Research Methods


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Research Methods

  2. 2. DIZON, AL LEN
  3. 3. HISTORICAL RESEARCH The process of systematically examining past events to give an account; may involve interpretation to recapture the nuances, personalities, and ideas that influenced these events; to communicate an understanding of past events.
  4. 4. MAJOR STEPS OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH Collection of data Criticism of data collected Presentation of facts
  5. 5. USES OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 1. It is useful in searching through the past for solutions to contemporary problems and needs. 2. It is used to throw light on the present. 3. It gives people a sense of continuity of the past to the present. 4. It enables the communities to grasp their relationship with the past to the current issues. 5. Presentation of the facts in readable form involving problems of organization, composition, exposition and interpretation.
  6. 6. SOURCES OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH Primary Sources • Documents – These include school directives, court decisions, executive and other official records, personal materials. Newspapers and periodicals. • Remains – These include physical plant, equipment, apparatus, teaching aids and devices, pictures of buildings and furnishing, forms of diplomas and certificates, textbooks and reference books. Secondary Sources – These are histories of education, bibliographies, encyclopedia and many others.
  8. 8. DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN Is a method which involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way.
  9. 9. IMPORTANCE OF DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN Studies can yield rich data. Approach collects a large amount of data for detailed analysis. If limitations are understood, they can be a useful tool in developing more focused study.
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN  Information is collected without changing the environment studies.  Helps researchers plan and carry out descriptive studies.  Often involves extensive observation and note-taking.  Can serve as a first step that identifies important factors.
  11. 11. TECHNIQUES IN DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN Survey Experiments Data Analyzing Note taking Observing
  13. 13. TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH 1. DESCRIPTIVE-SURVEY – suitable wherever the subjects vary among themselves. 2. DESCRIPTIVE-NORMATIVE SURVEY – compare local test result with a state or national norm. 3. DESCRIPTIVE-STATUS – seeks to answer questions to real facts relating to existing conditions. 4. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS – determines or describes the nature of an object by separating in into its parts.
  14. 14. 5. DESCRIPTIVE-CLASSIFICATION - employed in natural sciences subjects 6. DESCRIPTIVE-EVALUATIVE – this design is to appraise carefully the worthiness of the current study. 7. DESCRIPTIVE – COMPARATIVE – this is the design where the reasearchers considers two variables and establishes a formal procedure to compare and conclude that one is better than the other. 8. CORRELATIONAL SURVEY – this is designed to determine the relationship of two variables (X & Y) 9. LONGITUDINAL SURVEY – this involves much time allotted for investigation of the same subjects of two or more points in time.
  16. 16. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN is the problem-solving approach that the study is described in the future on what will be when the variables are carefully controlled or manipulated.
  17. 17. CONCEPTS OF CAUSATION  ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP – according to this concept for every particular cause there is a corresponding particular effect.  TWO-VARIABLE RELATIONSHIP – this involves two variables causing an effect upon one variable.  COMPLEX RELATIONSHIP – this is a case where two or more variables causing a single effect.
  18. 18. MAJOR TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 1. PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN  are so named because they follow basic experimental steps but fail to include a control in group.  Are lacking several areas of the true-experimental criteria. ADVANTAGE :  Very practical  Set the stage for further research
  19. 19. 2. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN  Fair better than the pre-experimental studies in that they emply a means to compare groups.  Usually consructions that already exist in the real world. ADVANTAGE:  Greater external validity  Much more feasible given time and logistical constraints
  20. 20. 3. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN  Makes up for the shortcomings of the two design previously discussed.  They employ both a control group and a means to measure the change that occurs in both groups. MUST EMPLOY: • Random selection of subjects • Use of control groups • Random assignments to control and experimental groups • Random assignments of groups to control and experimental conditions ADVANTAGES  Greater internal validity  Casual claims can be investigated
  21. 21. GOLLENA , ANNA
  22. 22. SOME TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS  SINGLE-GROUP DESIGN – this design involves a single instrument with two or more levels.  TWO-GROUP DESIGN – two comparable groups are employed as experimental and control groups or two comparable groups are both experimental groups.  TWO-PAIR GROUP DESIGN – an elaboration of two-group design wherein there are two control groups and two experimental groups.
  23. 23.  PARELLEL-GROUP DESIGN – two or more groups are used at the same time with only a single variable manipulated or changed.  COUNTERBALANCED (LATIN SQUARE DESIGN) – involves an exchanged of two or more instruments taken by the subjects during the experiment.  COMPLETE RANDOMIZED DESIGN – this design in which a group of test plants or animals is studied only once but subsequent treatment is applied to determine the cause of change.  RANDOMIZED COMPLETE BLOCK DESIGN – this experimental design uses a group of test plants and animals as subjects of the study.
  24. 24. GAMO, KAR LA
  25. 25.  CORRELATIONAL DESIGN - this experimental design is used to determine the relationship of two dependent variables.  PRE-TEST-POST-TEST DESIGN – this design involves the experimental group and the control group which are carefully selected through randomization procedure.  CASE STUDY DESIGN – is a problem-solving technique wherein the study is described from the past, present ang the future.
  26. 26.  CASE STUDY – may be defines as an extensive and intensive investigation of a unit represented.  CASE WORK – refers especially to the developmental, adjustment, remedial, or corrective procedures that appropriately follow diagnosis of the causes of maladjustment or of favorable development.  CONTENT ANALYSIS (TEXTUAL ANALYSIS) – methodology in the social sciences for studying the content of communication.