Using the Web for Bilingual/Bicultural Education of Deaf Children Sonia Martinez, Vicki Hanson & Susan Crayne IBM T. J. Wa...
HandsOn Project The  HandsOn  project sought to provide schools with computer technology to support bilingual/bicultural p...
HandsOn   <ul><li>The original  HandsOn  program used laser disc technology to present full screen, real people signing AS...
HandsOn Activities Sonia: Handson consisted of 4 activities Write a Story <ul><ul><li>Caption a Story </li></ul></ul>Read ...
ASL Translation to English <ul><li>Stories translated from ASL to English </li></ul><ul><li>Translations at a sentence lev...
HandsOn
Sonia: This graph represents three schools and the percentage of time the schools spent on each activity. We can see that ...
Language Choices Used <ul><li>Play a Story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly ASL, deaf children rarely asked for English text <...
Conclusions <ul><li>Used ASL (stronger language) to help with difficult English text. </li></ul><ul><li>An unevenness in t...
Comments from Students <ul><li>“ I understood the ASL” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The woman signing helped me a lot” </li></ul><u...
Comments from Teachers <ul><li>“ It has been a good tool for us as teachers to sharpen our ASL skills.” </li></ul><ul><li>...
Address Concerns <ul><li>Will children attempt to “write ASL” when captioning ASL sentences? </li></ul><ul><li>ASL: </li><...
Observations from Story Captioning <ul><li>Sentences were longer and more grammatically correct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impr...
Updating HandsOn <ul><li>The original  HandsOn  project employed videodisc technology, which is no longer generally used <...
HandsOn II Read a Story Activity Sonia: A signer is showned in a window on the web page. The signer and the story text are...
Creating English Translations <ul><li>ASL stories translated to English  </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronized translations from ...
HandsOn II Application <ul><li>From the main function menu, choose an activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful activitie...
HandsOn II Architecture <ul><li>QuickTime is used for video streaming </li></ul><ul><li>Two sizes of video tracks embedded...
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  • Laser disc We suspected at the outset that the children might simply want to watch the ASL stories, potentially ignoring the tasks that require the use of English. Instead, we found that while students did initially want to watch the stories, they quickly became impatient with the passivity of the task and soon began the reading and writing tasks that afforded them more interactivity with the material. As noted by some teachers, one of the major strengths of the computer approach was that the interactivity potential of computers motivated students to do reading and writing activities that they normally would not enjoy doing.
  • It is noteworthy that translations between English and ASL always occurred at the sentence level rather than at the level of an individual word. This was done for a specific reason. We wanted to avoid dictionary approaches to language learning. We wanted the students to be able to see a sign in content. Take, for example, the English word ‘give’. The movement of this sign is different depending on who is giving and who is receiving. In addition, the particular sign itself differs depending on the meaning of ‘give’ – specifically, whether or not the giving is of a gift. We should also mention, however, that the use of a real person was powerful for the students and they would sometimes pretend to engage in conversations with her. For the children who were native signers themselves, this signer was a joy to watch. For the children who were not native signers, the signer served as an excellent role model and the children could be seen reproducing some of her signing, apparently as a way of improving their own ASL skills. Teachers often showed the signed stories to students to show them role models for skilled ASL signing. In addition, many teachers found the signed stories valuable for improving their own signing skills.
  • Here we see that students in at all 3 schools spend less time watching stories than reading or writing captions. WATCH: 1) is the primary option for students who are not, yet, reading. Like having a story read/told to them and learning from it. The ASL makes content material clear to students who would find it inaccessible through print. Teachers of younger students brought their classes in. 2) Teachers tell their students to begin with WATCH to get the background on the subject matter before reading. 3) Most popular to students exposed only once or twice. “Novel” to have person signing. WATCH -&gt; READ -&gt; CAPTION.
  • Studies show that deaf children make consistent errors in writing of English and these errors are often blamed on ‘writing ASL’. We wanted to see if this was so.
