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  1. 1. System Architecture for IP-based Seamless and Ubiquitous Networks Shiro Sakata NEC Laboratories
  2. 2. <ul><li>1. Network and IT Market Trend </li></ul><ul><li>2. System Architecture for Ubiquitous Services </li></ul><ul><li>- Ubiquitous Platform - </li></ul><ul><li>3. Application to Wireless & Mobile Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Application to Photonic & Broadband </li></ul><ul><li>   Networks </li></ul><ul><li>5. Standardization Issues </li></ul><ul><li>6. Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Network and IT Market Trend - Value shifts from core to user, network to services - New business opportunities with network and service integration caused by deregulation ・ Unbundling network resources & functions and then on-demand rebundling them in a multi-carrier environment - Emerging ‘Dynamic Collaboration’ in enterprise systems through the integration of IT and network technologies - Versatile service support in a ubiquitous network environment ・ Requirement for adaptation to a wide variety of networks and terminals ・ Networks: Wired broadband and wireless networks (wireless LAN, cellular network, adhoc personal area network, sensor network) Terminals: PC, digital home appliances/digital TV/home server, PDA, cellular phone, wearable terminal, embedded car terminal
  4. 4. Traditional Network Future Network ( Bundled network resources ) Operators A Operators C Operators B Networks dedicated to individual operators and user services Interoperability between different operators and dynamic network resource allocation Operator A Operator B Operator C e.g, Virtual Network Operator ( VNO) Web service logical NW Content delivery logical NW Storage service logical NW Other ubiquitous Service logical NW <ul><li>- NW resource virtualization </li></ul><ul><li>and brokerage </li></ul><ul><li>Service continuity and </li></ul><ul><li>portability </li></ul><ul><li>NW security and </li></ul><ul><li>traceability </li></ul><ul><li>- Policy management </li></ul><ul><li>.....…. </li></ul>Unbundling ( Resource rebundling adapted to individual services ) Potential New Business Model by Network Unbundling & Rebundling
  5. 5. Core competence ( R&D , Planning, Production ) Enterprise A Business function outsourcing Business activities in which an enterprise enhances its own core competence and reacts dynamically to drastic changes through the flexible collaboration with partners Self-support of all functions Outsourcing Next Generation Management Style Development partner Customers Logistics partner Sales partner Joint productization Realtime Info. sharing Order management Realtime info. sharing, Inventory management Joint productization, Technology sharing
  6. 6. Dynamic Collaboration through IT and NW Integration - Multivendor Support for Customer System - - 24 hours, 365 days system support and on-demand bandwidth utilization - Remote conference system with tele-existence/virtual reality capability Broadband VPN Mobile VPN DB Call Center Customer Window Support Center WEB I/F Maintenance Center Distributed & Collaborative AP From overseas VoIP Web Head office Alliance partner IP Network Remote maintenance Customer VLAN VPN VLAN: Virtual LAN
  7. 7. Ubiquitous Services over Versatile Networks & Terminals Cellular phone PDA Laptop PC Wearable Terminal Home appliance Digital TV Home server Sensors Car terminal : Servers Versatile networks Terminals ADSL FTTH Wired LAN MAN(Wide area Ether) Wireless LAN IMT‐2000 Wireless LAN Core Network Bidirectional Communication (*) Storage Service Location/Presence Info. Service Home Control and Security (*) Electronic Ticketing Content Delivery Ubiquitous Services ‥‥
  8. 8. Bidirectional Communication Home User Office User Office On the move Public Wireless LAN
  9. 9. Home Control and Security <ul><li>Robot-type Home server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User controls robot from outside through the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The robot controls home appliances with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IrDA, RFID, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The robot automatically acts in accordance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with user’s presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the travel or on the way back home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Confirmation of door locking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Monitoring and taking care of pets, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gardens, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Automatic video recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Warming bath when approaching the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Automatic switching-on of lights when </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>approaching the home </li></ul></ul>Light HDTV and HD Video recorder Door lock and door phone Feeding Warming bath Internet Maid robot
