát;BInayksalaEdleKbgçMeGaybMerIKNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa. GñkEdlh‘anniiyayR)ab;sisSBIerOgsgÁm RtUv)an eKKMramkMEhgfaxussIlFm’ b£dkhUtsiTi§mineGaybeRgon Cak;EsþgfμI²enH elakRKU su‘n Fun CaRKUbeRgonenAextþkMBg;FMCaedIm. enAkñúgRbB½n§Gb;rM)ankat;bnßymineGaysikSaeronRbvtþisaRsþ PUmisaRsþBitR)akdrbs;Exμr EdlGacb:HBal;eTAelIemdwknaMneya)ay kMBugEteFIVneya)ay bMpiøjbMpøajplRbeyaCn_CatieFIVeGayExμrvegVgrkkarBit mineXIjKμanÉkPaBKña eQøaHRbEkkKña Ebk)ak;tammenaKmn_neya)ayrbs;yYnkumμúynisþ nigBYkGñkkan;GMNacEdlminniyaykarBit. 3-kare)aHeqñat (The Election) RbCaBlrdæmansiTi§e)aHeqñatdUc²Kña . kare)aHeqñatRtUverobcMedayesrI nigyutiþFm’. kare)aHeqñateRkay²mk elIkElgEtkarerobcMedayGgÁkarshRbCaCatienAqñaM 1993 vaCakare)aHeqñatEdlKμanyutþiFm’RtwmRtUveT. lT§ple)aHeqñatTaMgGs;enaH min)anecjBIqnÞ³RbCaBlrdæExμrBitR)akdeT EtCalT§plEdlerobcMeLIgedayKNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa EdlmanyYnenABIeRkayxñgnigcarkmμyYn EdlbnøMxøÜneFIVCaExμrCaeRcInnak;. KN³kmμkarerobcMkare)aHeqñat KμanÉkraCü GBüaRkitüRtwmRtUv eRBaHKN³kmμkarenHsißtenAeRkamGMNac Ti§BlKNbkSRbCaCn nigh‘un Esn. smaCikEdleFIVkarenAkñúgKN³kmμkarerobcMkare)aHeqñatPaKeRcIn CasmasPaBKNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa.ebIeTaHCakare)aHeqñatQñHelIGñkesñhaCati GñkRbCaFibetyüehIyk¾eday k¾BYkkumμúynisþTaMgenHEdlmanyYnlUkédya:geRCAkkUrsßankarN_neya)ayExμrenaH eFIVrdæRbharsmøab;Exμr deNþImGMNac dUckrNIrdæRbharéf¶ 5-6 kkáda 1997 eTotCak;CaminxaneLIy. 4-esrIPaBkñúgkarbeBa©jmiti (Freedom of Expression) esrIPaBkñúgkarbeBa©jmitisMrab;RbCaBlrdæExμr manEtenAelIRkdas manEtelIrdæFmμnuBaØ EtkarGnuvtþCak;EsþgKμan. BYkGaCJaFr h‘un Esn biTsiTi§esrIPaB eKobsgát;CiHCan; vayeFIV)ab TaMgRBHsgÇTaMgRbCaBlrdæedayKμanRtaRbNIeLIy. RbCaBlrdæRtUveKhamXat;mineGayniyay GMBIerOgRbeTsCati KμansiTi§kñúgkarCYbRbCMuepSg² KμanesrIPaBRKb;RKan;kñúgkarbeB©ajmtienATIkEnøgsaFarN³.naeBlfμI²enH eBlEdlGaCJaFrGbSra)andab;fμR)asaTGgÁrvtþ edIm,Idak;ePøIg eFIVeGayb:HBal;niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๓๔ rkSasiT§i