  • Despite the drawbacks of the early work with videodiscs, there is an undeniable appeal of having a skilled signer serve as a role model for deaf children. As technologies advanced, however, we found the original HandsOn program to be increasingly out of date. It was also limited in the audience it could reach, as we had no distribution system for the videodiscs. We turned to the web as a medium with which we could reach a greater number of students. We are interested here in a language LEARNING situation, so Avatars not appropriate. The current version, HandsOn II, uses video streaming technologies to present ASL stories over the web in a context of various activities designed for young children. To deal with the issue of download time over the web, the size of the signed files was limited by no longer having the signer presented full screen.
  • Rather, the signer is shown in a window on the web page. Given the high quality of the original videotaped stories for this project, the signer is still easily seen. On the positive side, the use of a window for the signing rather than full screen allows both the signing and the story text to be displayed onscreen, a useful approach for reading instruction of deaf children (Schleper, 1996). Mimicked strategy of Deaf parents when reading to their children Book metaphor.
  • The signers for these stories were two different women. One was a third generation Deaf woman from the United States. The other was a Deaf teacher at a school for deaf children in the Toronto, Canada area. While the U.S. and most of Canada sign ASL, there are some lexical differences in the signing of the two countries. Students noticed these differences, but were not confused by them (much like the difference between the American English word “elevator” and the British English word “lift”). The 1-inch videotapes were converted to Super-VHS format by a commercial service The Super-VHS tapes were digitized, converting them to .avi format. A deaf signer used our authoring tool to create English translations of the ASL, saving these translations in text. The authoring tool allowed the signer to indicate the beginning and ending of signed sentences on the video then enter the English text translation for that video segment. Using Media Cleaner Pro, the .avi files were compressed into a QuickTime format suitable for streaming video over the web. As part of this step, the text files were also made into text tracks and added to the movies.
  • A series of Web pages. Download Java plug-in and QuickTime. Downloads of the HandsOn II software IBM Websphere Application Server hosts the servlets.
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    1. 1. Using the Web for Bilingual/Bicultural Education of Deaf Children Sonia Martinez, Vicki Hanson & Susan Crayne IBM T. J. Watson Research Center New York, USA
    2. 2. HandsOn Project The HandsOn project sought to provide schools with computer technology to support bilingual/bicultural programs . HandsOn II a Web based application Project purpose is to use the 1 st language (stronger language) to help in learning a 2 nd language.
    3. 3. HandsOn <ul><li>The original HandsOn program used laser disc technology to present full screen, real people signing ASL </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a research instrument to investigate how deaf children used ASL and English cooperatively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide schools with computer technology that supported bilingual/bicultural programs for signing children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Story based activities allowed students to interact with both languages </li></ul><ul><li>ASL and English presented simultaneously on one monitor </li></ul>Sonia: Handson consisted of Story based activites
    4. 4. HandsOn Activities Sonia: Handson consisted of 4 activities Write a Story <ul><ul><li>Caption a Story </li></ul></ul>Read a Story <ul><ul><li>Play a Story </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. ASL Translation to English <ul><li>Stories translated from ASL to English </li></ul><ul><li>Translations at a sentence level, not word-for-word translations to capture grammar and avoid “dictionary” approaches to language learning. </li></ul><ul><li>ASL signs are dependent on the English context </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For Example: GIVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionary Definition : GIVE (TO YOU. HIM, ME, ALL OF YOU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GIVE (GIFT) </li></ul></ul></ul>The stories used in HandsOn where translated between ASL and English Translations where done at a sentence level, not on a word for word basis. We wanted to avoid dictionary approaches to language learning. Since ASL is dependant on the English context. For ex. English word give, movement of sign depends on the meaning of the word or who is giving and receiving.
    6. 6. HandsOn
    7. 7. Sonia: This graph represents three schools and the percentage of time the schools spent on each activity. We can see that most of the time was spent on the Read and Caption activity.
    8. 8. Language Choices Used <ul><li>Play a Story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly ASL, deaf children rarely asked for English text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read a Story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently asked for ASL, varied by the level of reading ability </li></ul></ul>Sonia: We observed that in play a story, ASL was mostly used. In Read a story it depended on the reading level of the child, although ASL was usually used.
