Com 597
                Streaming Media


Class 6
July 26, 2007
Blog Log
• Belle: http://www.harvesteating.com/ &
  http://www.celebtv.com/
• Carie: Wine Spectator & Serious Eats
• Chloe...
•   Mini: Mediapost.com
•   Nancy: Lookandlearnit & TeachFirst
•   Randa: Crack the Case & blinkx
•    Stephanie : Success...
Randa
Netflicks and Silverlight
• Silverlight
Packetization
• To stream a file over the internet you need to
   break the file down
• Kilobyte sized chunks
• These are ...
Packetization cont.


The process of breaking the streaming file
into chunks is called packetization
Could I have a hint?
• To speed up the process and reduce the work of servers
this is often done ahead of time

• This is ...
Common Internet File Formats
Category One

Video container file formats, hierarchical in
structure and hold many different...
Common Internet File Formats
Category Two

Simple raw storage of stream formats

This holds the compressed video data
with...
Common Internet File Formats
Category Three

Play list, index and scripting formats

These don’t hold the actual media fil...
Microsoft and Windows Media
• The standardization of Windows Media
technologies by international standards groups
generall...
Windows Media Technology
Like Real, there is a family of codecs

• Video- Windows Media Video 8, Windows
Media Video 7, Mi...
Windows Media also supports:
• Video- VP3, ClearVideo, VDOnet, Vivo video
• Audio- Voxware MetaSound and MetaVoice,
Learno...
Microsoft Files
AVI (Audio Video Interleaved)
• Developed in 1992
• First real-time playback of video on a PC
• These can ...
Microsoft Files
ASF (Advanced Streaming Format)
• This is Microsoft’s proprietary format
• MS Filed a patent for it in 199...
Microsoft Files
ASX (Active Streaming Index)
• Index files that work in the Windows Media
system
• They are metadata point...
Why choose Windows Media?
•   Consider your audience:

• Whether you like the Company or not is irrelevant. If your target...
Profiles
• Windows Media Encoder uses Profiles
• What is a profile and how would I use one?
• A profile determines how fil...
Target Audiences
• What is the concept of target audiences?
• This is the naming convention for their
multiple bitrate tec...
Moving Targets
• An anomaly with the WindowsMedia version of MBR is
the video is encoded with multiple qualities of
compre...
Which encoding mode to choose?
• CBR? VBR?


• My recommendation:
• Start with VBR
• Then two pass CBR
• Then one pass CBR
Why VBR?
• VBR when used on proper content
• Long and varied in complexity
• Will give you an appreciably better encoded c...
Using the frame buffer with CBR
• Why use the default of 5 seconds?
• If you are streaming a longer file (over say 10
minu...
Windows .NET
• If you are streaming over a server with
Windows Media Services in Windows .NET
Standard or Enterprise editi...
Microsoft Buzzword Translator
• Fast Start: Instant on playback
• Fast Cache: Download and cache the
streaming content
• F...
Other Buzzwords
Real’s version of the same stuff
• TurboPlay It is their rapid playback and
seeking technology
Instant On ...
File Metrics
• Measuring Streaming media quality is becoming widely
acknowledged as supremely important

• Three companies...
How they do it:
They measure audio and video streams from multiple locations throughout
North America, Japan and Europe

•...
Why do we have DRM?
• Content Concerns
• Digital audio and Video, if unmodified enables
perfect duplication
• Low Cost or ...
This is why owners of digital content are
paranoid


If the copy is as good as the original, why
purchase the original?
The music industry points to slumping sales and cries “Pirates!”
Record companies usually blame the internet and file sharing as the root of their
business failures. In 2003 27% or Americ...
The tangled web of the traditional music business
Peer-to-Peer Networks
     Where are they now?
More Information on file sharing
         and the music industry

“On the reproduction of the musical economy
  after the ...
Security
Most DRM have the following security features:

 Secure downloads
 Secure audio path – audio can’t be streamed ...
Payment Models Varities
• Pay-as-you-go (iTunes)
• Monthly fee for unlimited use (subscription)
• One-time fee
• Pay Per V...
Streaming media server vendors
           also sell DRM tools
• Music producers, media creators and retailers in
particula...
Types of rules that may be a part of a
              DRM system
• When, how, where and for how long rights are
granted
• L...
• For digital distribution to reach its potential
copyrighted material needs to be protected