  35. 35. dl;R)asaTGgÁrvtþ CavtßúGcäriy CaGtþsBaØaNrbs;Exμr EdlbuBVbursExμr)anksagTukeGayExμr.kareFIVEbbenHbuBVbursExμrmankarekþARkhay eFIVeGayGñkesñhaCatih‘anegIbeLIg edIm,IkarBarR)asaTGgÁrvtþ karBarTWkdI edayminbeNþayeGayGñkbMpøajCati GñkbMpøajvtßúbUraN eFIVeRscEtcitþenaHeLIy. GñkEdlniyayBIerOgRbeTsCati RtUveKecaTfaCaerOgneya)ay ehIyRtUv)aneKKMramkMEhg RtUv)aneKcab;dak;Kuk b¤tamsmøab;edIm,IbM)ak;sμartI dUcCaeRbIRbB½n§tulakartamcab; elakemOgsun ecaTRbkan;cab;elak hgS cRka dak;Kuk dkGP½yÉksiTi§rbs;GñkRsI mUsuxhYr nigGñktMNagraRsþ hU va:n; CaedIm. GñkEdlha‘nkarBarplRbeyaCn_CatiRtUveKtamcab;tamsmøab; dUcCaelak Ca viC¢a RtUveKsmøab; TUc RsInic Bisidæ BalIkarRtUveK)aj;smøab; nigRBHetCKuN Twm saxnRtUv)aneKcab;ykeTAdak;KukyYnCaedIm. RBwtþikarN_TaMgGs;enH pÞúyBIRbeTsEdlmansiTi§esrIPaBeBjelj EdlRbCaBlrdæmansiTi§esrIPaBkñúgkarbeBa©jmti RbCaBlrdæCam©as;GMNac. 5-c,ab; (The Law) c,ab;enAkñúgRbeTsExμr Cac,ab;sMrab;karBarGñkmanGMNac GñkRbRBwtþTuc©rit RbRBwtþBukrlYyminEmnCac,ab;sMrab;karBarplRbeyaCn_Cati karBarplRbeyaCn_RbCaBlrdæGñkTn;exSayenaHeLIy.eyIgeXIjehIyfa Cm¶Wd¾F¶n;F¶renAkñúgsgÁmExμrsBVéf¶ KWGMeBIBukrlYy. c,ab;minRtUveKGnuvtþn_eGay)anRtwmRtUveLIy eRBaHmankarsIusMNUk sUk)a:n; BukrlYy nigniTnþPaB. BYkeKykEtc,ab;Ebbkumúμynisþ ykmkeRbIsMrab;ekobsgát;GñkTn;exSay. c,ab;sißtenAeRkamGñkmanGMNac nigbkSBYkrbs;KNbkSRbCaCn. c,ab;TaMgenHCa c,ab;Ebbkumμúynisþ eRBaHfaTaMgRbeTskumμúynisþ nigRbeTsesrImanc,ab;dUcKña EtRKan;Etc,ab;mYyekItecjBIbuKÁlmYyRkumtUcsMrab;plRbeyaCn_mYyRkumtUc dak;eGayRbCaBlrdæTUeTAGnuvtþn_ EtsMrab;RbeTsRbCaFibetyüesrIvij c,ab;ekItecjBIRbCaBlrdæ BItMNagRbCaBlrdæ edIm,IkarBarplRbeyaCn_RbCaBlrdæ nigplRbeyaCn_Cati. Cak;Esþg eyIgemIlGMeBIGyutþiFm’EdlekItmanenAkñúgRbeTsExμr eBlEdl h‘un tU RtUvCakμÜyrbs; h‘un Esn )aj;eKsøab;enAtamdgpøÚv Etc,ab;min)ancab;]RkidæCnmkpþnÞaeTaseLIy eRBaH h‘un tU CakμÜy h‘un Esn EdlmanTaMgluy nigGMNac. GñkRsI Bisidæ BlIkar RtUv b‘un ra:nI EdlCaRbBn§rbs; h‘un Esn )anbBa¢aeGayeK)aj;smøab; EtKμannrNarkXatkrmkpþnÞaeTaseLIy rhUtmkdl;eBlenH.XII -etIemdwknaMpþac;karbc©úb,nñ)aneFIVGIVxøH Edlb:HBal;RbCaBlrdæ(What Does Present Dictator Leader Do to Suffer People) 1-karbeNþjRbCaBlrdærwbGUsykdI ( People Eviction for Grabbing Land) karbeNþjRbCaBlrdæExμrecjBIkEnøgmYyeTAkEnøgmYy edIm,IrwbGUsykdI CaGMeBI]RkidæmYyya:gF¶n;F¶renAkñúgrbbpþac;kar h‘un Esn . karrwbGUsykdItamrUbPaBRkumh‘un nigGPivDÆn_enHeFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæERskRTehayMesÞIrEtRKb;extþRkugenAkñúgRbeTsExμr. tamBiteTAyYnykrUbPaBniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๓๕ rkSasiT§i