    9. 9. Conclusions <ul><li>Used ASL (stronger language) to help with difficult English text. </li></ul><ul><li>An unevenness in the use of the two languages. </li></ul><ul><li>The interactivity afforded by computers motivated students to engage in the reading and writing tasks </li></ul>Sonia: We concluded that students showed an unevenness….
    10. 10. Comments from Students <ul><li>“ I understood the ASL” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The woman signing helped me a lot” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It helped me read better” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I liked writing English from ASL signs” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It helped me learn ASL” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I would like more stories” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I would like to make it smaller and make it simple to take other places so I can play on it in the car.” </li></ul>
    11. 11. Comments from Teachers <ul><li>“ It has been a good tool for us as teachers to sharpen our ASL skills.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ HandsOn impacts many areas of the curriculum at the same time. Students have fun while they are watching, reading, or captioning a story. The fact that they are learning about science or social studies subjects at the same time is an added bonus.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Students complain when they have to stop.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The biggest strength of HandsOn is the ability to foster improved self-esteem by working with materials designed especially for deaf students.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ HandsOn directly engages and motivates students to try something most do not enjoy doing, such as writing.” </li></ul>
    12. 12. Address Concerns <ul><li>Will children attempt to “write ASL” when captioning ASL sentences? </li></ul><ul><li>ASL: </li></ul><ul><li>True, happen 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Will children attempt to “write English” when captioning ASL sentences? </li></ul><ul><li>English: </li></ul><ul><li>It happened in 1956 </li></ul>Sonia: We wanted to address the criticism of children writing ASL rather than correct English. OR
    13. 13. Observations from Story Captioning <ul><li>Sentences were longer and more grammatically correct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More inclusion of articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved use of function words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More complex English sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results attributed to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessening of cognitive demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual memory support necessary to organize ideas while writing English </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Hanson & Padden, 1990; Mozzer-Mather, 1990; Kelly et al, 1994) </li></ul>There were 2 studies done which concluded that when captioning ASL, longer and more grammatically correct sentences were created.
    14. 14. Updating HandsOn <ul><li>The original HandsOn project employed videodisc technology, which is no longer generally used </li></ul><ul><li>The Web-based version called HandsOn II has the potential to reach many more users </li></ul><ul><li>Video Streaming techniques used on the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real ASL signing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal for language learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited download time, signer presented in a window rather than full screen </li></ul></ul>As technologies advanced, the original HandsOn application that used videodisc technology was outdated. It was limited in the audience it could reach. Therefore we turned to the web. Current version of handson uses video streaming technologies to present ASL stories over the web.
    15. 15. HandsOn II Read a Story Activity Sonia: A signer is showned in a window on the web page. The signer and the story text are displayed on the same screen. A book metaphor is used in the application.
    16. 16. Creating English Translations <ul><li>ASL stories translated to English </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronized translations from new digital video format </li></ul><ul><li>Used our Authoring tool: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate the beginning and ending of signed sentences on the video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter the English text translation for that video segment </li></ul></ul>ASL: DO? JOIN DECIDE PLAN BOYCOTT English: They decided to plan a boycott . Here is an example of an English translation of ASL. We produced synchronized translations from the video format. We started with ASL stories and created their English translations using our own authoring tool which allows you to indicate the beginning and ending of a signed sentence taken from the video.
    17. 17. HandsOn II Application <ul><li>From the main function menu, choose an activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful activities from previous HandsOn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play a Story, Read a Story, Caption a Story </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Java applet is embedded in each activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applet manages the video streaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applets work on both Mac and Windows computers </li></ul></ul>Sonia: The activities in HandsOn II consist of the successful activities from the previous HandsOn version, PaS,RaS,CaS.
    18. 18. HandsOn II Architecture <ul><li>QuickTime is used for video streaming </li></ul><ul><li>Two sizes of video tracks embedded in movie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up (164x136) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband (220x180) Bigger Video </li></ul></ul>

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