  10. 10. 2. System Architecture for Ubiquitous Services [Network Technology Trend] - Increasing requirements for guaranteed multimedia services in transition to all IP networks ・ Video streaming by CDN (Content Delivery Network), IP phone,          Digital broadcast (data broadcast), etc. - Higher-flexible and lower-cost enterprise systems ・ VPN(IP, SSL), wide area Ethernet - Requirements for ‘Robust & Secure’ open mission critical system emerging into distributed wide-area business environment - Emerging wireless LAN and interworking with 3G cellular and other networks for supporting versatile ubiquitous services - ‘Context Awareness’ is a key term in ubiquitous services        ・ context includes user’s situation such as location, presence, preferences, various sensed data, etc.     - Requirements for VoIP as a short-term killer application ・ End-to-End QoS, e.g. small delay, low jitter, guaranteed bandwidth ・ Context transfer for network-network roaming
  11. 11. 1. From best-effort to high-quality support in response to individual service requirements 2. Seamless service continuity in mobile and muti-network/carrier environments 3. End-to-end enhanced robustness and security in an open network - providing robust & secure capability adapted to individual services [Design Principles] Ubiquitous platform as middleware - enabling on-demand network resource allocation between different operators environment
  12. 12. Ubiquitous Platform (1) Application-Network Collaboration - Dynamic network resource management and allocation as requested by individual applications ・ Load balancing and dynamic routing control     ・ Common API(Application Programming Interface) for accepting appli- cation requests and network control interface for network resource management   (2) Network-Network Collaboration - Seamless interoperability between different operators ・ Roaming: service portability, common authentication (single sign-on), etc.       ・ Media handover: low latency handover, audio & video quality assurance - End-to-end network control ・ GMPLS/ASON, NNI/UNI (3) Network Traceability - End-to-end traceability ・ Enhancing robustness against cyber attacks and system faults through TCP session management      
  13. 13. Ubiquitous Platform API NCI (Network Control I/F) Server Terminal Network node (Router, Switch, etc.) Bidirectional Communication Storage Service Location/Presence Info. Service Home Control and Security Electronic Ticketing Content Delivery Ubiquitous Services ‥‥ Ubiquitous Platform Cellular phone PDA Laptop PC Wearable Terminal Home appliance Digital TV Home server Sensors Car terminal : Servers Versatile networks Terminals ADSL FTTH Wired LAN MAN(Wide area Ether) Wireless LAN IMT‐2000 Wireless LAN Core Network (1) Application-Network Collab. (3) Network Traceability (2) Network-Network Collab.
  14. 14. (1) Application-Network Collaboration Background: Required technologies: <ul><li>Enabling user service to submit requirements to network in </li></ul><ul><li>a heterogeneous operator environment </li></ul><ul><li>Easing of tight coupling between a user service and the </li></ul><ul><li>network control functions provided by the network </li></ul><ul><li>operator </li></ul><ul><li>・ Facilitating load balancing regardless of user service location </li></ul><ul><li>   ・ Optimizing the network resource selection and allocation adapted </li></ul><ul><li>to user requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements for user service flexibility such as </li></ul><ul><li>on-demand network resource control, e.g. bandwidth, </li></ul><ul><li>session path, etc., have been increasing. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Allowing to select best-effort or guarantee on-demand for each service (1) Application-Network Collaboration Virtualization of network resource management to services Service requirements Instruction to networks regarding resource allocation Internet connection VoIP CDN VPN Mobile phone /PDA PC/Home appliance Sensor ... Servers Terminals Ubiquitous Platform SONET Wide-area Ether FTTH ADSL PDC IMT2000 Wireless LAN <ul><li>Existing operators </li></ul><ul><li>New common carriers </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile carriers </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>Conventional router Router with ubiquitous platform API NCI (Network Control Interface) Networks