  36. 36. Rkumh‘un CakarbiT)aMg cMENkÉBYkGay:g ykBaküfa GPivDÆn_ mkeFIVCaels edIm,IbMeBjmhicätarbs;yYn Edlcg;elbTwkdIExμr dUckalEdlyYn)aneFIVenAkñúgTwkdIExμrkm<úCaeRkamEdr. bBaðaenH)annwgkMBugekIteLIgCabnþbnÞab;enAkñúgRbeTsExμr. BYkGaCJaFrpþac;kar h‘un Esn )anRbKl;dIsm,TaneGayRkumh‘un yYnmanryHeBlya:gtic 99qñaM. BYkenHrwbGUsykdIRbCaBlrdæ EdlkarrwbGUsdIenH)anb:HBal;ya:gF¶n;F¶rd;l;CIvPaBRbCaBlrdæExμrsBVéf¶. dUckñúgkrNIfμI²enH enAPUmisMbukcab enAPUmidIRkhm shKmn_rIkray nigenAtambNþaextþepSg²eTotCaeRcIn. cUreyIgnaMKñaBicarNaemIleTAkarpþl;sm,TandIEdlmanry³eBl 99qñaM eTAeGayyYn etIGnaKtTwkdIExμrGackøayCakmμsiT§rbs;yYn)anb¤eT ebIsinCaCIvitmFümrbs;Exμrrs;)anRtwmEt 50qñaMenaH. cMENkkarbiTsiT§esrIPaBExμrkarbMéPølubbM)at;RbvtþisaRsþExμrBitR)akd eKeFIVEkERbCabnþbnÞab;. CaBiess enAeBlLÚvenHCnGenþaRbevsn_yYnrs;enAya:geRcInkuHkrenA elIkTwkdIExμrsBVéf¶enHeTot . karrwbGUsykdIFøIRbCaBlrdæeRkamrUbPaBRkumh‘un nig GPivDÆn_ 2-GMeBIBukrlYy (Corruption) GMeBIBukrlYyCaCm¶WmYyd¾FMenAkñúgsgÁmExμr EdlrdæaPi)albc©úb,nñKμanqnÞ³ nigKμansmtßPaBedaHRsayeGay)ancb;. GMeBIBukrlYyenH CarUbPaBmYyEdleKbiT)aMg GMeBITuc©ritepSg² dUcCakarlYYcCati lk;RTBüsm,tþiCati ykeTAdak;plRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜn CaBiessbgðÚrplRbeyaCn_eTAeGayRbeTsd¾éTeTot)angayRsYl edayGMeBIBukrlYy. dUecñHehIy eyIgeXIjfa fvikarCati)anxatbg;Gs; 250-500 landuløa kñúgmYyqñaM² enHebItamsMdIrbs;elakRsI GKÁraCTUtshrdæGaemrikRbcaMenAkm<úCaeQμaH xar:Ul r:UdlI. eyIgRtUvBicarNaGMBIKNbkSRbCaCn etImanR)ak;Exb:unμanEdlBYkvamanluyrab;lan duløaeTAdak;FanaKareRkARbeTs etIluyTaMgGs;enaHminEmnCarbs;CatiExμr b£luy)anmkBIBukrlYy lYcCati? etIRTBüsm,tþiTaMgGs;enaH minEmnCasm,tþirbs;CatiExμr eyIgTaMgGs;KñaeTb£? GMeBIBukrlYyenH rIkraldalya:gxøaMgenAkñúgsgÁmExμr enAkñúgRbB½n§Gb;rM enAkñúgRbB½n§tulakarnigtulakar ExμrRkhm pgEdr.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๓๖ rkSasiT§i
  37. 37. 3-PaBRkIRk (Poverty) RbCaBlrdæExμrcMnYn 40 PaKry sißtenAeRkambnÞat;RkIRk. nisSitCaeRcIn EdlbBa©b;karsikSaehIyKμankargareFIV. kmμkrR)ak;ExticminRKb;RKan;kñúgkarcMNaysMrab;CIvPaBRbcaMéf¶. BYkeKeFIVkarRKan;EtbMerInayTuneragcRkEtb:ueNÑaH. RKUbeRgonR)ak;ExTabd¾Edl EtTMnijenAelITIpSar ekIneLIgCalMdab; CaBiess saMg EdleFIVeGayb:HBal;dl;CIvPaBRbCaBlrdæya:gxøaMg