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  • We decided to provide our media in QuickTime, Media Player and Flash. QuickTime Apple native Familiarity Cost Media Player Required by our contractor Provides a good accessible alternative Flash More robust in a variety of ways Can be more accessible
  • Skip through this quickly?
  • Here is a little about the concepts behind our methods.
  • We want to embed movies in Web pages because of many advantages for people with disabilities.
  • Skip ahead four slides and let Fritz take over. Advantages of caption files over embedded closed captioning includes efficiency and ability to modify, as well as the potential? of opening the caption text to search engines.
  • Reasons for high quality (high quality video/audio offers the most flexibility and highest transcription quality) CART (Computer-Assisted Real-Time Transcription) reasons for extra audio/text (1hr. tapes vs 1.5hr sessions, tape gaps, 1cam vs. 2cam shoot) Our transcription takes place in house, but services are available
  • Reasons for high quality (clean, buzz-free, both compresses better, and is easier to hear and understand all speakers clearly (Q&A, speech problems)) CART can be a starting place, or reference. Transcribe (MS Word, Dictaphone hardware) (some issues include special characters, description of non verbal audio elements, transcription from scratch vs correction of CART files)
  • PowerPoint presentation

    1. 1. Accessible Video in a Diverging Web Environment CSUN Conference: Technology and Persons with Disabilities Los Angeles, CA March 16, 2005 David Klein K. “Fritz” Thompson
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based video players </li></ul><ul><li>The technology </li></ul><ul><li>Creating accessible video </li></ul><ul><li>Flash video </li></ul><ul><li>Our Flash player </li></ul><ul><li>Future of Web-based video </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Law, Health Policy & Disability Center </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Incentive Grantees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disability Program Navigators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standup training at conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible video of talking heads for further training </li></ul>
    4. 4. Our Needs <ul><li>Provide accessible Web-based training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality video with quality audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed captions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcripts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting documents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different formats (QuickTime, Windows Media Player) </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient development and deployment </li></ul>
    5. 5. Players <ul><li>QuickTime </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Media Player </li></ul><ul><li>Real Player </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Java </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>? </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Players Shared Advantages <ul><li>QuickTime, Windows Media, Real </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of High Quality audio/video </li></ul><ul><li>Free plugin/player (may auto-install/update) </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming or progressive download </li></ul><ul><li>Cross platform availability (with caveats) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to “protect” content from download </li></ul><ul><li>Large installed base </li></ul>
    7. 7. Players Captioning Capabilities <ul><li>QuickTime, Windows Media, Real </li></ul><ul><li>All can handle captioning </li></ul><ul><li>All can use “component-based” captioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple files used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>text-track captioning also available in QT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All supported by existing captioning tools </li></ul>
    8. 8. Players Comparison <ul><li>QuickTime Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pro” version available ($30) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to &quot;scrub&quot; while viewing </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to FF/Rewind (with audio) while viewing </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to have multiple videos playing simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Free multi-platform streaming server software </li></ul><ul><li>QuickTime Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Free player bugs you to upgrade to pro </li></ul><ul><li>Some useful features limited to pro version </li></ul><ul><li>iTunes may be bundled with player (Windows version) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Players Comparison <ul><li>Windows Media Player Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Feature rich </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-installed (on Windows Platform) </li></ul><ul><li>Easy, automatic upgrades </li></ul><ul><li>Free streaming server software (Windows server only) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Media Player Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>No ability to “scrub” </li></ul><ul><li>One movie at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent feature implementation </li></ul>
    10. 10. Players Comparison <ul><li>Real Player Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Feature rich </li></ul><ul><li>Large content providers vested </li></ul><ul><li>Real Player Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>May be difficult to find free download </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro version promoted heavily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not typically pre-installed </li></ul><ul><li>One movie at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming server costs </li></ul>
    11. 11. Flash Player Advantages <ul><li>Installed base – 98% </li></ul><ul><li>Arguably easier to upgrade </li></ul><ul><li>Loads quickly </li></ul><ul><li>New version – MX 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates QuickTime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulates a stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes Controls component </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can build in compatibility with other players </li></ul><ul><li>Possible to add features </li></ul>
    12. 12. Flash Player Disadvantages <ul><li>Not highly accessible, though getting better </li></ul><ul><li>Cost (Flash MX 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Initial development time </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise required </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading plugin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manually added accessible text to video controls </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The Technology <ul><li>Clients and servers </li></ul><ul><li>Plugins or whatever </li></ul><ul><li>Downloading </li></ul><ul><li>Embedding video in Web pages </li></ul><ul><li>Captioning </li></ul><ul><li>Flash </li></ul>Understanding how the pieces fit together helps for producing accessible video
    14. 14. Clients vs. Servers Server Clients Clients