  16. 16. (2) Network-Network Collaboration Background: Required technologies: <ul><li>Network resource management for each session </li></ul><ul><li>・ Handover while holding network resources in an end-to-end </li></ul><ul><li>session without content quality degradation </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed network switching through context transfer </li></ul><ul><li>・ Exchanging network and service attribute information including </li></ul><ul><li>user authentication information between different operators </li></ul><ul><li>Service portability and continuity, e.g., providing seamless </li></ul><ul><li>roaming and handover in a wireless environment, will be </li></ul><ul><li>achievable through the operator-to-operator collaboration </li></ul>
  17. 17. ~ Assuring Service Portability and Media Handover ~ (2)   Network-Network Collaboration ① Acquisition of Access Network A’s Attribute Roaming in Transport Level ③ Context (Session Info.) Transfer ・ Bandwidth ・ AV coding ・ Authentication ・ Security level etc. Move e.g., Wireless LAN e.g., 3G Cellular Dual-mode phone Operator A Operator B ② Confirmation of Service Continuity ( Access rights, Resource, etc. ) Negotiation ⑤ Restart based on Access Network A’s Attribute in Access Network B ④   Resource Allocation
  18. 18. Transition from Unbundling to Rebundling of Network Resources resources Operator A Operator X … . resources Resources are bundled Unbundle + API NCI Rebundle for each service with resource negotiation/brokerage, and resource management virtualization to services For service B For service Y decomposed
  19. 19. (3)   Network Traceability Background: Required technologies: <ul><li>IP packet level monitoring has been becoming impossible </li></ul><ul><li>because of explosive traffic increase. TCP session level, </li></ul><ul><li>for example, monitoring is expected to enhance the security </li></ul><ul><li>in terms of traceability of attack sources, i.e. to facilitate </li></ul><ul><li>the attack source identification. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the possible solutions: Segmentation of an end-to- </li></ul><ul><li>end TCP session into multiple TCP sessions and traffic </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring and access control at concatenation points. </li></ul><ul><li>Session access control at concatenation points enables the </li></ul><ul><li>protection from cyber attacks including DoS(Denial of </li></ul><ul><li>Service) attacks before such attacks reach the end user </li></ul><ul><li>node. </li></ul>
  20. 20. IDC IDC Unknown Intrusion Pattern Detection Quick Trace and Identification of Source of Attacks or Faults Connection Setup Unsuccessful Connection in case of Fraud IP Attacker Attacker Session Admission Control TCP Relay Network (3)   Network Traceability <ul><li>Quick Trace and Identification of Source of Attacks or Faults   </li></ul><ul><li>・ Traffic monitoring and tracing TCP session by session, not IP packet- </li></ul><ul><li>wise </li></ul><ul><li>Shut-out of Attack or Fault-caused Traffic assuring Service </li></ul><ul><li>Survivability </li></ul>Session concatenation point
  21. 21. 3. Application to Wireless & Mobile Networks All IP Architecture (3GPP) CS Domain PS Domain Wireless Access (Cellular, Wireless LAN) IP backbone ISDN /PSDN Internet MGW MGW Mobile Switch Server GW Switch Server Mobile Packet Server ( SGSN) GW Packet Server ( GGSN) Data Communication Circuit-switched Communication Application Server IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) HSS (HLR+ AAA ) SIP Server MGW Controller Signaling GW CS: Circuit Switched PS: Packet switched
  22. 22. Integration of 3G and Wireless LAN Communication area, Mobility, Portability High speed, High quality 3G Wireless LAN Hotel Station Airport Cafe Public Space Internet 3G Service area : Hotspot Enterprise Network ISP Content Provider ASPs User info., Authentication, Accounting Content Delivery Internet Access VPN
  23. 23. Integration Scenarios discussed in 3GPP ・ Scenario 1 :  Common Billing and Customer Care   ・ Scenario 2 :  3GPP system based Access Control and Charging    ・ Scenario 3 :  Access to 3GPP system PS based services   ・ Scenario 4 :  Service Continuity         ・ Scenario 5 :  Seamless Services ・ Scenario 6 :  Access to 3GPP CS Services    Feasible solutions in mid-term