eRBaHkalTMnijeLIgéføR)ak;ExdEdleFIVeGaycMNayeRcInCagcMNUl R)ak;snSMTab ¬RkIRk¦. RbCaBlrdæExμrcMnYn 85 PaKryCaksikrRbkbmuxrbrksikmμ. muxrbrciBa©wmCIvitBYkKat;GaRs½yelIdIERs dIcMkar edIm,IciBa©wmCIvitEtLÚvenH dIERsdIcMkarbs;Kat;mYycMnYn RtUv)anyYnEdlEkøgePTCaExμr nigbkSBYk h‘un EsneRbIR)as;CarUbPaBRkumh‘undeNþImdIERsdIcMkarrbs;Kat;Gs; etIGnaKtvasnakUnecAKat;EdlCaExμreTACay:agNa? kUnecARkIRk min)aneronsURt ehIyGs;dIERsdIcMkareTot. tamsm,tþiFnFanrbs;ExμrEdlmandUcCacMNUl)anBIeTscrN_ R)asaTGgÁrvtþ Er:mas eBRCt,Úg éRBeQI CaedIm eFobeTAnigRbCaBlrdæExμrRbmaNCag 10 lannak;enaH RbCaBlrdæExμrminKYrRkIRkedIrsMuTaneKenaHeLIy.etIFnFanTaMgGs;enaH Føak;eTAdl;édGñkNa? RTBüsm,tþirbs;Exμr plRbeyaCn_Exμr RtUvFøak;elIBYkCnBukrlYyKNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCaenHÉg EdleKgRbvB½a©ykeTAdak;plRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜn. yYnrwbGUsykeTAbMerIplRbeyaCn_Cati nigRbeTsrbs;eK. etIGnaKtkUnExμreTACaya:gNa? 4-kat;eTasExμrRkhm (Khmer Rouge Trial) emdwknaMExμrRkhmKW sIhnu Edl)anRbkaseGayExμrcUléRBma:kKIrYmCamYy h‘un EsnEdl)ancUleFIVCaExμrRkhmtaMgBI sI hnu eFIVCaRbFanrNsirSrYbrYmCatikm<úCa begIáteLIgenARkugeb:kaMgéf¶23 mIna 1970. sUmsalakþIExμrRkhmkat;eTas sIhnu nigh‘un Esn pg. ebIsinCamin)ankat;eTas sI hnu pgeT vaCakarlak;)aMgkMhusemdwknaMExμrRkhmd¾sMxan;mñak; eRBaHedaysar sI hnuenHehIyEdleFIVeGaykmøaMgExμrRkhm nigT½BeyokkugGacykC½yCMnHelIExμrsaFarN³rdæ varwtEteFIVeGayExμrkan;EtvegVgeRCAeTAminGacrkXatkrBitR)akdeXIjeTotpg. b:uEnþ eyIgCaCnrgeRKaHExμrniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๓๗ rkSasiT§i
  38. 38. RKb;Kñadwgc,as;faXatkrBitR)akd KWBYkkumμúynisþyYn ¬NÐÚcin¦ Edl)anerobcM nigbMBak;bMb:nlTi§kumμúynisþeGayExμr ¬Rkhm¦ Edlrt;cUléRBma:KItamkarGMBavnavrbs; sIhnu nig Exμr ¬Rkhm¦EdlKaMRT b:ul Bt eGaysmøab;Exμr rYcehIyerobcMEpn smøab;CabnþbnÞab; edIm,IbM)at;bM)at;dan nigsakSI. eBlEdlyYnkumμúynisþQñH elIkGMNaceGayExμrkumμúynisþ eFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrsøab;rab;lannak; TaMgExμreRkam nigExμrbc©úb,nñ ehIyyYnbBa¢ÚnBlrdæxøÜnmkCMnYs eFIVCaExμrfμIelITwkdIExμrvij.sI hnu nig h‘un Esn CaCnkumμúynisþ bMerIneya)ayeGayyYnkumμúynisþ edIm,IGMNac nigplRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜnÉg nigbkSBYkEtb:ueNÑaH edayCnkumμúynisþTaMgenH