The right size for the right job
Terms you should know:
•   Video Compression
•   Resolution
•   Interlacing vs. Progressive
•   Fields vs. Frames
•   Loss...
Video Compression
• Reducing the quantity of data used to
  represent digital video images
Resolution
• The number of pixels/lines vertically
  displayed the screen
    •   320x180 (180 lines)
    •   480x270 (270...
Interlaced vs. Progressive




 •   Only HALF the lines are   •   A FULL image for each
       drawn each frame           ...
Fields vs. Frames
• Interlaced video is represented by either
  odd OR even fields per frame
Lossless vs. Lossy




Negligible file size difference            1/8th the file size of original
         from original  ...
VBR vs. CBR
      VBR: variable bit rate
         Allows for best compression size based on the needs of the file
      ...
Intraframe vs. Interframe
Intraframe                           Interframe
•    Records every pixel for every   •   Records...
Evaluating Video for Compression
Evaluating Video for
Compression
• How was the video shot?
 • Is the video image static or in motion?
 • Was it shot inter...
Evaluating Video for
Compression
• How was the video edited?
 • Are there long or short edits?
 • Are there mostly cuts or...
Evaluating Video for
Compression
• Who is the intended audience?
 • How are the viewers watching?
            Computer, TV...
Progressive Download
         vs.
  Streaming Video
Progressive Download
• Allows the viewer to begin playback
  before the download is fully complete
  • Use if:
    • Deliv...
Streaming Video
• Allows for real time “broadcasting” of live
  events & the ability to control playback
  on-demand
  • U...
Streaming Video
• Must be played back from a separate
  server programmed for streaming
   •   Flash Media Server (FLV, SW...
Formats
Formats
• A particular way that information is
  encoded for storage in a file
• Examples:
    • AVI, ASF, WMV, FLV, MOV, ...
Format vs. Codec
Format vs. Codec
• Wrapper refers to the coding format
• Codec is an acronym for
  compression/decompression
• Example:
  ...
Current Popular Codecs
Current Popular Codecs
•   VC-1        Windows Media
•   VP6         FLV
•   MPEG-2      Quicktime, DVD
•   MPEG-4 part 10...
H.264
• The most commonly used codec today
Older Common Codecs
•   MPEG-4 part 2 (DivX, Xvid, FFmpeg, 3ivx)
•   H.263
•   Cineform
•   RealVideo
•   Sorenson Spark
•...
Compression Software


Adobe Media Encoder CS4        Telestream Episode 5.2       Sorenson Squeeze 5




               A...
Adobe Media Encoder
Adobe Media Encoder
Apple Compressor
Apple Compressor
Sorenson Squeeze
Sorenson Squeeze
Telestream Episode
Your Toolkit
  Programs everyone should have:
Examples
YouTubeHD
            •   H.264 codec
            •   mp4 format
            •   1280 x 720
            •   6Mbps - 9Mbps
...
iPhone
         •   H.264 codec
         •   m4v format
         •   640 x 360
         •   1500kbps
         •   Native f...
DVD-SD
         Video Settings:
         • MPEG-2 codec
         • m2v format
         • 720 x 480
         • 6.2Mbps - 7....
DVD-SD
         Audio Settings:
         • Dialog Normalization: -31
           dbFS
DVD-SD
         Audio Settings:
         • Compression Preset: None
Blu-Ray
          •   H.264 codec
          •   m4v format
          •   1440 x 1080
          •   20Mbps - 25Mbps
       ...
Questions?
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Get PowerPoint presentation on Web Compression from Rich Roddman.

