The process of systematically examining past events
to give an account; may involve interpretation to
recapture the nuances, personalities, and ideas that
influenced these events; to communicate an
understanding of past events.
MAJOR STEPS OF
Collection of data
Criticism of data collected
Presentation of facts
USES OF HISTORICAL
1. It is useful in searching through the past for solutions to contemporary problems
2. It is used to throw light on the present.
3. It gives people a sense of continuity of the past to the present.
4. It enables the communities to grasp their relationship with the past to the current
5. Presentation of the facts in readable form involving problems of
organization, composition, exposition and interpretation.
SOURCES OF HISTORICAL
• Documents – These include school directives, court decisions,
executive and other official records, personal materials.
Newspapers and periodicals.
• Remains – These include physical plant, equipment, apparatus,
teaching aids and devices, pictures of buildings and furnishing,
forms of diplomas and certificates, textbooks and reference books.
Secondary Sources – These are histories of education,
bibliographies, encyclopedia and many others.
Is a method which involves observing and
describing the behavior of a subject without
influencing it in any way.
Studies can yield rich data.
Approach collects a large amount of data for
If limitations are understood, they can be a useful
tool in developing more focused study.
Information is collected without changing the
Helps researchers plan and carry out descriptive
Often involves extensive observation and note-taking.
Can serve as a first step that identifies important
TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE
1. DESCRIPTIVE-SURVEY – suitable wherever the subjects vary among
2. DESCRIPTIVE-NORMATIVE SURVEY – compare local test result with a
state or national norm.
DESCRIPTIVE-STATUS – seeks to answer questions to real facts relating
to existing conditions.
4. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS – determines or describes the nature of an
object by separating in into its parts.
5. DESCRIPTIVE-CLASSIFICATION - employed in natural
6. DESCRIPTIVE-EVALUATIVE – this design is to appraise
carefully the worthiness of the current study.
7. DESCRIPTIVE – COMPARATIVE – this is the design where
the reasearchers considers two variables and establishes a formal
procedure to compare and conclude that one is better than the other.
8. CORRELATIONAL SURVEY – this is designed to determine
the relationship of two variables (X & Y)
9. LONGITUDINAL SURVEY – this involves much time allotted
for investigation of the same subjects of two or more points in time.
is the problem-solving approach that the
study is described in the future on what will
be when the variables are carefully controlled
ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP – according to this concept
for every particular cause there is a corresponding particular effect.
TWO-VARIABLE RELATIONSHIP – this involves two
variables causing an effect upon one variable.
COMPLEX RELATIONSHIP – this is a case where two or
more variables causing a single effect.
MAJOR TYPES OF
1. PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
are so named because they follow basic experimental steps but
fail to include a control in group.
Are lacking several areas of the true-experimental criteria.
Set the stage for further research
2. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Fair better than the pre-experimental studies in that
they emply a means to compare groups.
Usually consructions that already exist in the real
Greater external validity
Much more feasible given time and logistical
3. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Makes up for the shortcomings of the two design previously
They employ both a control group and a means to measure the
change that occurs in both groups.
• Random selection of subjects
• Use of control groups
• Random assignments to control and experimental groups
• Random assignments of groups to control and experimental
Greater internal validity
Casual claims can be investigated
SOME TYPES OF
SINGLE-GROUP DESIGN – this design involves a single instrument
with two or more levels.
TWO-GROUP DESIGN – two comparable groups are employed as
experimental and control groups or two comparable groups are both
TWO-PAIR GROUP DESIGN – an elaboration of two-group design
wherein there are two control groups and two experimental groups.
PARELLEL-GROUP DESIGN – two or more groups are
used at the same time with only a single variable manipulated or
COUNTERBALANCED (LATIN SQUARE DESIGN) –
involves an exchanged of two or more instruments taken by the
subjects during the experiment.
COMPLETE RANDOMIZED DESIGN – this design in
which a group of test plants or animals is studied only once but
subsequent treatment is applied to determine the cause of
RANDOMIZED COMPLETE BLOCK DESIGN – this
experimental design uses a group of test plants and animals as
subjects of the study.
CORRELATIONAL DESIGN - this experimental design
is used to determine the relationship of two dependent
PRE-TEST-POST-TEST DESIGN – this design involves
the experimental group and the control group which are
carefully selected through randomization procedure.
CASE STUDY DESIGN – is a problem-solving technique
wherein the study is described from the past, present ang
CASE STUDY – may be defines as an extensive and
intensive investigation of a unit represented.
CASE WORK – refers especially to the developmental,
adjustment, remedial, or corrective procedures that
appropriately follow diagnosis of the causes of
maladjustment or of favorable development.
CONTENT ANALYSIS (TEXTUAL ANALYSIS) –
methodology in the social sciences for studying the content