min)anbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGayCatiExμrnigRbCaBlrdæExμreT. RbCaBlrdæExμrkMBugrgcaMyutþiFm’BitR)akdBIsalakþIenH. yYnmincg;eGayExμrdwgkarBit cMENk h‘un Esn k¾mincg;rkyutþiFm’eGayCnrgeRKaHExμrBitR)akdeT eRBaHxøac)at;bg;GMNac. Cak;EsþgfμI²enH h‘un Esn )anniyayfasuxcitþeGaysalakþIenHbraC½y ebIsinCanaMGñkBak;B½n§bEnßmeTotmkkat;eTas. karbegIátsalakþIenHcMeNjeTAkumμúynisþyYnPaKeRcIn ¬ 1-ExμrenAEtEbk)ak;KñaQWcab;nigExμr ¬Rkhm¦ b:ul Bt 2-dwgKuNyYn 7 mkra 3-RbCaBlrdæExμrenAEtmindwgkarBitfanrNaCaXatkrBitR)akd 4-ebIk»kaseGayyYnkumμúynisþ RtYtRtaExμrelbTwkdIExμrbnþ ¦. éf¶ 17 emsa 1975 KWBYkkumμúynisþ EdlyYnelIkGMNaceGayExμr ¬Rkhm¦ dUcKñanig éf¶ 7mkra 1979 EdlBYkkumμúynisþyYnQøanBanelIkbnþúbGMNacExμr¬Rkhm¦ h‘un Esn Ca sIum nig ehgsMrin Edr cMENkÉ sI hnu EdlFøab;eFIVCaemExμrRkhm begIátExμrRkhm ¬kumμúynisþ¦ k¾minh‘anecjmksarPaBTTYlkMhuseTot. GgÁkarshRbCaCatiEdlcg;;rkyutiþFm’eGayRbCaBlrdæExμr nigcg;bM)at;niTnþPaB)ancMNayluyCaeRcInmkeGayBYkCnBukrlYy. edIm,IyutþiFm’sMrab;CnrgeRKaHExμr sUmeGayGgÁkarshRbCaCati beBa©jeGayGs;smtßPaB edIm,IsMercnUvkic©karCaRbvtþisaRsþenH. ebIcg;rkyutiþFm’eGayExμr RtUvkat;eTas b:ul Bt sIhnu h‘un Esn nigyYn EdrniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๓๘ rkSasiT§i
  39. 39. 5-GaNaniKmn_EbbfμItamrUbPaBRkumh‘un nigkarpþl;dIsm,Tan (The Neo-Colonism through the Picture of Company and Land Concession) yYn)anbþÚrBIrUbPaBGaNaniKmn_edaypÞal; dUckalBIqñaM 1979 mkeRbIGaNaniKmn_EbbfμIvijedayyYn)anEkøgePTCaExμr edIm,IRKb;RKgExμr. yYn)aneRbIR)as;Rkumh‘unCakarbMP½nþExμr biT)aMgmineGayExμremIleXIj faExμrenAeRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;kumμúynisþyYn.Rkumh‘unTaMgenaH PaKeRcInCaRkumh‘un evotNam EdlykTahanmkeFIVCakmμkr RtYtRtaemIlsPaBkarN_enAkñúgRbeTsExμr.tamryHBaküfaGPivDÆn_ nig c,ab;sm,Tan yYn)andeNþImdIRbCaBlrdæ EdleFIVeGayb:HBal;dl;plRbeyaCn_ nigCIvPaBRbCaBlrdæya:gxøaMg. RbCaBlrdærgTukçevTna tElð QWcab;minecHcb;GMBIkarrwbGUsdIFøI BIGñkkan;GMNac edayKμannrNaCYyrkyutþiFm’eGay)ansmrmüeLIy. CaBiesseBlfμI²enH Rkumh‘un 7 EGnCI Edl)andeNþImdIRbCaBlrdæ nigRkumh‘unenAextþkMBg;s<W enAPñMRsYc)an)aj;eKaRbCaBlrdæ ehIyrwbGUsykdIRbCaBlrdæCaedIm. karEdlyYneRbIrUbPaBGaNaniKmn_EbbfμIenH edIm,IkMueGayRbCaBlrdæExμremIleXIj nigdwgGMBImhicätarbs;yYn. ebIsinCaExμreyIgdwg ExμreyIgemIleXIj GacnaMeGayRbCaBlrdæExμr egIbeLIgRbqaMgCamYyyYn dUckalsm½yemT½B eRTOg mijya:g cUlmkRtYtRtaExμr. ehtudUcenHehIy karpþl;dIsm,TaneGay Rkumh‘unyYn Edlmanry³eBl 99 qñaM enH )anbgðajeGayeXIjfa kñúgeBlGnaKtd¾xøIxagmux RbeTsCatiExμrGacnwgFøak;kñúgkNþab;édyYn EdlEkøgePTeFIVCaExμrTaMgRsugminxaneLIy. RbCaBlrdæExμrBitR)akd rs;enACaCnCatiPaKticrbs;yYn enAelITwkdIxøÜnÉgdUccam nigExμrkm<úCaeRkam. 