    15. 15. Clients vs. Servers <ul><li>Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores HTML, video, caption text, other files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Files can be stored on different servers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displays HTML in browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Launches players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembles/packages the pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video Player </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Client View Browser Window Embedded Player Video Captions
    17. 17. The Player / Plug-in <ul><li>Embeds the player in the browser </li></ul><ul><li>ActiveX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plug-ins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opera </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to account for both in the HTML </li></ul><ul><li>User must install if not available </li></ul>
    18. 18. Web-based Video Delivery <ul><li>Download </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive download </li></ul>
    19. 19. Download <ul><li>Provide a link </li></ul><ul><li>Entire movie on client hard drive </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes low bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple views from same download </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute to others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires hard drive space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captioning not always possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute to others </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Streaming <ul><li>Server controls content </li></ul><ul><li>Active client-server connection </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live broadcasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low client hard drive space usage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High bandwidth needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require local network setup (firewalls) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Progressive Download <ul><li>Play video while downloading </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximizes experience – bandwidth vs. wait time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be saved and redistributed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be protected from saving by users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easiest for users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses hard drive space (but temporarily) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts and stops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still a problem for captioning when downloaded </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Accessible Video and Web Pages <ul><li>See www.warp.webaim.org </li></ul><ul><li>Standalone players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Media Player </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embedded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QuickTime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Embedded Captioned Video HTML File Server Client Video File Caption File Combining File
    24. 24. Embedded Players <ul><li>Different technologies among browsers </li></ul><ul><ul><li><OBJECT> versus <EMBED> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control user experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Player size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic startup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surround video with supporting information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficult to implement when players are not up to date </li></ul><ul><li>Valid HTML? </li></ul>
    25. 25. Captioning – Technologies <ul><li>XML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensible Markup Language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMIL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SAMI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft® Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>QuickTime caption file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macromedia </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Web-based Video Formats <ul><li>QuickTime (.mov) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Media Video (.wmv) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows video (.avi) – as intermediary format </li></ul><ul><li>Flash video (.flv) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Caption Files <ul><li>Caption text </li></ul><ul><li>Time codes for synchronization with video </li></ul><ul><li>Text Formatting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Font and font size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carriage returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolding, colors, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Language support </li></ul>
    28. 28. Captioning – QuickTime <ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.mov file and others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caption file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.txt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QuickTime caption file </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMIL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.smi or .mov </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates video and caption files </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Captioning – Media Player <ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.wmv </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caption file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.smi (XML / SAMI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.asx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates video and caption files </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Captioning – Flash <ul><li>Flash code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.fla </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.flv </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caption file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whatever (.txt, .xml, .smi) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XML configuration file </li></ul><ul><li>Flash application (Shockwave) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.swf compiled from Flash code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates video and caption files </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Creating a Video <ul><li>Shoot (or acquire) video/audio of highest possible quality </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire secondary audio source and/or CART file if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Capture, edit and compress video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 output formats: .mov, .wmv, and .flv </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make audio tapes for transcription </li></ul>
    32. 32. Transcribing Audio or Video <ul><li>High quality audio makes better movies and better transcripts </li></ul><ul><li>Staff or student workers transcribe using in-house guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes speaker identification and non-verbal elements ([Laughter], [Applause], [Inaudible]) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transcript saved in 3 formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MSWord .doc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accessible .pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plain .txt for caption file </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proof and correct </li></ul>