• System must be:
– Truly s...
• Many of the current systems are not very adequate
because:
– Not secure enough – passwords can be shared,
  registration...
• Some companies (and marketers) use DRM to
mean any sort of control of media
– All forms of copy protection
– Digital wat...
• Apple uses standard MPEG-4 audio technologies
(AAC)
• This how they deliver music to iPods and iTunes
• They use proprie...
Implementing DRM
• Here is a typical sequence of events:
 1)   Media provider packages the media file – create file
      ...
DRM Models
Encryption
• Encryption scrambles the content so that it
cannot be viewed
• Need a decryption key
• This is most often an ...
Encryption cont.
• A user needs to perform a separate action or
transaction to secure the decryption key
• The problem for...
The Encryption Dance

                                    create
                                  encryption
            ...
Walled Garden
• A walled garden is where content is secured behind a virtual
barrier
• A user must purchase access
• Autho...
“Cheap and Easy Access”
iTunes
• To keep something from being stolen make the price less than/equal to the
cost of theft
•...
PC Client
       Content/Download Managers
• Require consumers/users to download a management client
on their computer
• T...
PC Client
      Content/Download Managers
• Bit Torrent
 • Sony’s rootkit/CD copy protection debacle
 • Privacy Issues / D...
PC Client
      Content/Download Managers
• There is a push for Digital Licenses, separate from
the media file and conform...
Windows Media Rights Server
• End-to-end DRM system for Windows Media
• It supports a huge variety of security and busines...
RealSystem Media Commerce Suite
• RealNetwork’s DRM solution
• The Packager – encrypts the media
• The License Server – is...
Flash
Flash Basics
• Macromedia’s Flash has been adopted as the
de facto “rich media” solution in the industry
• It is used exte...
More Flash Basics
• Many companies now standardize embedded
video on their sites as Flash Video
• Huge growth in handhelds...
Even More Flash Basics
• Not really a codec
• SWF files contain graphics and instructions how to
animate
• Drawing is done...
Will these Flash Basics Ever End?
• With QuickTime support and Macromedia’s integration
of the Sorenson Spark codec SWF ca...
The End of Flash Basics
         As We Have Known Them
• Two main types of tags
– Definition tags – define content
– Contr...
OK, I lied, this really is the final Flash
          Basics Slide. Perhaps
• SWF files are a progressive format
• Blocks a...
Great Flash Video Example




http://www.lebronsbikeathon.com/ Video #11 & #14
Flash Example & Workshop
Workshop Demo


Let me walk you through before your begin
Customizing Your Settings
• In the compression tab, check the bit rate selections
appropriate to your target audience