6-FnFanFmμCati (The Natural Resource) FnFanFmμCatirbs;Exμr mancab;taMgBIéRBeQI RtIsac; stVéRB Er: RtUvbMpøajedayBYkCnBukrlYy XubXitKñalYcCatiykmkdak;;plRbeyaCn_buKÁl lk;CatiykmkeFIVCaRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜnehtudUecñHehIy ebIeyIgeFobFnFanExμreTAnigRbCaBlrdæExμrEdlmancMnYnEtRbmaNCag 10lanenaHRbCaBlrdæExμr minKYrRkIRk edIrsMuTaneK rt;ecjBIRbeTsExμreTAeFIVkarenARbeTseKenaHeLIy. eRBaHeKeFIVeGayemIleXIjfa RbeTsExμrKμantMélGIVTaMgGs; nigBi)akkñúgkarrs;enA edaysarCIvPaBnigKμankargareFIVCaedIm. neya)ayrbs;yYnkumμúynisþ eFIVkarekobsgát;ExμrRKb;Ebbya:g edaymineGayExμremIleXIjGMBItMélénCatirbs;xøÜnÉg EsVgrkedIm,Irs;b:ueNÑaH. yYn)aneRbIRkumh‘uneGaydwkCBa¢ÚneQI Er:RKb;Ebbya:geTARbeTseK. Rkumh‘unyYn nigcin eFIVRKb;Ebbya:geGayExμrhinehacFnFansm,tþiFmμCatiTaMgGs;enaH. Cak;Esþg eyIgeXIjPñMmYycMnYnRtUv)aneKQUsqayeFIVeGayxUcRTg;RTay FmμCatiGs;dUcCaenAtMbn;GUk½ør mNÐlKIrI EdlmanRkumh‘uncineTACIkmas enAPñMCIniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๓๙ rkSasiT§i
  40. 40. Rsukrevog enATIenaHkñúgmYyExrab;etanmas EtebIsinCa RbCaBlrdæExμrvijBYkvaminGnuBaØateGayCIkeTeBlEdlExμrrkeXIjkEnøøgman mas cin nigyYnvadeNþImExμr edayminGnuBaØateGayExμrCIkeLIy. FnFanExμr kñúgTwk elIdI eRkam nigkñúgdI RtUvBYkCnBukrlYylk;CatiTaMgbI bMpøajniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๔๐ rkSasiT§i
  41. 41. CMBUkTI 2niBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๔๑ rkSasiT§i
  42. 42. bBa©b;bBaða (End Problems)I.etIRbCaBlrdæExμrcg;)anGIV? (What Does Cambodian People Want?) RbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;Edlrs;enAkñúgRbeTsExμrbc©úb,nñ KμansiTi§esrIPaBeBjeljeT PaKeRcInCYbRbTHPaBRkIRk GyutþiFm’ nigkarrMelaPCiHCan;BIGñkkan;GMNacsBVéf¶. RbCaBlrdæExμrcg;eGayRbeTsCatiman sSrPaB ÉkraCü minRBmrs;enAeRkamGaNaniKmn_énRbeTsNamYy CaBiessGaNaniKmn_énRbeTsevotNamsBVéf¶. RbCaBlrdæcg;)anRbCaFibetyü snþiPaBBitR)akd rYcputBIPaBRkIRk nigGMeBIBukrlYyCaedIm. edIm,IsMercnUveKaledAenH