  24. 24. 3G - WLAN Interworking Scenarios <ul><li>Grant access to 3G CS based services through CSed WLAN access </li></ul>6 <ul><li>Seamless service continuity and handover </li></ul><ul><li>Non-real-time services: Mobile IP </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time services: Fast Mobile IP protocols, Context Transfer protocol, </li></ul><ul><li>Access Router discovery schemes </li></ul>5 <ul><li>Handover for specific services </li></ul><ul><li>Change of service quality in mobility across 3G and WLAN </li></ul><ul><li>Both service continuities between 3G & WLAN and WLANs </li></ul>4 <ul><li>Operators grants access to 3G PS based services through WLAN </li></ul><ul><li>Service continuity between 3G and WLAN is not required </li></ul><ul><li>IMS based/location based/instant messaging/presence based services </li></ul>3 <ul><li>AAA are provided by 3G system, e.g. EAP (EAP-AKA for GPRS/USIM and </li></ul><ul><li>EAP-SIM for GSM/SIM) is used for authenticating user by 3G server </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse 3G access control and charging principles (HSS/HLR, etc.) for the </li></ul><ul><li>benefit of 3G system operators and users </li></ul>2 - Security level of 3G and WLAN are independent - No new requirements on 3G spec. 1
  25. 25. (1) Plug & Service - On-site real-time service download to mobile terminal - Service description/registration/retrieval/discovery/creation (2) Seamless Roaming - Service roaming achieving WLAN(Hotspot)-WLAN or WLAN-3G service continuity and eventual fast handover - Authentication roaming achieving single sign-on in a multi-network (WLANs and 3G) environment (3) Privacy Protection - Utilization of user profile information for personalized services - Privacy information description/negotiation/protection based on W3C P3P (Platform for Privacy Preferences) Wireless LAN Solution Example WLAN: Wireless LAN
  26. 26. Public Wireless LAN Solution Image Local Server Mobile Terminal (Station, Airport, Train, Hotel, Restaurant, Café, etc.)   IP Network Application Server ISP Server Hotspot Laptop PC, PDA, etc. Wireless LAN Content Server including local content : Access Point Local Server Mobile Terminal Wireless LAN Service Providers … 3G   service area dual- mode
  27. 27. Middleware Architecture for Wireless LAN Solution Mobile Terminal Local Server (Access Point) Remote Server Applications (Applications & Content) Applications & Content API NCI IP IP CSMA/CA (IEEE802.11) 3G, ADSL/FTTH Middleware OS & Devices OS & Devices OS & Devices <ul><li>Plug & </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless </li></ul><ul><li>Roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Plug & </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless </li></ul><ul><li>Roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Plug & </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless </li></ul><ul><li>Roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul>Wireless LAN IP Network Protocols Protocols
  28. 28. <ul><li>Network/Transport functions need to be seamlessly controlled from services such as bandwidth on demand and VPN </li></ul><ul><li>ASON plays an important role for dynamic network resource assignment </li></ul>4. Application to Photonic & Broadband Networks ASON Networking Software (NMS, EMS, NNI, GMPLS, UNI, NE Software, etc) QoS SLA Protection Integrated Management Rapid Provisioning, Multi-Vendor Interoperability Network Design/Optimization, Full Turnkey Service, Customization Bandwidth on Demand, VPN Core Network Other Network Function Plug & Play Service Support Operation Support Network Design Support Service Distribution Wavelength Transport Service Multi-Service Transport Ethernet Transport Service ASON: Automatic Switched Optical Network
  29. 29. 5. Standardization Issues ITU 3GPP/ 3GPP2 IETF IEEE802.11 W3C OMA <ul><li>Location info. management </li></ul><ul><li>- Digital rights management (DRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy protection (P3P) </li></ul><ul><li>Web service (XML, SOAP, UDDI) </li></ul><ul><li>- xHTML </li></ul><ul><li>Security (802.11i, 1x/EAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Roaming (802.11f) </li></ul><ul><li>QoS control(802.11e) </li></ul><ul><li>SIP, Presence service (SIMPLE) </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless-profiled TCP   </li></ul><ul><li>Security (AAA, PANA) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile IP </li></ul><ul><li>- GMPLS </li></ul><ul><li>Content caching, content adaptation (CDN) </li></ul><ul><li>- Network control interface </li></ul>OIF <ul><li>Network control interface </li></ul>Digital broadcast DVB (Europe) ARIB (Japan) ATSC (US) - xHTML
  30. 30. 6. Conclusions <ul><li>Deregulation-caused potential new business opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>・ On-demand network resource control for individual services </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Dynamic Collaboration’ for future enterprise environment </li></ul><ul><li>Support for wireless network-involved ubiquitous services </li></ul><ul><li>- End-to-end robust and secure capability enhancements </li></ul>Ubiquitous Platform All IP network - Wireless LAN - 3G - GMPLS optical network :