• A...
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COM597_07_Week6.ppt

  1. 1. Com 597 Streaming Media Class 6 July 26, 2007
  2. 2. Blog Log • Belle: http://www.harvesteating.com/ & http://www.celebtv.com/ • Carie: Wine Spectator & Serious Eats • Chloe: KidzBop.com & NIKKI BEACH Nikki news • Kaichen: Music Box & Taste TV • Mr. Random (Mark) http://www.blaztv.com/ & http://www.canalmicro.com/
  3. 3. • Mini: Mediapost.com • Nancy: Lookandlearnit & TeachFirst • Randa: Crack the Case & blinkx • Stephanie : SuccessTV & tourvideos • Steve: Nomadsland & CubeNews1.com. • Tharaa: Fuzzydice • Tony: RealMeals & Marvel • Vaun: AussieMedia & RealVibez • Amy: TheLookAndSoundOfPerfect.com
  4. 4. Randa
  5. 5. Netflicks and Silverlight • Silverlight
  6. 6. Packetization • To stream a file over the internet you need to break the file down • Kilobyte sized chunks • These are called packets • The audio and video needs to synch up and must be sent fast enough, but not too fast • Packets that are lost in transit need to be detected and resent
  7. 7. Packetization cont. The process of breaking the streaming file into chunks is called packetization
  8. 8. Could I have a hint? • To speed up the process and reduce the work of servers this is often done ahead of time • This is called hinting • Hinting adds additional information in the file (a hint track) to tell the media server how to packetize the stream. • The hint track not only has data defining what audio and video exist in the file, but also how large a chunk to send over the internet and at what time intervals.
  9. 9. Common Internet File Formats Category One Video container file formats, hierarchical in structure and hold many different kinds of media (Audio, video and text.) This data is synchronized in time.
  10. 10. Common Internet File Formats Category Two Simple raw storage of stream formats This holds the compressed video data without headers or footers They are essentially a live audio-video stream saved to disk
  11. 11. Common Internet File Formats Category Three Play list, index and scripting formats These don’t hold the actual media files These are pointers and commands that indicate where the files are located These files are usually, comparatively small.
  12. 12. Microsoft and Windows Media • The standardization of Windows Media technologies by international standards groups generally means the format will not suddenly change. • Inertia = stability • MS has seen the benefits of non-discriminatory licensing terms with companies • Low cost = wide distribution
  13. 13. Windows Media Technology Like Real, there is a family of codecs • Video- Windows Media Video 8, Windows Media Video 7, Microsoft MPEG-4 V3 & MPEG-4 V1 • Audio- Windows Media Audio V7 & ACELP.net voice codec
  14. 14. Windows Media also supports: • Video- VP3, ClearVideo, VDOnet, Vivo video • Audio- Voxware MetaSound and MetaVoice, Learnout and Hauspie, MP3, Vivo audio, and all pre-G2 Real Audio and Video codecs Why the Real support? • Windows Media started as NetShow, which licensed RealNetworks technology
  15. 15. Microsoft Files AVI (Audio Video Interleaved) • Developed in 1992 • First real-time playback of video on a PC • These can hold most anything. It works on every platform • It is not all that great at managing sync • It can be quite slow • This is because the file index is often located at the end of the file • The format has been extended so much that variations wont always play in every player
  16. 16. Microsoft Files ASF (Advanced Streaming Format) • This is Microsoft’s proprietary format • MS Filed a patent for it in 1998 • Released in 2002 • One of the dominant formats • Fixed a lot of the problems inherent in AVI files • It can show up as WMV or WMA • Primarily designed to hold synchronized Audio and video
  17. 17. Microsoft Files ASX (Active Streaming Index) • Index files that work in the Windows Media system • They are metadata pointers • The direct a player where to retrieve the actual media files • Can be one URL or a long list (playlist) • They can be nested
  18. 18. Why choose Windows Media? • Consider your audience: • Whether you like the Company or not is irrelevant. If your target audience is in the business world then you need to seriously consider Windows media • Because WM comes bundled with the Microsoft OS, and because nearly every enterprise corporation runs on a Windows environment, a staggering percentage of the Fortune 1000 businesses will have Windows Media on their employee’s computers. • Microsoft is the clear leader in market share in the enterprise space • Plus, their server technology incorporates many aspects of DRM quite seamlessly.
  19. 19. Profiles • Windows Media Encoder uses Profiles • What is a profile and how would I use one? • A profile determines how files or source groups are encoded • Each profile may include one or many target audiences, along with video and audio codec information • You can save the profile and use it repeatedly
  20. 20. Target Audiences • What is the concept of target audiences? • This is the naming convention for their multiple bitrate technology • With it you can select multiple target audiences (bit rates) and weave your different versions into one file
  21. 21. Moving Targets • An anomaly with the WindowsMedia version of MBR is the video is encoded with multiple qualities of compression. • But all the video files share only one Audio file • There are not multiple audio files only one so choose wisely • The lowest audience profile will determine your audio settings • All the video target audiences will share a video screen size
  22. 22. Which encoding mode to choose? • CBR? VBR? • My recommendation: • Start with VBR • Then two pass CBR • Then one pass CBR
  23. 23. Why VBR? • VBR when used on proper content • Long and varied in complexity • Will give you an appreciably better encoded clip given the same file size. • CBR is often using the bits in the wrong places and not having enough available in the difficult spots • The difference can be as high as 2-to-1 • Another way to look at it. If two files have the same quality, the VBR file will often be half the size of a CBR file • If your source is a file and you want to encode with CBR, then two pass is better than one pass