RbCaCatiExμrTaMgGs;BIRKb;RsTab;kñúgsgÁm eTaHenATINak¾edayRtUvrYbrYm samKÁIKña edaHRsaybBaðaTaMgGs;enHeGaycb;. RbCaBlrdæExμrenOyNay nigQb;cg;rs;enAeRkamkareKobsgát; biTsiTi§rbs;BYkRtYtRtakumμúynisþdEdl²eTotehIyeRBaHfaGs;ry³eBlCag 2 TsvtSknøgmkenH RbCaBlrdæmankarlM)ak edaysarkareKobsgát;CiHCan; nigkareFIVTukçbukemñj. ehtudUecñHehIy eBlEdlmankarerobcMe)aHeqñat EdlerobcM nigRtYtBinitüedayGgÁkarshRbCaCatienAqñaM1993 RbCaBlrdæExμr)aneFIVkarsMerccitþ e)aHeqñateRCIserIsemdwknaMfμI nigpøas;bþÚrrbbRKb;RKg. EtKYreGayesaksþay GIVEdlRbCaBlrdæExμrcg;)anecjBIqnÞ³ RtUv)at;bg;eTAvij edaysaresþcsIhnu RbKl;GMNaceGayBYkkumμúynisþ h‘un Esn EdlCaGay:gyYnvij. cMENkÉGgÁkarshRbCaCati minTan;bMeBjtYrnaTIcb;pg sI hnu )anedjGgÁkarshRbCaCatiecjBIRsukExμr ehIyKNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn )aneFIVrdæRbharbøn;GMNac smøab;GñkesñhaCati smøab;GñkRbCaFibetyüenAéf¶TI 5-6 kkáda 1997. cMENkÉkare)aHeqñateRkay²mkCabnþbnÞab; vaCakarerobcMeLIgedayKNbkSRbCaCn edIm,IbMP½nþEPñkRbCaBlrdæExμr nigbMP½nþmtiGnþrCati EtlT§ple)aHeqñatTaMgGs;enaH minEmnecjBIqnÞ³rbs;RbCaBlrdæExμrBitR)akdeT.II-etIExμreFIVya:gNaedIm,ICYyseRgÁaHExμr ?(How can Khmer help Khmer?) KμannrNaRsLaj;ExμrCaCagCatiExμrxøÜnÉgenaHeT ehIyk¾KμannrNaGacCYyExμr eRkABIExμrxøÜnÉgEdr enHebItam»vaTrbs;RBHsmμasm<úT§EdlCaRBHbrmRKU)anTUnμaneRbonRbedAmkfa xøÜnTIBwgxøÜn .enAeBlEdlCatieyIgkMBugEtmanbBaða eyIgCaExμrmñak;² minRtUvbENþtbeNþayTukeGayCatieyIgenAEtmanbBaðaEbbenHeLIy eyIgTaMgGs;KñaRtUvrYbrYmKñaedaHRsaybBaðaTaMgGs;enHeGaycb;. EteyIgminRtUvnaMKñaedaHRsaycugbBaðaenaHeLIy eyIgRtUvedaHRsayb£sKl;bBaða eTIbbBaðaTaMgGs;enaHcb;.eyIgmñak;² k¾minRtUvmanemaTPaBfa manEtGtμaGjxøaMgGaceFIVGIVekIt b¤GYtxøÜnykmuxmat; ekrþ×eQμaHbuNüs½káenaHk¾eT ktþasMxan;Kwfa KMniteRcIn RbesIrCagKMnitmYy eyIgCaExμrTaMgGs;RtUveGanlMeTaneGaytMélKñaeTAvijeTAmk rYbrYmKña Kit niyay eFIV edIm,IeGaysMerceKaledArYmEtmYy KWedIm,I Catisasna nig RbCaCatiExμrBit². kalNaeyIgeFIVGIVmYyRBmKña RsuHKña kñúgyuT§saRsþrYm EtmYyenaHniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๔๒ rkSasiT§i
