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martial-law-9003505

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martial-law-9003505

  1. 1. Martial Law
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Amidst the rising wave of lawlessness and the threat of a Communist insurgency, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972 by virtue of Proclamation No. 1081.   </li></ul><ul><li>The declaration of martial law was initially well received, given the social turmoil the Philippines was experiencing. Crime rates plunged dramatically after a curfew was implemented. </li></ul>
  3. 3. New Society <ul><li>Poor and the privileged to work as one . </li></ul><ul><li>A spirit of self-sacrifice for the progress of the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sa ikauunlad ng bayan, disiplina ang kailangan” </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of the contending Communist party. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The specific areas of the New Society envisioned by Pres. Marcos for reform: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace and Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land Reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor Reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Reorganization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Services </li></ul></ul>New Society
  5. 5. 1. Peace and Order <ul><li>Martial law – to restore peace and order </li></ul><ul><li>Criminals were either captured and detained or killed </li></ul>2. Land Reforms <ul><li>Exploitation of the poor and landless peasants by their landlords </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 2 - proclaiming the “whole country as a reform area” </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 27 – abolishes tenancy </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of martial law in 1981, 532, 153 tenant-farmers had become owners of rice and corn lands in 45 provinces. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3. Educational Reforms <ul><li>Marcos believed that education was a very important role towards the goal of the “New Society”. </li></ul><ul><li>President Marcos vowed that his administration “shall educate our children, our men and women, and ourselves.” </li></ul><ul><li>Education Development Decree of 1972 – defines a more responsive role for the education system </li></ul>
  7. 7. 4. Labor Reforms <ul><li>First Labor Day </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 21 – fast and just settlements of disputes through the National Labor Relations Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree 99 – minimum wages for household helpers </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 143 – “Blue Sunday Law” (mandatory rest for every worker once a week) </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 148 – eliminates anti-employment provisions of the Woman and Child Labor Law </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 197 – More effective apprenticeship program </li></ul>
  8. 8. 5. Gov’t Reorganization <ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 1 – “Integrated Reorganization Plan (dismiss corrupt officials) (a total of 6, 655 employees were dismissed) </li></ul>6. Economic Reforms GNP Growth Rate
  9. 9. 6 Key Industries of the Philippines <ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 3 – appropriating funds for public works involving rehabilitation and capital development </li></ul>
  10. 10. 7. Social Services <ul><li>The Marcos Administration extended social services available to the people, focusing on the people affected by poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Aim – to make the people self-reliant and productive </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Family Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Housing and Human Settlements </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>We became the top exporters of rice </li></ul>6 Key Industries of the Philippines <ul><li>Liberal credit and extension work was the “secret” of Masagana 99 </li></ul><ul><li>Educated agricultural technicians </li></ul><ul><li>Provided farmers with full credit support </li></ul><ul><li>After 3 years, the Philippines experienced its highest productivity increase in rice production (1976-1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Masagana 99 uplifted the lives of the farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilized government resources to help the farmers in rural areas (helicopters, etc..) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gross National Product <ul><li>Encourages economical growth </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers were given technical and financial aid as well as other incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Good Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic growth rate increases from 5% to 6-7% (1970-1980) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The GNP increases from P55 billion (1972) to P193 billion (1980) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debt from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank rises from US$2.3 billion (1970) to US$24.4 billion (1983) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An estimated 10% of the GNP is being pocketed. </li></ul></ul>GNP Growth Rate
  13. 13. Development of Infrastructures <ul><li>Buildings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialty Hospitals – Philippine Heart Center, Lung Center, Kidney Institute, Philippine Children Hospital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Plants – geothermal plants, hydroelectric plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An International Airport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing Projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorations – Intramuros, Luneta Park, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippine International Convention Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makiling Center for the Arts (National Arts Center) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malacañang ti Amianan (Laoag) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nayong Pilipino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Museum for Native Art (Tacloban) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palace In the Sky (Tagaytay) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Buildings </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Bridges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>San Juanico Bridge (Samar and Leyte) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toll-Ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manila North Diversion Road </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roads and Highways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marcos Highway (Baguio) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These achievements gave the Philippines a taste of economic prosperity throughout the 1970’s </li></ul>
  15. 15. Open-Door Policy <ul><li>It was an open-door policy mainly on trade and cultural relations </li></ul><ul><li>Started trading with countries with Russia and China and other socialist countries </li></ul><ul><li>It was a “cautious open-door policy” </li></ul><ul><li>Built up relationships with countries who were enemies with the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Being the “Iron Butterfly”, Imelda Marcos, with her charm, went on foreign trips to open trade relationships, exchange culture and get financial assistance. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Political Achievements <ul><li>1973 Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic Act No. 6132 – “1970 Constitutional Convention Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 73 – date of the plebiscite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Order No. 20 – postponing the plebiscite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proclamation No. 1102 – Constitution was ratified (organized by Marcos through Presidential Decree No. 86) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Batasang Bayan and the IBP (Interim Batasang Pambansa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 995 – created the Batasang Bayan </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Political Achievements <ul><li>1980 and 1981 Amendments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1973 Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retirement age = 70 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified parliamentary system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1984 Amendments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1973 Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished Executive Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice President </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ constitutional authoritarianism” as understood and practiced in the New Society </li></ul>
  18. 18. Economic Achievements <ul><li>Economic Prosperity during the 1970’s and the early 1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers had “price support” and financial support </li></ul><ul><li>Self-sufficient in rice exports </li></ul><ul><li>“ Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaunlaran” </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas Filipino Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Infrastructures </li></ul>
  19. 19. Social Achievements <ul><li>New Society – Educational Reforms, Labor Reforms, Land Reforms Social Services </li></ul><ul><li>Housing Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Martial Law – maintained peace and order </li></ul>
  20. 20. Issues It was speculated that marcos and his cronies plundered 20 billion dollars and more. Marcos had 5 Billion dollars for himself and his family. Assassination of the oppostion and activist that heavily criticized marcos. Enrile and Fidel Ramos we’re co-conspirators and were part of the corruption scheme Juan Ponce Enrile is the one that propagated the ASO ( Arrest and Seizure Order) , which will confiscate private property of people without reason.
  21. 21. The End of the Martial Law The End of the Martial Law started when Benigno Aquino was assassinated at the NAIA. It urged the people to think that Marcos was the one who schemed and a tyrant to all Filipinos who thinks that they are at the right side. This is the roots of EDSA People Revolution.
  22. 22. Conclusion <ul><li>Although the Martial Law wasn’t successful in its goals, It sent a stigma to the preceding generation, how it would be better to be disciplined that to have meaningless democracy that weakens the state. </li></ul><ul><li>It mirrors the failure of nationalism in facing people who would fail to ratify the nautical changes that marcos has done to the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency cannot be changed by simplicity. </li></ul>

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