  24. 24. Using the frame buffer with CBR • Why use the default of 5 seconds? • If you are streaming a longer file (over say 10 minutes) increasing the buffer to 30 seconds will often accomplish the same increase in quality that VBR does.
  25. 25. Windows .NET • If you are streaming over a server with Windows Media Services in Windows .NET Standard or Enterprise editions you can enable Fast Start • This allows the server to burst data to the players, filling the buffer in a shorter time than indicated, thus starting the file quicker
  26. 26. Microsoft Buzzword Translator • Fast Start: Instant on playback • Fast Cache: Download and cache the streaming content • Fast reconnect: Automatically reconnect to a stream if interrupted • Fast Recovery: Use forward error correction
  27. 27. Other Buzzwords Real’s version of the same stuff • TurboPlay It is their rapid playback and seeking technology Instant On is QuickTime’s version
  28. 28. File Metrics • Measuring Streaming media quality is becoming widely acknowledged as supremely important • Three companies currently are the market leaders in measuring the quality of streaming media delivery • One of them is Keynote is the global leader in web performance measurement • They acquired Streamcheck in 2003 • This is an automated service that measures both quality of streams and reliability
  29. 29. How they do it: They measure audio and video streams from multiple locations throughout North America, Japan and Europe • They use measurement computers, called “Agents” • And Agent will try and connect with your stream about 10 times an hour • Once connected they play your stream for about 60 seconds • The Agent computers will record: Network Statistics like packet statistics Connection statistics like connection success, bit rate, buffer and re-buffer Server statistics like server type streaming protocol Presentations statistics like frame rate, player errors, metafiles, URLs
  30. 30. Why do we have DRM? • Content Concerns • Digital audio and Video, if unmodified enables perfect duplication • Low Cost or near-no-cost duplication • The original does not degrade over time (video tape and film) probably • The original does not degrade with duplication so copies are limited only by resources
  31. 31. This is why owners of digital content are paranoid If the copy is as good as the original, why purchase the original?
  32. 32. The music industry points to slumping sales and cries “Pirates!”
  33. 33. Record companies usually blame the internet and file sharing as the root of their business failures. In 2003 27% or Americans and 13% of Europeans downloaded music through P2P networks.
  34. 34. The tangled web of the traditional music business
  35. 35. Peer-to-Peer Networks Where are they now?
  36. 36. More Information on file sharing and the music industry “On the reproduction of the musical economy after the Internet” Leyshon, Webb, French, Thrift & Crewe Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 27, 2005 Sage Publications
  37. 37. Security Most DRM have the following security features:  Secure downloads  Secure audio path – audio can’t be streamed from user’s computer  Persistence – each license is specific to a particular computer  Individualization – the license for a player is linked to a specific computer. You can’t just move the player and music to transfer the files  Revocability – if a license is stored on a server it can be revoked if a user breaches the licensing terms  Portable device support – files can be transferred, but most distributors will limit it to devices that support the Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI) copy- protection scheme
  38. 38. Payment Models Varities • Pay-as-you-go (iTunes) • Monthly fee for unlimited use (subscription) • One-time fee • Pay Per View (PPV) • Free – promote a product or service • Timed fee • Tiered access • Trial offer • Reward program
  39. 39. Streaming media server vendors also sell DRM tools • Music producers, media creators and retailers in particular want to ensure their copyrights are protected • Typical DRM features include – Strong encryption – Producer defined business rules for accessing content – Content licensing verification (“Are you authorized to view this?”) – License auditing to track royalties – Support for handheld devices and mobile phones
  40. 40. Types of rules that may be a part of a DRM system • When, how, where and for how long rights are granted • Limited number of CD copies • File can only be played on one computer • What devices are supported for transfer (iTunes/iPod model)
  41. 41. • For digital distribution to reach its potential copyrighted material needs to be protected • System must be: – Truly secure – Flexible – Easy to use – Integrated into existing e-comerce systems
  42. 42. • Many of the current systems are not very adequate because: – Not secure enough – passwords can be shared, registration code can be hacked – Not flexible enough – content providers want different models for subscription (monthly, pay per view, free trials) – Inconvenient for users – to work it must block unauthorized use but be easy for authorized users. Passwords and registration keys are lame – Difficult to integrate into a wide variety of devices and hardware – consumers want to transfer media they own to devices they own
  43. 43. • Some companies (and marketers) use DRM to mean any sort of control of media – All forms of copy protection – Digital watermarks Real, Apple and Microsoft define it more narrowly
  44. 44. • Apple uses standard MPEG-4 audio technologies (AAC) • This how they deliver music to iPods and iTunes • They use proprietary DRM approach (FairPlay) that is unique • Each manufacturer uses a proprietary DRM system • Once again, it is unlikely there will be an industry “standard”
  45. 45. Implementing DRM • Here is a typical sequence of events: 1) Media provider packages the media file – create file and license 2) Provider places file on a streaming server 3) When user tries to play a file, media player requests a license 4) User’s computer downloads a license without any action or directs a user to a register/payment page 5) After the license is issued, the user can play the content under the terms of the license