  43. 43. eRbob)andUcCaTwkEdlhUrcUlkñúgsmuRTEtmYyya:gdUecñaHEdr etInNamYyminxøac TwksmuRT. eyIgRtUvrYbrYmKñaedaHRsayedImbBaðaeRkamyuT§saRsþrYmEtmYy eTIbbBaðaenaHcb; . ehtudUecñHehIy ExμrRKb;rUbRtUvPJak;rlwkBIRKb;TwsTIRKb;mCÄdæan rYbrYmsamKÁICaFøúgmYy ebþCJacitþ TaMgGs;Kña edIm,IrMedaH karBar Catisasna RbCaCatiExμr eGayrYcputBITukçevTna Edlrs;enAKμansiTi§esrIPaB eRkamrbbkumμúynisþpþac;karh‘un Esn EdlmanyYnRtYtRtaeFIVGaNaniKmn_EbbfμIenH edayeyIgQb;eRbIviFIe)aHeqñat EdlKμanesrInigyutþiFm’.III -etIRbCaBlrdækñúgtMbn;EdlrgeRKaH Lav m:ug cam ExμrRtUveFIVdUcemþc?(What do the People in the Region Lao, Hmong, Cham and Khmer do?) eyIgCaRbCaBlrdærgeRKaH edaysaryYnkumμúynisþTaMgGs;enAkñúgtMbn;NÐÚcin mandUcCaRbCaBlrdæ Lav m:ug cam Exμr RtUvEtdwgfa siT§iesrIPaB RbCaFibetyü ÉkraCü GFibetyüPaBsMrab;eyIgTaMgGs;KñaCaktþasMxan; kñúgnamCamnusS. eyIgminRBmsuxcitþrs;enAedayKμansiTi§esrIPaBeRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;RbeTsNamYyeLIy. eyIgrs;enACaRbCaBlrdæsamBaØ EdlmansiTi§esrIPaBÉkraCü RbCaFibetyü eBjeljBitR)akd RbesIrCagkarrs;enAeFIVCaesþcmRnþIeRkamGaNaniKmn_breTs. RbCaBlrdæTaMgGs;dUcCa Lav m:ug cam Exμr EdlsißtenAeRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;yYnkumμúynisþRtUvEtmankarPJak;rlwk naMKñarYbrYmKñaeRkakeLIg edIm,IsiTi§esrIPaB sSrPaB ÉkraCürbs;CatixøÜnnImYy². eyIgminbeNþayeGayRbeTsrbs;eyIgnImYy²sißtenAeRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;yYnkumμúynisþbiTsiTi§esrIPaBCaerogrhUt dl;eyIg)at;eQμaHenAkñúgBiPBelakenaHeLIy. enAeBlEdlGs;elakGñkmanesovePAenHGanenAkñúgédehIy RtUvEtmankarPJak;rlwk naMKñaeRkakeLIgtamyuT§saRsþrbs;emdwknaM nigGnuvtþn_PaBCaemdwknaM edIm,IQaneTArkeCaKC½y edayminRBmsuxcitþrs;enAedayKμansiTi§esrIPaB )at;bg;GtþsBaØaNCaCatimYy Edlrs;enAesμImuxeKenAelIBiPBelakeLIy.eyIgTaMgGs;KñaRtUvEtnaMKñaegIbeLIg edIm,IÉkraCüCati sSrPaBrbs;eyIg.IV -etIshKmn_GWr:ub nigshrdæGaemrik CYyGIVxøHdl;RbCaCatirgeRKaH?(What Does EU and US help Cambodian Victims?) shKmn_GnþrCati nigshrdæGaemrik EdlCaRbeTsmhaGMNac EtgEtEsVgrkyutþiFm’eGayRbCaCatiEdlrgeRKaH eRkamkareKobsgát;biTsiTi§esrIPaB. EtktþasMxan;RbCaCatinImYy²RtUvmankarxitxMRbwgERbgxøÜnÉgCamun edayminbENþtbeNþaytameRBgvasna b¤k¾facaMEtBwgelIGñkdéTenaHeLIy. ktþaEdlnaMeGayeyIgeCaKC½yenaH KWGaRs½yelIxøÜneyIgCaktþacMbg ehIycMENkRbeTsRbCaFibetyüeKemIleXIjGMeBIGyutþiFm’ KμansiTi§esrIPaB eKnwgCYyelIkTwkcitþ nigCYyrkviFIedaHRsaybEnßmelIkarxitxMRbwgERbgrbs;eyIg. edIm,IEsVgrkyutþiFm’CUndl;RbCaCatienAkñúgtMbn;TaMgenHniBn§eday s FmμrgSI ๔๓ rkSasiT§i

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