    33. 33. Pre-Captioning Steps <ul><li>Text is broken up into “caption-sized chunks” </li></ul><ul><li>Special characters eliminated (“smart” quotes, em-dashes, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Caption timing software ( MAGpie or HiCaption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both let you transcribe directly or import prepared text files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both attach timecodes to text in realtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both export in plaintext, SAMI, QuickTime SMIL or RealPlayer SMIL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proof and Correct </li></ul>
    34. 34. Final QuickTime Assembly <ul><li>The movie - moviename.mov </li></ul><ul><li>The caption file - moviename_captions.txt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes captions and timing info </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The SMIL file - moviename_smil.mov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines movie and captions on the fly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes URL pointers to movie & caption files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mov extension forces QT playback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Captions display automatically as part of SMIL standard </li></ul>
    35. 35. Final Windows Media Player Assembly <ul><li>The movie - moviename.wmv </li></ul><ul><li>The SAMI file - moviename.smi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes captions and timing info </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ASX file - moviename.asx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes URL pointers to movie & caption files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User must toggle captions in Windows Media Player “View” menu </li></ul>
    36. 36. Final Flash Player Assembly <ul><li>The Flash playback engine - moviename.swf </li></ul><ul><li>The movie - moviename.flv </li></ul><ul><li>The caption file - moviename_captions.txt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes captions and timing info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same file as QT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The caption control file - captions.xml </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes URL pointers to movie & caption files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User must toggle captions in our Flash Video Player (CC icon, on by default) </li></ul>
    37. 37. Files on the Server (For each movie) <ul><li>Transcript in Word .doc </li></ul><ul><li>Transcript in Acrobat .pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Movie in QT .mov </li></ul><ul><li>Movie in Windows Media Player .wmv </li></ul><ul><li>Movie in Flash .flv </li></ul><ul><li>Caption file .txt </li></ul><ul><li>SAMI file .smi </li></ul><ul><li>SMIL file .smi (or .mov) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows integration file .asx </li></ul><ul><li>Flash integration file .xml </li></ul><ul><li>Flash video player engine .swf </li></ul><ul><li>Resizable Flash page .htm </li></ul>
    38. 38. Flash Video <ul><li>Becoming more accessible by version 6 </li></ul><ul><li>More integration with video </li></ul><ul><li>Frustrated with “player wars” </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of standards compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Continual, relentless upgrades </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in upgrading – pushing users toward paid versions </li></ul><ul><li>Hijacking of media types / file extensions </li></ul>
    39. 39. Flash – Compress Video <ul><li>Create .flv file from movie (.mov, .avi) </li></ul><ul><li>Method 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Import into Flash library and compress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sorenson Spark within Flash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export to external file or drag to timeline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Method 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or compress using non-Flash application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sorenson Squeeze </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Create XML Configuration <ul><li>Open configuration file (XML) </li></ul><ul><li>Add settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caption file location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video size and width in pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video total time in seconds </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Combine Files <ul><li>Upload </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video (.flv) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caption file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caption configuration (caption.xml) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash file (.swf) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incorporate embedding tags in HTML </li></ul><ul><ul><li><OBJECT> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><EMBED> </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Flash Security <ul><li>Keep files in same folder </li></ul><ul><li>Use BASE attribute </li></ul><ul><ul><li><object> <param name=&quot;base&quot; value=&quot;http://domain.com/&quot;> </object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And <embed … base=&quot;http://domain.com/&quot; … > </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test thoroughly, especially among browsers and browser versions </li></ul>
    43. 43. Future <ul><li>Our Flash video player development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customized controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More configuration options in external XML file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded formatting in captions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speech recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time voice recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic time codes (real-time) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Searchable / Linkable video </li></ul>
    44. 44. Resources <ul><li>WebAIM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.webaim.org/techniques/captions/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web Consortium Web Video Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.w3.org/AudioVideo/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hi Software (HiCaption) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.hisoftware.com/hmcc/acc4mcc.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Consortium on Accessible Media (MAGpie) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// ncam.wgbh.org/webaccess/magpie / </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Captioned Media Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.cfv.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Association of the Deaf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.nad.org/ </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Contact <ul><li>Law, Health Policy & Disability Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://disability.law.uiowa.edu/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://disability.law.uiowa.edu/lhpdc/publications/kleinpubs.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LHPDC Bulletin Board (download Flash playback engine) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://disability2.law.uiowa.edu/ubbthreads/ubbthreads.php?Cat=3 </li></ul></ul>David Klein 280-1 Boyd Law Bldg. College of Law University of Iowa Iowa City, IA 52242 319-335-6748 [email_address] K. “Fritz” Thompson 280-1 Boyd Law Bldg. College of Law University of Iowa Iowa City, IA 52242 319-335-6748 [email_address]