  46. 46. DRM Models
  47. 47. Encryption • Encryption scrambles the content so that it cannot be viewed • Need a decryption key • This is most often an enabled viewer or player • Many DRM solutions are asynchronous • The key is not in your player but somewhere out on the internet
  48. 48. Encryption cont. • A user needs to perform a separate action or transaction to secure the decryption key • The problem for content distributors is you can hack the player to play the media without a key
  49. 49. The Encryption Dance create encryption scheme distribute scheme is hacked scheme Distributors they claim each successive scheme becomes more expensive to create and manage
  50. 50. Walled Garden • A walled garden is where content is secured behind a virtual barrier • A user must purchase access • Authorization/authentication system – Wall Street Journal, ESPN & New York Times • They have a public site with content available to the public • They have a premium content site where a user pays an annual or monthly fee for access. • This is a popular model among religious sites
  51. 51. “Cheap and Easy Access” iTunes • To keep something from being stolen make the price less than/equal to the cost of theft • This relies on the honesty of the majority of potential users • Make it cheap and easy and most folks are more likely to buy than steal Challenges • Many consumers are conditioned that music is free (filesharing, radio, ripping) • Value is difficult to establish when there is a ready supply, scarcity creates value • Disney movie example • For existing music the cat is out of the bag
  52. 52. PC Client Content/Download Managers • Require consumers/users to download a management client on their computer • This application connects to a dedicated service – a wholesale intermediary • They can use ptp strategies to move the content to the consumer • They can act as the DRM police • Monitor and manage the user’s functions and actions on their computer • They can enforce DRM irrespective of an internet connection
  53. 53. PC Client Content/Download Managers • Bit Torrent • Sony’s rootkit/CD copy protection debacle • Privacy Issues / Data mining  Digital Media permits intrusion & access on a massively efficient scale  International reach of technology subjects networks to multiple cultures and laws (and multiple risks)
  54. 54. PC Client Content/Download Managers • There is a push for Digital Licenses, separate from the media file and conforms to a standard format • Separating a universal license from the media has many advantages • It can accommodate many different licensing scenarios • You don’t need to prevent file copying • Because file is on a server the provider has complete control
  55. 55. Windows Media Rights Server • End-to-end DRM system for Windows Media • It supports a huge variety of security and business model options • It delivers WMA and WMV files • WMRM (Windows Media Rights Manager) includes server and client software development kits (SDK) so developers can write unique applications to encrypt files and issue licenses • It does not play well with other platforms and older software
  56. 56. RealSystem Media Commerce Suite • RealNetwork’s DRM solution • The Packager – encrypts the media • The License Server – issues content licenses • Media Commerce Upgrade for Real Server – tracks the business side • RealSystem Server plug-in – enables the service on a media server • Like WMRM it enables a variety of business and distribution models
  57. 57. Flash
  58. 58. Flash Basics • Macromedia’s Flash has been adopted as the de facto “rich media” solution in the industry • It is used extensively in entertainment, games and advertising • Graphics are essentially vector-based instructions • Infinitely scalable in an interface
  59. 59. More Flash Basics • Many companies now standardize embedded video on their sites as Flash Video • Huge growth in handhelds and mobile delivery • Flash files are called SWF (“swiff”) • Files are closely tied to the authoring system
  60. 60. Even More Flash Basics • Not really a codec • SWF files contain graphics and instructions how to animate • Drawing is done with math (x/y/z axis and vectors over time) • Files are often smaller • Not sending huge graphic files, just the parts and instruction on how to recompose the animation on the user’s computer
  61. 61. Will these Flash Basics Ever End? • With QuickTime support and Macromedia’s integration of the Sorenson Spark codec SWF can be used as a container for video • The header information of a file has most of the same data types as the other codecs we have reviewed – File version – Length of file – Frame size – Frame count
  62. 62. The End of Flash Basics As We Have Known Them • Two main types of tags – Definition tags – define content – Control tags – control content For example, definition tag defines and triangle and the control tag will move it across the screen
  63. 63. OK, I lied, this really is the final Flash Basics Slide. Perhaps • SWF files are a progressive format • Blocks are sent in the order of use • This allows the file to be essentially streamed • Viewer can watch the parts as they arrive • This can occur without special server software – no need for a media server • A web server, the flash content and a flash player are the only requirements
  64. 64. Great Flash Video Example http://www.lebronsbikeathon.com/ Video #11 & #14
  65. 65. Flash Example & Workshop
  66. 66. Workshop Demo Let me walk you through before your begin
  67. 67. Customizing Your Settings • In the compression tab, check the bit rate selections appropriate to your target audience • Audio format: you can adjust the amount of bandwidth used by the audio track in your video. If you assign a lower audio rate then you are allocating more bits for the video. • An example would be a sporting event file. High fidelity audio is not as important as smooth video. A music video may want more bits for audio because fidelity is more important in this scenario.

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