  1. 1. The right size for the right job
  2. 2. Terms you should know: • Video Compression • Resolution • Interlacing vs. Progressive • Fields vs. Frames • Lossless vs. Lossy • VBR vs. CBR • Intraframe vs. Interframe
  3. 3. Video Compression • Reducing the quantity of data used to represent digital video images
  4. 4. Resolution • The number of pixels/lines vertically displayed the screen • 320x180 (180 lines) • 480x270 (270 lines) • 640x360 (360 lines) • 1280×720 (720 lines) • 1920×1080 (1080 lines)
  5. 5. Interlaced vs. Progressive • Only HALF the lines are • A FULL image for each drawn each frame frame
  6. 6. Fields vs. Frames • Interlaced video is represented by either odd OR even fields per frame
  7. 7. Lossless vs. Lossy Negligible file size difference 1/8th the file size of original from original with unnoticeable quality difference to most viewers NOTE: Lossy compression is most often noticed in scenes with text, transitions and/or lots of movement
  8. 8. VBR vs. CBR  VBR: variable bit rate  Allows for best compression size based on the needs of the file  Will only use the required amount of bits to save frame information  CBR: constant bit rate  Maintains the set bit rate throughout the entire video  Important for streaming media • Complex image sequence that takes • Majority of the screen uses the same advantage of higher bit rate as necessary background from frame to frame • File size can decrease greatly without significant quality loss
  9. 9. Intraframe vs. Interframe Intraframe Interframe • Records every pixel for every • Records an I-Frame and then frame regardless if the pixel only records the pixels that information has changed or not change from one frame to the • Examples: next depending on the GOP • AVC-I structure • DVC-Pro HD • Examples: • Apple ProRes • HDV • MPEG-2
  10. 10. Evaluating Video for Compression
  11. 11. Evaluating Video for Compression • How was the video shot? • Is the video image static or in motion? • Was it shot interlaced or progressive? • Is the video high or low contrast?
  12. 12. Evaluating Video for Compression • How was the video edited? • Are there long or short edits? • Are there mostly cuts or transitions? • Are there lots of graphics? • If so, are they static or in motion? • Has the video been stylized in any way?
  13. 13. Evaluating Video for Compression • Who is the intended audience? • How are the viewers watching? Computer, TV, Mobile, etc… • Will it be an individual or group viewing? • How large is the screen? • How far away are the viewers expected to be? • Which is more important: Quality or Speed of Delivery?
  14. 14. Progressive Download vs. Streaming Video
  15. 15. Progressive Download • Allows the viewer to begin playback before the download is fully complete • Use if: • Delivering short videos (less than 10min) • Operating a small website with low traffic • Using a higher quality video than a streaming connection would allow
  16. 16. Streaming Video • Allows for real time “broadcasting” of live events & the ability to control playback on-demand • Use if: • Delivering long videos (greater than 10min) • Delivering to many viewers simultaneously • Using bandwidth detection or a quality monitoring service • Serving live events
  17. 17. Streaming Video • Must be played back from a separate server programmed for streaming • Flash Media Server (FLV, SWF) • Apple OS X Server (Quicktime) • Darwin Streaming Server (Quicktime) • Windows Media Services (WMV, Silverlight)
  18. 18. Formats
  19. 19. Formats • A particular way that information is encoded for storage in a file • Examples: • AVI, ASF, WMV, FLV, MOV, MPEG-2(TS), MP4, Ogg, RMV, 3GP
  20. 20. Format vs. Codec
  21. 21. Format vs. Codec • Wrapper refers to the coding format • Codec is an acronym for compression/decompression • Example: • Flash Video (FLV) is a format • H.264, On2 VP6, Sorenson Spark are codecs for Flash FLVs
  22. 22. Current Popular Codecs
  23. 23. Current Popular Codecs • VC-1 Windows Media • VP6 FLV • MPEG-2 Quicktime, DVD • MPEG-4 part 10 (AVC)
  24. 24. H.264 • The most commonly used codec today
  25. 25. Older Common Codecs • MPEG-4 part 2 (DivX, Xvid, FFmpeg, 3ivx) • H.263 • Cineform • RealVideo • Sorenson Spark • Sorenson 3 • Cinepak • MPEG-1
  26. 26. Compression Software Adobe Media Encoder CS4 Telestream Episode 5.2 Sorenson Squeeze 5 Apple Compressor 3.5 Microsoft Expression Encoder Mac Only Windows Only
  27. 27. Adobe Media Encoder
  28. 28. Adobe Media Encoder
  29. 29. Apple Compressor
  30. 30. Apple Compressor
  31. 31. Sorenson Squeeze
  32. 32. Sorenson Squeeze
  33. 33. Telestream Episode
  34. 34. Your Toolkit Programs everyone should have:
  35. 35. Examples
  36. 36. YouTubeHD • H.264 codec • mp4 format • 1280 x 720 • 6Mbps - 9Mbps • 24fps • Audio: AAC 64kbps 44.1 kHz
  37. 37. iPhone • H.264 codec • m4v format • 640 x 360 • 1500kbps • Native frame rate • Audio: AAC 128kbps 44.1 kHz
  38. 38. DVD-SD Video Settings: • MPEG-2 codec • m2v format • 720 x 480 • 6.2Mbps - 7.7Mbps • 29.97fps • Mode One Pass Best • Motion Estimation: Best
  39. 39. DVD-SD Audio Settings: • Dialog Normalization: -31 dbFS
  40. 40. DVD-SD Audio Settings: • Compression Preset: None
  41. 41. Blu-Ray • H.264 codec • m4v format • 1440 x 1080 • 20Mbps - 25Mbps • 23.98fps • Audio: PCM 192kbps 48 kHz
  42. 42. Questions?

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